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  1. 1. Geo-Politically 2. Historically and Ideologically 3. Economically 4. Externally 5. Internally
  2. Introduction • The emergence of Pakistan as a sovereign and independent state in 1947, was a unique event of the sub-continent. • Pakistan , therefore, was born in chaos and crisis. It had to face the security problems since beginning. • In early 50’s the US had defined a program known as ‘ Marshal Plan’ which aimed at the recovery of Europe and extending assistance to various Asian countries. •
  3. Contd. • PM Of Pakistan got invitations from both superpowers, but Liaquat Ali Khan preferred to visit which confirmed Pakistan’s tilt towards the west. • Korean Crisis further paved the way for the close relationship b/w Pakistan and the US.
  4. Period Of Alliances (1950s And 60s) • As a first step US brought about the "Turkish-Pakistani Mutual Aid Agreement" in February 1954. Iran and Iraq were also sounded to join. • A bilateral agreement called "U.S.A - Pakistan Mutual Defense Agreement" was signed on May 19, 1954. One immediate step that Pakistan Government took in July 1954 was the banning of Communist Party in Pakistan. • A multilateral agreement named Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) was signed on 8th September 1954. !t included besides Pakistan and U.S.A, Philippines, Thailand, UK, France, Australia and New Zealand. • Another multilateral agreement called Baghdad Pact, which developed out of the Turkish-Pakistan bilateral agreement of Feb 1954, was signed on 4 April 1955. Iran, Iraq, Turkey and Pakistan pledged to assist each other to meet aggression from any quarter. Baghdad Pact was renamed as CENTO. • A comprehensive agreement, at bilateral level, was signed between USA and Pakistan, in March 1959 during General Ayub khan regime.
  5. Distressed Relationship Period • Due to the American role in the 1965 war and its pro-India policy, a great deal of resentment developed in Pakistan. • The US role during the 1965 war and its open supply of arms to India seriously weakened Pakistan’s defense potential and was meant to encourage Indian aggression against Pakistan. • During the 1971 crisis, America did not support Pakistan and never condemn India on its aggression.
  6. Contd. • Pak-US relations became stressed once again in 1976-77 when Pakistan desired to acquire nuclear technology. America strongly opposed and suspended aid to Pakistan. • America always exploited Pakistan’s weak economic condition and exerted tremendous pressure on her to drop nuclear program and to sign NPT. • In 1979, Soviet Afghan war gave a chance to America to develop bilateral relations with Pakistan.
  7. Contd. • In 1980, Ronald Reagon won the US Presidential election. With the change of administration in Washington, also changed American perception towards Asia. Reagon administration made an ambitious aid to Pakistan. Pakistan decided to respond to the US offer positively. As Pakistan was not able to face Soviet Union alone.
  8. Following the 9/11 attacks on USA, Pakistan's foreign Policy took a U-turn after the American President George W. Bush told President Musharraf that "either you are with us or against us" on war against terrorism. Pakistan abandoned the Taliban's in Afghanistan and cooperated fully with the US and its allies by making air bases available, sharing intelligence and providing logistics to USA.
  9. Contd. • The terrorist attacks of September 11 on the United States have qualitatively transformed Pakistan- U.S. relations. Pakistan has moved from the margins of U.S. foreign policy to center stage and has become a key player in the war on terrorism • This is a reflection both of Pakistan's pivotal geostrategic position in the region and the Islamic world, and of the key decision made by Pakistani president Pervez Musharraf to join the international coalition against terrorism.
  10. The War on Terrorism • There is a widely held but erroneous belief in the United States that after September 11 Pakistan had to be coerced to join the war on terrorism. In fact, counterterrorism cooperation between the two countries had already been underway for more than a decade.
  11. Afghanistan and Central Asia • The United States needs to signal its commitment to sustained engagement in Afghanistan. With a hostile India to the east, Pakistan has consistently sought a stable and friendly Afghanistan to the west to avoid having enemies on two fronts. • Pakistan's Afghan policy has also been guided by the need to ensure the safe return of 3 million Afghan refugees and end the inflow of terrorists and arms into Pakistan.
  12. Conclusion: The Way Forward • The September II tragedy has acted as a catalyst to revitalize Pakistani -U.S. relations. Thus far, their counterterrorism cooperation has achieved major successes. • The critical decision made by President Musharraf to join the international coalition against terrorism and the pursuit of his vision for Pakistan have added to Pakistan's significance as a pivotal country, both at the crossroads of South and Central Asia and within the Muslim world.
  13. Contd. • Six months into the Biden administration, amid the U.S. withdrawal from Afghanistan and increasing violence on the ground there, the U.S.-Pakistan relationship stands in uneasy limbo. Pakistan has indicated repeatedly that it wants the relationship to be defined more broadly than about Afghanistan — especially based on “geo- economics,” its favored current catch-all for trade, investment, and connectivity — and has insisted that it doesn’t want failures in Afghanistan to be blamed on Pakistan. • At the same time the U.S. has made it clear that it expects Pakistan to “do more” on Afghanistan in terms of pushing the Taliban toward a peace agreement with the Afghan government. Pakistan responds that it has exhausted its leverage over the Taliban. The result is a relationship with the Biden administration that has been defined by Pakistan’s western neighbor, as has been the case for U.S.-Pakistan relations for much of the last 40 years. And the situation in Afghanistan may define the future of the relationship as well.
  14. Pakistan-India Relations • Pakistan and India share a critical relationship. In addition to several limited border clashes, they have fought three major wars since 1947, • However, they have also a history of joint efforts for resolving difference through peaceful means.
  15. Introduction • The relations between Pakistan and India started on a bitter note because of the partition of the Indian subcontinent. • The immediate cause of tension was the bloodshed of millions of Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs, moving across the new borders to settle either in India or Pakistan. The communal violence, at the time of independence, set the • stage for a permanent future rivalry between Pakistan and India.
  16. Overview of Past Confrontations: A Zero-sum Game • Unmitigated confrontation ─ a kind of zero-sum game. Till date, the relations have not fully recovered from the first conflict over the Himalayan region of Kashmir • First War on Kashmir • Soon after partition, Pakistan and India clashed over Kashmir. It was a Muslim majority state ruled by a Hindu king called the Maharaja Hari Singh. Ignoring the sentiments of most people and guidelines for the accession of states decided on October 26, 1947, the Maharaja
  17. Contd. • announced to join India. It resulted in an uprising. The local Kashmiris were joined by the Pakistani tribesmen who launched an armed struggle to • liberate Kashmir from India. India sent its regular army to control the situation. As the unrest increased, Pakistan’s government came under • pressure to intervene and finally sent its troops in May 1948. It resulted in the first war between Pakistan and India over Kashmir.
  18. • The war-like situation was stopped after the UN intervened. Meanwhile the UN passed a resolution to decide the final status of Kashmir through a plebiscite and both countries agreed to it. However, India refused to hold the plebiscite till yet.
  19. Second War on Kashmir • The second war over Kashmir was fought in September 1965. Compared with the first war, it had a slightly different context. India was defeated by China in 1962. Pakistan, after receiving western military hardware, had improved its defense and gained the upper hand over India in the Rann of Kutch9 clash in 1965. Meanwhile, the unrest in Kashmir was increasing • due to various factors. India’s founding leader Jawaharlal Nehru’s death in1964, had left a power vacuum in the political arena of the country.
  20. Contd. • These factors prompted the Pakistani policymakers to play a final round in Kashmir. • Code-named as Operation Gibraltar, a plan was prepared to provide aid to initiate a rebellion against India in Kashmir. • It was based on the assessment that the situation in Kashmir was ripe for change and India will not be able to launch any major offensive against Pakistan. • The plan did not achieve success and soon, the two countries were engaged in a major conflict after the Indian forces crossed the international border on September 6, 1965. • For Pakistan, the situation was saved by its brave troops and timely intervention of the international community to arrange a • ceasefire.
  21. 1971 War • The immediate trigger of the 1971 war was the elections of 1970.The Awami League Party won majority votes after sweeping the polls in East Pakistan (present-day Bangladesh). • Since power was not transferred to the Awami League by March 1971, as was initially announced, its supporters resorted to violence and created a rebellion like situation in the country. • The central government retaliated by launching a military crackdown to quell the disturbance. • The situation steadily slipped out of control until India intervened, resulting in the third Pak-India war. Pakistan suffered a defeat and lost its eastern wing permanently.
  22. Kargil War • The Kargil conflict lasted from May to July1999. Though it was confined to a small geographical location, it got a great deal of attention at the global level as it could have easily spread and even result in a nuclear exchange. • As usual, the US played a key role in de-escalation after Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif visited Washington and met President Bill Clinton. The crisis came to an end but not the tensions that it unleashed..
  23. Kashmir on Fire • Kashmir is a longstanding dispute between India and Pakistan. The area was once a Princely State called Jammu and Kashmir, but in 1947, it emerged as a boiling point of South Asia. • Pakistan and India have fought several wars on this burning issue since the partition of the Subcontinent. • Most recently, in August 2019, India annulled the special status of Jammu and Kashmir granted under Article 370 of the Indian constitution and put illegally occupied areas under vicious lockdown. • Pakistan has raised the issue at all possible international forums to resolve the issue within the ambit of UN resolutions.
  24. Contd. • However, India is consistently denying the Right of Self- determination to the Kashmiri people and Indian security forces are continuously killing innocent Kashmiris while violating ceasefire at LOC. • India’s action to abolish Articles 370 and 35A clearly indicates a lack of vision and shows that Indian leadership is totally unaware of the after-effects of such an unconstitutional and undemocratic move, which is having serious implications for the region. • IOJK has now become the most hazardous place in the world where the common man faces unjust and a cruel • atmosphere to live every single day at the hands of Indian forces, thus, jeopardizing the peace of the region.
  25. Conclusion • South Asia is the region, where consequences of enmity among the existing geopolitical fault lines are gradually becoming evident. • According to Bruce Riedel of the Brookings Institution, the region is moving towards a bipolar alliance system between the US and India on the one hand, and Pakistan and China on the other. • While the Chinese are building an economic corridor in Pakistan that will attach its landlocked Xinjiang region to the Arabian Sea and allow it to bypass the strategic chokepoint at the Strait of Malacca. • In response, the US is heavily investing in India as a counterbalance. • In short, the love and hate relationship has increased economic competition as well as security threats for the region in one way or the other.