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HISTORY PRESENTATION - Copy (2).pptx

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HISTORY PRESENTATION - Copy (2).pptx

  1. 1. AVANT-GARDE AND MACHINE AESTHETIC INTERNATIONAL STYLE FINAL PROJECT
  2. 2. PART - ONE AVANT-GARDE
  3. 3. ETYMOLOGY ANDORIGINOF AVANT-GARDE?  Avant-garde is originally a French term, meaning in English vanguard or advance guard (the part of an army that goes forward ahead of the rest).  Avant-garde art can be said to begin in the 1850s with the realism of Gustave Courbet, who was strongly influenced by early socialist ideas. This was followed by the successive movements of modern art, and the term avant-garde is more or less synonymous with modern.  The notion of the avant-garde enshrines the idea that art should be judged primarily on the quality and originality of the artist’s vision and ideas.  Because of its radical nature and the fact that it challenges existing ideas, processes and forms; avant-garde artists and artworks often go hand-in-hand with controversy. Read the captions of the artworks below to find out about the shock-waves they caused.
  4. 4. INNOVATIONANDGEOGRAPHIES THE AVANT-GARDE  The avant-garde is by definition art that is ahead of its time and is shocking, disturbing, and therefore viewed as socially and aesthetically objectionable. The specific aim of the avant- garde is to undermine the existing order and to replace it by another. It attempts to do this by contradiction, challenge, confrontation, and self-assertion.  The novelty and abrasiveness of the avant-garde could never meet the standards of beauty that were the primary conditions of traditional aesthetics, but its own novelty made it readily recognizable as innovation.  The avant-garde is predominantly a modernist term for a movement in art, culture, and politics that cuts at the vanguard of ideas both in terms of their mode of expression and the social impact that they have for everyday living.
  5. 5. Avant-Garde: Translating the Esthetic into Politics  Addressing the conceptual purchase of the avant-garde, one can combine the relationship of the esthetic to the political by unpacking the arts into three key categories : EXPRESSION PERFORMANCE EXPERIENCE
  6. 6. AVANT-GARDE ART ANDARTISTS  The concept of the avant-garde has been applied to three types of changes in the arts: in the norms surrounding the production and distribution of artworks, in the aesthetic content of art, in the social content of art.  Avant-garde art has, traditionally, never just been described as avant-garde, but has also been associated a particular movement: from Realism to Impressionism to Expressionism to Cubism and so on. Part of the avant- garde artist's identity and purpose has traditionally involved defining a clear and programmatic set of aims for their work, generally also associated with a tight-knit group of associates or comrades, which would form the basis for their creativity.  Some examples of art works and artists The Painter's Studio/Artist: Gustave Courbet Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe/Artist: Édouard Manet Impression, Sunrise/Artist: Claude Monet The Three Musicians/Artist: Pablo Picasso
  7. 7. AVANT – GARDES ARCHITECTURE  Avant-garde architecture is architecture which is innovative and radical. There have been a variety of architects and movements whose work has been characterised in this way, especially Modernism. Other examples include Constructivism, Neoplasticism (De Stijl), Neo-futurism, Deconstructivism, Parametricism and Expressionism. 1. Modern architecture, or modernist architecture, was an architectural movement or architectural style based upon new and innovative technologies of construction, particularly the use of glass, steel, and reinforced concrete; the idea that form should follow function (functionalism); an embrace of minimalism; and a rejection of ornament. 2. Constructivist architecture was a constructivist style of modern architecture that flourished in the Soviet Union in the 1920s and early 1930s. Abstract and austere, the movement aimed to reflect modern industrial society and urban space, while rejecting decorative stylization in favor of the industrial assemblage of materials. 3. Neoplasticism (in Dutch Nieuwe Beelding - the new plastic art) is an art theory that arose in 1917 around the De Stijl journal. The main representatives of the new image are the artists Theo van Doesburg and Piet Mondriaan.They set themselves the goal of purifying the art from elements that they thought did not belong there and tried to determine and apply the elementary (and in their eyes universal) principles of each art form through rational means.
  8. 8. 4. Deconstructivism is a movement of postmodern architecture which appeared in the 1980s. It gives the impression of the fragmentation of the constructed building, commonly characterised by an absence of obvious harmony, continuity, or symmetry. Besides Fragmentation, Deconstructivism Often Manipulates The Structure's Surface Skin And Deploys Non-rectilinear Shapes Which Appear To Distort And Dislocate Established Elements Of Architecture. 5. Parametricism is a style within contemporary avant-garde architecture, promoted as a successor to Modern and Postmodern architecture. The term was coined in 2008 by Patrik Schumacher, an architectural partner of Zaha Hadid (1950–2016). Parametricism has its origin in parametric design, which is based on the constraints in a parametric equation. Parametricism relies on programs, algorithms, and computers to manipulate equations for design purposes. Aspects of parametricism have been used in urban design, architectural design, interior design and furniture design. 6. Expressionist architecture was an architectural movement in Europe during the first decades of the 20th century in parallel with the expressionist visual and performing arts that especially developed and dominated in Germany. Brick Expressionism is a special variant of this movement in western and northern Germany, as well as in the Netherlands (where it is known as the Amsterdam School).
  9. 9. 7. Neo-futurism is a late-20th to early-21st-century movement in the arts, design, and architecture. Described as an avant-garde movement, as well as a futuristic rethinking of the thought behind aesthetics and functionality of design in growing cities, the movement has its origins in the mid-20th-century structural expressionist work of architects such as Alvar Aalto and Buckminster Fuller. 8. Brutalist architecture is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950s in the United Kingdom, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterised by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and structural elements over decorative design. 1. 5. 2. 4. 6. 8. 3. 7.
  10. 10. Concept of Avant-garde architecture  Avant-garde architecture has been described as progressive in terms of aesthetics. However, it is noted for covering a broad range of aesthetic and political spectrum. It is associated with the liberal left but also cited as apolitical, right-wing, and conservative in its politics and aesthetics. It is also considered a stream within modernism that is anti-elitist and open to the contamination of mass culture.  The concept draws from the idea of integration of life and art. In the De Stijl Manifesto V, it was stated that art and life are not separate domains, hence, the argument that art is not an illusion or disconnected from reality. This view pushed for the construction of an environment that is according to the creative laws derived from a fixed principle. A conceptualization by Le Corbusier described avant-garde architecture as constructed for the pleasure of the eye and comes with "inner cleanness, for the course adopted leads to a refusal to allow anything at all which is not correct, authorised, intended, desired, thought-out.
  11. 11. CRITICISMABOUT AVANT-GARDE ARCHITECTURE  Critics note that avant-garde architecture contradicts the very definition of architecture because its position is contrary to its most specific characteristics.There are critics who state that it stands in opposition to the architecture of the classical antiquity. Its importance is said to be exaggerated since it is always marginal to any decisive change.It has been described as part of modern architecture that is the most rarefied and the least social in terms of orientation. It is also noted that many avant-garde architectural projects do not fare well once evaluated according to suitability principles. According to Eileen Gray, it is obsessed with the external at the expense of the interior.  Another argument states that avant-garde architecture is an experiment or that a project is a vehicle for research so that it leads to a built manifesto. For this reason, the avant-garde architect exploits the resources of his clients to achieve his purposes, which go beyond his client's narrow and private interests.
  12. 12. ARCHIGRAM  Archigram was an avant-garde architectural group formed in the 1960s that was neofuturistic, anti-heroic and pro-consumerist, drawing inspiration from technology in order to create a new reality that was solely expressed through hypothetical projects.  Archigram agitated to prevent modernism from becoming a sterile and safe orthodoxy by its adherents. Unlike ephemeralisation from Buckminster Fuller which assumes more must be done with less material (because material is finite), Archigram relies on a future of interminable resources.  The works of Archigram had a neofuturistic slant being influencedby Antonio Sant'Elia's works. Buckminster Fuller and Yona Friedman were also important sources of inspiration. The works of Archigram served as a source of inspiration for later works such as the High tech 'Pompidou centre' 1971 by Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano, early Norman Foster works, Gianfranco Franchini and Future Systems. By the early 1970s the strategy of the group had changed.
  13. 13. AD Classics: The Plug-In City / Peter Cook, Archigram Russian Avant-garde The Russian avant-garde reached its creative and popular height in the period between the Russian Revolution of 1917 and 1932, at which point the ideas of the avant-garde clashed with the newly emerged state-sponsored direction of Socialist Realism.
  14. 14.  The Russian avant-garde was a large, influential wave of avant-garde modern art that flourished in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union, approximately from 1890 to 1930—although some have placed its beginning as early as 1850 and its end as late as 1960. The term covers many separate, but inextricably related, art movements that flourished at the time; including Suprematism, Constructivism, Russian Futurism, Cubo- Futurism, Zaum and Neo-primitivism.  The housing complex “Russian Avant-garde”, a large-scale building with an S-shaped plan, from 17 to 23 stories high, is located on the territory of the new residential area “Troitsky” located in the north part of Voronezh next to the Botanical Garden. The project got into the hands of A.Len when the construction was already underway. At first, the client offered Sergey Oreshkin to change the façades in another company’s project but ultimately the architects of A.Len ended up changing everything that was possible to change at that stage of construction. The apartments in “Russian Avant-garde” are variously sized: from small studios to spacious four-room apartments with own terraces on the roof. The terraces command views of the Botanical Garden and the distant Voronezh Reservoir.
  15. 15. Housing complex "Russian Avant-garde", Project, 2016 A.Len As for the organization of the adjacent territory, this is where the theme of avant- garde was explored to the fullest. The master plan of the yards is based on nothing less than the picture of Mikhail Larionov; all the landscape elements are also based on the avant-garde paintings. The architects even planned to place into the yard a model of the Tatlin Tower, painted red.
  16. 16. AVANT-GRADES HIGH-RISE HOUSING DESIGN It shows how high-rise design was incorporated into both state-sponsored housing modernization programs as well as the luxury private This article charts the emergence of high-rise housing design within the European architectural avant-garde housing market. It details how high-rise housing has failed in many European and North American contexts but sustained itself as a successful housing solution elsewhere. The article finally turns to how environmental debates have breathed new life into high-rise design. Specific high-rise housing developments are mentioned by way of example. Image courtesy of SOM by James Ewing
  17. 17. PART - TWO MACHINE AESTHETIC
  18. 18. Etymology of Machine-Aesthetic  The term Machine Aesthetic refers to a view of the formal aspects of machines-- especially their simple and regular shapes, smooth contours, and reflective surfaces-- as beautiful. This aesthetic was a prominent element of Modernist art in the 1920s and ‘30s and influenced the streamlining of automobiles and other everyday objects.  Machine Aesthetic. The term Machine Aesthetic refers to a view of the formal aspects of machines--especially their simple and regular shapes, smooth contours, and reflective surfaces--as beautiful.  Aesthetic or otherwise called cosmetic treatments are non-surgical procedures designed to combat signs of ageing, rejuvenate and refresh skin. They can be used on almost any part of the body but the most common areas the face, neck and décolletage.  Aesthetics, also spelled esthetics, the philosophical study of beauty and taste. It is closely related to the philosophy of art, which is concerned with the nature of art and the concepts in terms of which individual works of art are interpreted and evaluated.  The machine was valued for its service. Its aesthetic was promoted by those who saw a beauty in the machine -- a beauty in appearance and function. The machine aesthetic was assumed by all sorts of objects. Shiny metals, molded plastics, and mirrored glass became important decorative devices.
  19. 19. MODERN DESIGN AND MACHINE AESTHETICS  machine was valued for its service. Its aesthetic was promoted by those who saw a beauty in the machine -- a beauty in appearance and function. The machine aesthetic was assumed by all sorts of objects. Shiny metals, molded plastics, and mirrored glass became important decorative devices.  A study of the machine aesthetic may be best served by dividing its development into four stylistic interpretations, as given by architectural historian Richard Guy Wilson:2 Moderne, machine purity, streamline, and biomorphic.  The Moderne Style used the look of the machine ornamentally. It was decorative design, and its machine aesthetic served to conceal the inner workings of the object while calling attention to itself as machine.  Machine purity, as a stylistic interpretation of machine aesthetics, emerged in the United States in the early thirties. Indicative of this style was simplified geometric form. This, in itself, would not particularly separate it from the Moderne.  Another interpretation of the machine aesthetic -- one that often clashed with the functional ideals of the International style -- was streamlined design. For its leading practitioners, "speed was the essence of the modern age and the shape which was most conducive to speed was the ovoid, or tear-drop." It captured the public mind as the symbol of progess.  The biomorphic aesthetic dislocated the machine from primary image to enabler. Designs became sympathetic to the forms of nature and the human body. If the ovoid was the symbol of streamlining, the ameoba was that of biomorphic design.
  20. 20. FUNCTIONALISMANDMACHINE AESTHETIC OF MODERNARCHITECTURE  Functionalism in Architecture was a movement during the late 19th century and early 20th century was a product of one American architect Louis Henri Sullivan who coined the term ‘form follows function’. It was Distinct to have exposed architecture of the existence of ornamentation and therefore aesthetics so that a structure simply expressed its purpose or function  The arrival of the machine was to have such revolutionary significance that the following years can legitimately be termed the Machine Age. Among the great number of cultural changes engendered by this new era was the installation of a machine aesthetic in the fields of architecture and design. This was of central importance to the Modern Movement as it provided a means by which its practitioners could engage with what they regarded as the spirit of the age. The machine aesthetic can be distinguished in the work of each major figure of the Modernist pantheon; it therefore conditioned the entire range of Modernist activity.  The aim of Modernism was to achieve the ideal solutions to each design problem in works that would be style less, timeless and possess the same purity and clarity as geometry.
  21. 21. AN ARCHITECT FOR THE MACHINE AGE  1887: Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris, better known to the world as Le Corbusier, is born in the Swiss city of La Chaux-de-Fonds. He will change his name and take French citizenship in his 30s. More importantly, he will help pioneer the International Style of architecture and is one of the most influential proponents of the machine aesthetic. Jeanneret-Gris' interest in design and architecture came early in life. He attended the local art school, where he studied under architect Rene Chapallaz, who became a major influence. After moving to Paris in 1907, he toiled for Auguste Perret, an architect renowned for his work in reinforced concrete construction. A few years later he continued on to Berlin, where he became fluent in German and schooled under Peter Behrens, another architect with bohemian predilections esteemed for his industrial designs.
  22. 22.  Le Corbusier was one of the greatest architects of the Twentieth Century. He believed houses were machines and his early industrialization of building homes as metrics of functionality — instead of as just basic shelter — forever changed the way we consider both Art and science today. COLLINE NOTRE DAME DU HAUT
  23. 23.  By 1918, Corbusier’s ideas on how architecture should meet the demands of the machine age led him to develop, in collaboration with the artist Amédée Ozenfant, a new theory: Purism. Purist rules would lead the architect always to refine and simplify design, dispensing with ornamentation. Architecture would be as efficient as a factory assembly line. Soon, Le Corbusier was developing standardised housing ‘types’ like the ‘Immeuble-villa’ (made real with the Pavilion de l’Esprit Nouveau of 1925), and the Maison Citrohan (a play on words suggesting the building industry should adopt the methods of the mass production automobile industry), which he hoped would solve the chronic housing problems of industrialised countries.  But despite his love of the machine aesthetic, Le Corbusier was determined that his architecture would reintroduce nature into people’s lives. Victorian cities were chaotic and dark prisons for many of their inhabitants. Le Corbusier was convinced that a rationally planned city, using the standardised housing types he had developed, could offer a healthy, humane alternative.  The lesson of Le Corbusier is one of conflict and outrage: We must never accept the ordinary, the middling or the status quo. It is our job — as purveyors of Artists and as patrons of Scientists — to always demand the surprise of new thinking.
  24. 24. PART - THREE INTERNATIONAL STYLE
  25. 25. ETYMOLOGY OF INTERNATIONAL STYLE  In architecture, the term "International Style" describes a type of design that developed mainly in Germany, Holland and France, during the 1920s, before spreading to America in the 1930s, where it became the dominant tendency in American architecture during the middle decades of the 20th century. Although it never became fashionable for single-family residential buildings in the United States - despite the efforts of William Lescaze (1896-1969), Edward Durrell Stone (1902-78), Richard Neutra (1892-1970) - the International Style was especially suited to skyscraper architecture, where its sleek "modern" look, absence of decoration and use of steel and glass, became synonymous with corporate modernism during the period 1955-70. It also became the dominant style of 20th century architecture for institutional and commercial buildings, and even superceded the traditional historical styles for schools and churches.
  26. 26. ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT  The International Style emerged largely as a result of four factors that confronted architects at the beginning of the 20th century: (1) Increasing dissatisfaction with building designs that incorporated a mixture of decorative features from different architectural periods, especially where the resulting design bore little or no relation to the function of the building; (2) The need to build large numbers of commercial and civic buildings that served a rapidly industrializing society; (3) The successful development of new construction techniques involving the use of steel, reinforced concrete, and glass; and (4) A strong desire to create a "modern" style of architecture for "modern man". This underlined the need for a neutral, functional style, without any of the decorative features of (say) Romanesque, Gothic, or Renaissance architecture, all of which were old-fashioned, if not obsolete.
  27. 27. CHARACTERISTICS OF INTERNATIONAL STYLE  The typical characteristics of International Style buildings include rectilinear forms; plane surfaces that are completely devoid of applied ornamentation; and open, even fluid, interior spaces. This early form of minimalism had a distinctively "modern look", reinforced by its use of modern materials, including glass for the facade, steel for exterior support, and concrete for interior supports and floors.  The phrase "International Style" was first coined in 1932 by curators Henry- Russell Hitchcock (1903-1987) and Philip Johnson (1906-2005), in literature for their show "International Exhibition of Modern Architecture" (1932), held at the Museum of Modern Art, New York. The aim of the show was to explain and promote what they considered to be an exemplary "modern" style of architecture. As it was, all but two of the buildings showcased were European. The only American structures on display were Lovell House, LA (1929), by Richard Neutra; and the Film Guild Cinema, NYC (1929), designed by Frederick John Kiesler (1890-1965).
  28. 28. FAMOUS INTERNATIONAL STYLE ARCHITECTS  Pioneer practitioners of the International Style included a group of brilliant and original architects in the 1920s who went on to achieve enormous influence in their field. These figures included Walter Gropius (1883-1969) in Germany, J.J.P. Oud (1890-1963) in Holland, Le Corbusier (1887-1965) in France, and Richard Neutra (1892-1970), Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1886-1969), and Philip Johnson (1906-2005) in the United States. 1. Walter Gropius Walter Gropius was the founder of the renowned Bauhaus design school in Weimar, Dessau and Berlin. He emigrated to America in 1937, where he became Head of the Graduate School of Design at Harvard University, and set up a partnership known as The Architects' Collaborative (TAC). 2. J.J.P Oud Jacobus Johannes Pieter Oud, co-founder of the De Stijl movement with Theo van Doesburg (1883-1931), helped to bring more rounded and flowing geometric shapes to the movement. As the housing architect in Rotterdam, he designed numerous apartment blocks with a sober but functional austerity.
  29. 29. 3. Le Corbusier Le Corbusier (Charles Edouard Jeanneret), one of the greatest architects of the 20th century, simplified architecture down to its main functional features: window, ramp, stair and column. He was also especially concerned to maximize the entry of light into a building by replacing load-bearing walls in its facade. 4. Richard Neutra The life of no other 20th-century architect so epitomized the term International Style as that of Richard Neutra (1892-1970), who gained worldwide recognition as an advocate of modern design. In the United States, he had a strong influence on architecture, particularly in California. 5. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe He started his own thriving practice as an architect. Such was his energy and innovation, that by the late 1940s he had become a highly influential mentor to a generation of students as well as professional designers within large firms such as Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, C.F.Murphy & Associates, and others.
  30. 30. 6. Philip Johnson Johnson has had a profound impact on American architects for more than six decades. In the 1930s as an architectural historian, he helped introduce modern architecture - the glass box - to America with a book and exhibit on the International Style at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, where he was director of the architecture department. Famous International Style Buildings 1. The Fagus Factory (1911-25) Alfeld on the Leine (Gropius)
  31. 31. 2. The Bauhaus School Building (1925) at Dessau (Gropius) 3. Lovell House (1929) Los Angeles (Neutra) 4. Villa Savoye (1929-30) Poissy-sur-Seine (Le Corbusier)
  32. 32. 5. Lake Shore Drive Apartments (1948-51) Chicago (Mies van der Rohe) CRITICISM ON INTERNATIONAL STYLE  In 1930, Frank Lloyd Wright wrote: "Human houses should not be like boxes, blazing in the sun, nor should we outrage the Machine by trying to make dwelling-places too complementary to Machinery."  In Elizabeth Gordon's well-known 1953 essay, "The Threat to the Next America," she criticized the style as non-practical, citing many instances where "glass houses" are too hot in summer and too cold in winter, empty, take away private space, lack beauty and generally are not livable. Moreover, she accused this style's proponents of taking away a sense of beauty from people and thus covertly pushing for a totalitarian society.  In 1966, architect Robert Venturi published Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture, essentially a book-length critique of the International Style. Architectural historian Vincent Scully regarded Venturi's book as 'probably the most important writing on the making of architecture since Le Corbusier's Vers une Architecture. It helped to define postmodernism.  One of the supposed strengths of the International Style has been said to be that the design solutions were indifferent to location, site, and climate; the solutions were supposed to be universally applicable; the style made no reference to local history or national vernacular. This was soon identified as one of the style's primary weakness.
  33. 33. OVERVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL STYLE  The International Style grew out of three phenomena that confronted architects in the late 19th century:  (1) architects’ increasing dissatisfaction with the continued use in stylistically eclectic buildings of a mix of decorative elements from different architectural periods and styles that bore little or no relation to the building’s functions,  (2) the economical creation of large numbers of office buildings and other commercial, residential, and civic structures that served a rapidly industrializing society, and  (3) the development of new building technologies centring on the use of iron and steel, reinforced concrete, and glass.  These three phenomena dictated the search for an honest, economical, and utilitarian architecture that would both use the new materials and satisfy society’s new building needs while still appealing to aesthetic taste. Technology was a crucial factor; the new availability of cheap, mass-produced iron and steel and the discovery in the 1890s of those materials’ effectiveness as primary structural members effectively rendered the old traditions of masonry (brick and stone) construction obsolete.
  34. 34. Thank you !!

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