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PMP Chapter 1 of 6 introduction (Based on PMBOK 6th edition)

Introduction to PMP; Project; Operation; Project Management; Agile; Organization Process Assets; Enterprise Environmental factors; Stakeholder; Project Management Office; project manager interpersonal skills.

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PMP Chapter 1 of 6 introduction (Based on PMBOK 6th edition)

  1. 1. PMP Exam Preparation Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE Based on PMBOK 6th PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 1 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  2. 2. THE PMP CERTIFICATION The Project Management Institute (PMI) “www.pmi.org”; offers a professional credential for project managers, known asThe Project Management Professional (PMP). PMP recognizes the competence of an individual to perform in the role of a project manager, especially experience in leading and directing projects. Year after year, the PMP credential has garnered global recognition and commanded a higher salary for credentialed individuals over non-credentialed individuals. In order to attain the PMP designation, one has to: 1- Meet the required professional experience, 2- Gain 35 hours of project management education, 3- Pass a 4-hour 200-question examination. PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 2 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  3. 3. ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS Education Background Project Management Experience* Project Management Education Associate Degree or Below 1. Minimum 5 years of professional project management experience 2. Minimum 7,500 hours leading and directing project 35 contact hours of formal education Bachelor Degree or Above 1. Minimum 3 years of professional project management experience 2. Minimum 4,500 hours leading and directing project * In the last 8 consecutive years prior to the PMP application PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 3 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  4. 4.  The hours counted towards leading and directing projects include only those period that you are involved in project management activities (not executive the project work itself). PMI does not require you to perform the work in the capacity of a project manager, only that you carry out the work as outlined in the Project Management Professional Examination Content Outline. ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 4 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  5. 5. ITRODUCTION PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 5 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  6. 6. WHAT IS PROJECT Project is aTemporary endeavor undertaken to create a Unique product, service, or result. A unique product that can be either a component of another item, an enhancement or correction to an item, or a new end item in itself (e.g., the correction of a defect in an end item); A unique service or a capability to perform a service (e.g., a business function that supports production or distribution); A unique result, such as an outcome or document (e.g., a research project that develops knowledge that can be used to determine whether a trend exists or a new process will benefit society); and A unique combination of one or more products, services, or results (e.g., a software application, its associated documentation, and help desk services). PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 6 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  7. 7. Temporary endeavor: The temporary nature of projects indicates that a project has a definite beginning and end. Temporary does not necessarily mean a project has a short duration. The end of the project is reached when one or more of the following is true:  The project’s objectives have been achieved;  The objectives will not or cannot be met;  Funding is exhausted or no longer available for allocation to the project;  The need for the project no longer exists (e.g., the customer no longer wants the project completed, a change in strategy or priority ends the project, the organizational management provides direction to end the project);  The human or physical resources are no longer available; or  The project is terminated for legal cause or convenience. WHAT IS PROJECT PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 7 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  8. 8. WHAT IS PROJECT Projects Drive Change: Projects drive change in organizations. From a business perspective, a project is aimed at moving an organization from one state to another state in order to achieve a specific objective(s). PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 8 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  9. 9. Projects Enable BusinessValue Creation - PMI defines business value as the net quantifiable benefit derived from a business endeavor. The benefit may be tangible, intangible, or both. WHAT IS PROJECT Tangible elements Intangible elements Monetary assets Goodwill Stockholder equity Brand recognition Utility Public benefit Fixtures Trademarks Tools Strategic alignment Market share Reputation PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 9 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  10. 10. Project Initiation Context: Organizational leaders initiate projects in response to factors acting upon their organizations. WHAT IS PROJECT Project Initiation Context PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 10 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  11. 11. WHAT IS PROJECT MANAGEMENT Project Management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements.  Project management is accomplished through the appropriate application and integration of the project management processes identified for the project.  Project management enables organizations to execute projects effectively and efficiently. PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 11 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  12. 12. THE IMPORTANCE OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT Meet business objectives Satisfy stakeholder expectations Be more predictable Increase chances of success Deliver the right products at the right time Resolve problems and issues Respond to risks in a timely manner Optimize the use of organizational resources Identify, recover, or terminate failing projects Manage constraints (e.g., scope, quality, schedule, costs, resources) Balance the influence of constraints on the project PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 12 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  13. 13. Effective Project Management Poorly Managed Projects Meet business objectives Missed deadlines Satisfy stakeholder expectations Cost overruns, Be more predictable Poor quality Increase chances of success Rework Deliver the right products at the right time Uncontrolled expansion of the project Resolve problems and issues Loss of reputation for the organization Respond to risks in a timely manner Unsatisfied stakeholders Optimize the use of organizational resources Failure in achieving the objectives for which the project was undertaken Identify, recover, or terminate failing projects Manage constraints (e.g., scope, quality, schedule, costs, resources) Balance the influence of constraints on the project Manage change in a better manner WHAT IS PROJECT MANAGEMENT PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 13 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  14. 14. Program is defined as a group of related projects, subsidiary programs, and program activities managed in a coordinated manner to obtain benefits not available from managing them individually. Portfolio is defined as projects, programs, subsidiary portfolios, and operations managed as a group to achieve strategic objectives.  The Program and projects that make up the portfolio may not be related, other than fact that they are helping to achieve a common strategic goal. PROJECT, PROGRAM, AND PORTFOLIO Program and Project Management focus on doing programs and projects the “right” way Portfolio Management focuses on doing the “right” programs and projects. PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 14 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  15. 15. Portfolio, Programs, Projects, and Operations PROJECT, PROGRAM, AND PORTFOLIO PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 15 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  16. 16. PROJECTS & OPERATIONS Operations management is concerned with the ongoing production of goods and/or services.  It ensures that business operations continue efficiently by using the optimal resources needed to meet customer demands.  It is concerned with managing processes that transform inputs. PROJECTS OPERATIONS Temporary Ongoing Unique Repetitive Closes after attaining the objectives Objective is to sustain business Prototyping the new car model Assembly line production “Project” and “Operation” do carry some similarities:  They both have to take limited resources into accounts.  Both are performed by people/human resources.  Both involve execution and control (e.g. quality control). PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 16 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  17. 17.  Projects can intersect with operations at various points during the product life cycle, such as;  When developing a new product, upgrading a product, or expanding outputs;  While improving operations or the product development process;  At the end of the product life cycle;  At each closeout phase. At each point, deliverables and knowledge are transferred between the project and operations for implementation of the delivered work. This implementation occurs through a transfer of project resources or knowledge to operations or through a transfer of operational resources to the project. PROJECTS & OPERATIONS PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 17 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  18. 18. ORGANIZATIONAL PROJECT MANAGEMENT (OPM) The purpose of OPM is to: - Ensures that the organization undertakes the right projects and allocates critical resources appropriately. - Helps to ensure that all levels in the organization understand the strategic vision, the initiatives that support the vision, the objectives, and the deliverables OrganizationalProject Management(OPM) PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 18 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  19. 19. Project Life Cycle is the series of phases that a project passes through from its start to its completion.It provides the basic framework for managing the project. - Project life cycles can be predictive or adaptive. Within a project life cycle, there are generally one or more phases that are associated with the development of the product, service, or result. These are called a development life cycle. PROJECT LIFE CYCLE PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 19 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  20. 20. THE AGILE MANIFESTO AND MINDSET The FourValues of the Agile Manifesto PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 20 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  21. 21. TheTwelve Principles Behind the Agile Manifesto THE AGILE MANIFESTO AND MINDSET PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 21 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  22. 22.  Predictive Life Cycle (Water-Fall), A more traditional approach, with the bulk of planning occurring upfront, then executing in a single pass; a sequential process.  The project Scope,Time,& Cost are determined in the early phases of the life cycle.(i.e.detailed plans to know what to deliver and how).  High certainty around firm requirements, a stable team, and low risk. As a result, project activities often execute in a serial manner.  Any changes to the scope are carefully managed.  The phases defined may have Sequential or Overlapping relations or even a combination of both.  Work performed in each phase is distinct from the predecessor or the successor phase.  Suits well to small projects with minimal complexity and where the product to be delivered is well understood. LIFE CYCLE SELECTION (Predictive) PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 22 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  23. 23. LIFE CYCLE SELECTION (Predictive) PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 23 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  24. 24.  Iterative Life Cycle An approach that allows feedback for unfinished work to improve and modify that work.  Project Scope is generally determined early in the project life cycle,  Time and Cost estimates are routinely modified as the project team’s understanding of the product increases.  Iterations develop the product through a series of repeated cycles, while increments successively add to the functionality of the product  improve the product or result through successive prototypes or proofs of concept.  Projects benefit from iterative life cycles when complexity is high, when the project incurs frequent changes, or when the scope is subject to differing stakeholders’ views of the desired final product.  May take longer because they are optimized for learning rather than speed of delivery. LIFE CYCLE SELECTION (Iterative) PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 24 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  25. 25.  Incremental Life Cycle An approach that provides finished deliverables that the customer may be able to use immediately.  The deliverable is produced through a series of iterations that successively add functionality within a predetermined time frame.  The deliverable contains the necessary and sufficient capability to be considered complete only after the final iteration.  The degree of change and variation is less important than ensuring customers get value sooner than at the end of the project.  Providing a customer a single feature or a finished piece of work is an example of the incremental approach. LIFE CYCLE SELECTION (Incremental) PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 25 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  26. 26. Life Cycle ofVarying-Sized Increments (Time Scaled) Predictive Life Cycle Iterative Life Cycle Incremental Life Cycle LIFE CYCLE SELECTION PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 26 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  27. 27.  Adaptive Life Cycle (Change-Driven or Agile Method) An approach that is both iterative and incremental to refine work items and deliver frequently.  Are agile, iterative, or incremental.  The detailed scope is defined and approved before the start of an iteration.  The iterations are very rapid and time bound.  Customer Involvement is the key to successful Projects.  The customer and the sponsor form a part of the Delivery Team.  Sometimes, the phases may not be clearly defined.  It relies heavily on customer feedback and the ability of the team to quickly work on the feedback and incorporate the same into the Project.  Communication and Collaboration are of paramount importance in implementing Projects using the Agile methodologies. LIFE CYCLE SELECTION (Agile or Adaptive) PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 27 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  28. 28.  Suitable for complex projects where the requirements are absolutely unclear, but it is possible to define incremental requirements.  Required high levels of Customer Involvement (which may not always be possible or practical).  Having a Virtual Team may work against the required enhanced collaborative approach. LIFE CYCLE SELECTION (Agile or Adaptive) PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 28 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  29. 29.  Project Phase Relationship Projects on the more adaptive side of the continuum make use of TWO recurring patterns of project phase relationships: 1- Sequential Iteration-based Phases  Projects are often decomposed into a sequence of phases called Iterations.  Each iteration utilizes the relevant project management processes.  These iterations create a cadence of predictable, time-boxed pre-agreed, consistent duration that aids with scheduling.  Performing the process groups repeatedly incurs overhead. The overhead is considered necessary to effectively manage projects with high degrees of complexity, uncertainty, and change. 2-Continuous Overlapping Phases  Perform all of the project management process groups continuously throughout the project life cycle. Inspired by techniques from lean thinking,  Referred to as “continuous and adaptive planning,”  Once work starts, the plan will change, and the plan needs to reflect this new knowledge.  Aggressively refine and improve all elements of the project management plan, beyond the prescheduled checkpoints associated with Iterations. LIFE CYCLE SELECTION (Agile or Adaptive) PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 29 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  30. 30. Relationship of Process Groups in Continuous Phases Level of Effort for Process Groups across Iteration Cycles LIFE CYCLE SELECTION (Agile or Adaptive) PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 30 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  31. 31. Ways to achieve incremental delivery so the project aligns with customer needs and can be adapted as necessary. - Iteration-Based Agile, the team works in iterations (time-boxes of equal duration) to deliver completed features. The team works on the most important feature, collaborating as a team to finish it. Then the team works on the next most important feature and finishes it. Life Cycle ofVarying-Sized Increments (Time Scaled) LIFE CYCLE SELECTION (Agile or Adaptive) PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 31 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  32. 32. - Flow-Based Agile, the team pulls features from the backlog based on its capacity to start work rather than on an iteration-based schedule. The team defines its workflow with columns on a task board and manages the work in progress for each column. Life Cycle ofVarying-Sized Increments (Time Scaled) LIFE CYCLE SELECTION (Agile or Adaptive) PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 32 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  33. 33. Uncertainty and Complexity Model Inspired by the Stacey Complexity Model LIFE CYCLE SELECTION PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 33 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  34. 34. LIFE CYCLE SELECTION The Continuum of Project Life Cycles PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 34 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  35. 35. The Continuum of Life Cycles LIFE CYCLE SELECTION PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 35 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  36. 36. Characteristics of Four Categories of Life Cycles LIFE CYCLE SELECTION PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 36 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  37. 37.  Hybrid Life Cycle Combination of a predictive and an adaptive life cycle.  Agile Development Followed by a Predictive Rollout. (For example: development of a new high-tech product followed by rollout and training to thousands of users.)  Combined Agile and Predictive Approach Used Simultaneously. (team is incrementally transitioning to agile and using some approaches like short iterations, daily standups, and retrospectives, but other aspects of the project such as upfront estimation, work assignment, and progress tracking are still following predictive approaches.) LIFE CYCLE SELECTION (Hybrid) PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 37 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  38. 38.  Predominantly Predictive approach with some Agile components. (an engineering firm that is building a facility with a new component.)  Largely Agile approach with a Predictive component. (integrating an external component developed by a different vendor that cannot or will not partner in a collaborative or incremental way. A single integration is required after the component is delivered). LIFE CYCLE SELECTION (Hybrid) PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 38 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  39. 39.  Hybrid Life Cycles as Fit-For-Purpose. Project teams may design a hybrid life cycle based on project risks. For example, a campus construction project may have multiple buildings to improve and build. An incremental approach would focus resources on completing some buildings earlier than others, accelerating the return on investment. Each individual delivery may be sufficiently well known to benefit from a predictive life cycle for that building alone.  Hybrid life cycles asTransition strategy. Many teams are not able to make the switch to agile ways of working overnight. Agile techniques look and feel very different to those who are accustomed to and have been successful in a predictive environment. The larger the organization and the more moving parts, the longer it will take to transition. For that reason, it makes sense to plan a gradual transition. LIFE CYCLE SELECTION (Hybrid) PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 39 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  40. 40. Project Life Cycles are INDEPENDENT of product life cycles, which may be produced by a project. A product life cycle is the series of phases that represent the evolution of a product, from concept through delivery, growth, maturity, and to retirement (longer than the Project Lifecycle) PROJECT VS. PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 40 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  41. 41. CHARACTERISTIC OF PROJECT LIFE CYCLE A generic life cycle structure typically displays the following characteristics:  Cost and staffing levels are low at the start, increase as the work is carried out, and drop rapidly as the project draws to a close.  Risk is greatest at the start of the project. These factors decrease over the life cycle of the project as decisions are reached and as deliverables are accepted.  The ability of stakeholders to influence the final characteristics of the project’s product, without significantly impacting cost and schedule, is highest at the start of the project and decreases as the project progresses toward completion. PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 41 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  42. 42. CHARACTERISTIC OF PROJECT LIFE CYCLE PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 42 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  43. 43. PROJECT PHASE & PHASE GATE Project Phase is a collection of logically related project activities that culminates in the completion of one or more deliverables. Characteristics of Project Phases Phase Gate, is held at the end of a phase. Phase-end reviews are also called phase review, stage gate, kill point, and phase entrance or phase exit. PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 43 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  44. 44. PROJECT MANAGEMENT DATA & INFORMATION Work Performance Data: The raw observations and measurements identified during activities performed to carry out the project work. Examples include reported percent of work physically completed, quality and technical performance measures, start and finish dates of schedule activities, number of change requests, number of defects, actual costs, actual durations, etc. Project data are usually recorded in a Project Management Information System and in project documents. Work Performance Information: The performance data collected from various controlling processes, analyzed in context and integrated based on relationships across areas. Examples of performance information are status of deliverables, implementation status for change requests, and forecast estimates to complete. PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 44 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  45. 45. PROJECT MANAGEMENT DATA & INFORMATION Work Performance Reports: The physical or electronic representation of work performance information compiled in project documents, which is intended to generate decisions or raise issues, actions, or awareness. Examples include status reports, memos, justifications, information notes electronic dashboards, recommendations, and updates.  Raw Data  Analyzing raw data  Reports about Data  Activity Progress  Deliverables Status  Dashboards  Quality Measures  Change Requests Status  KPI  Start and End Dates  Estimated Finish  Graphs  Number of Defects  Suggestions Work Performance Data Work Performance Information Work Performance Reports PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 45 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  46. 46. Project Data, Information, and Report Flow PROJECT MANAGEMENT DATA & INFORMATION PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 46 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  47. 47. PROJECT INFLUENCES Two major categories of influences are enterprise environmental factors (EEFs) and organizational process assets (OPAs). PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 47 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  48. 48. ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Enterprise Environmental Factors (EEFs) refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project.  Can be internal and/or external to the organization.  May enhance or constrain project management options.  May have a positive or negative influence on the outcome. PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 48 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  49. 49. Organizational culture, structure, and governance Geographic distribution of facilities and resources infrastructure information technology software Resource availability Employee capability Marketplace conditions. Social and cultural influences and issues. Legal restrictions. Commercial databases. Academic research. Government or industry standards. Financial considerations. Physical environmental elements External EEFsInternal EEFs ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 49 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  50. 50. ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS Organizational Process Assets (OPAs) are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. These assets influence the management of the project. They Include:  Any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the performing organizations involved in the project that can be used to execute or govern the project.  The organization’s lessons learned from previous projects and historical information  Completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Since the OPAs are internal to the organization, the project team members may be able to update and add to the organizational process assets as necessary throughout the project.They may be grouped into two categories:  Processes, policies, and procedures; and  Organizational knowledge bases. PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 50 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  51. 51. Processes & Procedures Organizational Standards and Policies Organizational Guidelines Templates Tailoring Guidelines and Criteria Organizational Communication Requirements Project Guidelines or Requirements Project Control Guidelines Corporate Knowledge Base Historical Information Lessons Learned Financial Databases Issue and Defect Management Databases Project Files Process Measurement Databases ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 51 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  52. 52. ORGANIZATIONAL GOVERNANCE FRAMEWORKS Rules Policies Procedures NormsRelationships Systems Processes PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 52 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  53. 53. ORGANIZATIONAL INFLUENCE CATEGORY PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 53 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  54. 54. 53 Degree of alignment with organizational objectives Specialization capabilities Span of control, efficiency, and effectiveness Clear path for escalation of decisions Clear line and scope of authority Delegation capabilities Accountability assignment Responsibility assignment Adaptability of design Simplicity of design Efficiency of performance Cost considerations Physical locations Clear communication FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN SELECTING AN ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 54 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  55. 55. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE TYPES PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 55 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  56. 56. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE TYPES PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 56 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  57. 57. PROJECT MANAGEMENT OFFICE (PMO) Project Management Office (PMO) is an organizational structure that standardizes the project-related governance processes and facilitates the sharing of resources, methodologies, tools, and techniques. The responsibilities of a PMO can range from providing project management support functions to the direct management of one or more projects. Types of PMOs in organizations:  Supportive. Supportive PMOs provide a consultative role to projects by supplying templates, best practices, training, access to information, and lessons learned from other projects. This type of PMO serves as a project repository. The degree of control provided by the PMO is low. PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 57 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  58. 58.  Controlling. Controlling PMOs provide support and require compliance through various means. The degree of control provided by the PMO is moderate. Compliance may involve:  Adoption of project management frameworks or methodologies;  Use of specific templates, forms, and tools;  Conformance to governance frameworks.  Directive. Directive PMOs take control of the projects by directly managing the projects. Project managers are assigned by and report to the PMO. The degree of control provided by the PMO is high. PROJECT MANAGEMENT OFFICE (PMO) PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 58 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  59. 59. PROJECT MANAGEMENT OFFICE (PMO) Supportive Controlling Directive PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 59 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  60. 60. A primary function of a PMO is to support project managers in a variety of ways, which may include but are not limited to:  Managing shared resources across all projects administered by the PMO;  Identifying and developing project management methodology, best practices, and standards;  Coaching, mentoring, training, and oversight;  Monitoring compliance with project management standards, policies, procedures, and templates by means of project audits;  Developing and managing project policies, procedures, templates, and other shared documentation (organizational process assets);  Coordinating communication across projects PROJECT MANAGEMENT OFFICE (PMO) PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 60 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  61. 61. A PMO may have the authority to act as an integral stakeholder and a key decision maker throughout the life of each project in order to keep it aligned with the business objectives.The PMO may:  Make recommendations,  Lead knowledge transfer,  Terminate projects, and  Take other actions, as required. PROJECT MANAGEMENT OFFICE (PMO) PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 61 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  62. 62. PROJECT STAKEHOLDERS A stakeholder is an individual, group, or organization that may affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by a decision, activity, or outcome of a project. Internal External Sponsor Customers Resource manager End users Project management office (PMO) Suppliers Portfolio steering committee Shareholders Program manager Regulatory bodies Project managers of other projects Competitors Team members PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 62 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  63. 63. Examples of Project Stakeholders PROJECT STAKEHOLDERS PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 63 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  64. 64. The Project Manager is the person assigned by the performing organization to lead the team responsible for achieving the project objectives. The project manager’s reporting relationships are based on the organizational structure and project governance. In addition to any specific technical skills and general management proficiencies required for the project, project managers should have at least the following attributes:  Knowledge about project management, the business environment, technical aspects, and other information needed to manage the project effectively;  Skills needed to effectively lead the project team, coordinate the work, collaborate with stakeholders, solve problems, and make decisions;  Abilities to develop and manage scope, schedules, budgets, resources, risks, plans, presentations, and reports;  Other attributes required to successfully manage the project, such as personality, attitude, ethics, and leadership. ROLE OF THE PROJECT MANAGER PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 64 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  65. 65. PROJECT MANAGERS INTERPERSONAL SKILLS Project Managers Interpersonal Skills PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 65 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  66. 66. PROJECT MANAGER’S SPHERE OF INFLUENCE Project Managers fulfill numerous roles within their sphere of influence. These roles reflect the project manager’s capabilities and are representative of the value and contributions of the project management profession. PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 66 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  67. 67. The Project Manager stays informed about current industry trends. The project manager takes this information and sees how it may impact or apply to the current projects.These trends include but are not limited to:  Product and technology development;  New and changing market niches;  Standards (e.g., project management, quality management, information security management);  Technical support tools;  Economic forces that impact the immediate project;  Influences affecting the project management discipline;  Process improvement and sustainability strategies THE INDUSTRY TRENDS PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 67 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  68. 68. 1-Technical Project Management Skills  Focus on the critical technical project management elements for each project they manage.  Tailor both traditional and agile tools, techniques, and methods for each project.  Make time to plan thoroughly and prioritize diligently.  Manage project elements, including, but not limited to, schedule, cost, resources, and risks 2- Strategic and Business Management Skills  Explain to others the essential business aspects of a project  Work with the project sponsor, team, and subject matter experts to develop an appropriate project delivery strategy  Implement that strategy in a way that maximizes the business value of the project. PROJECT MANAGER COMPETENCES PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 68 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  69. 69. 3- Leadership Skills  Dealing with People  Qualities and SKILLS of a Leader (Being a visionary, Being optimistic and positive, Being collaborative, Managing relationships and conflict, Communicating  Politics, Power, and Getting Things done PROJECT MANAGER COMPETENCES PMITalentTriangle PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 69 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  70. 70. - Positional (Formal, Authoritative, Legitimate) (e.g., formal position granted in the organization or team); - Informational (e.g., control of gathering or distribution); - Referent (e.g., respect or admiration others hold for the individual,credibility gained); - Situational (e.g., gained due to unique situation such as a specific crisis); - Personal or charismatic (e.g., charm, attraction); - Relational (e.g., participates in networking, connections, and alliances); - Expert (e.g., skill, information possessed;experience, training,education,certification); - Reward-oriented (e.g., ability to give praise, monetary or other desired items); - Punitive or Coercive (e.g., ability to invoke discipline or negative consequences); - Ingratiating (e.g., application of flattery or other common ground to win favor or cooperation); - Pressure-based (e.g., limit freedom of choice or movement for the purpose of gaining compliance to desired action); - Guilt-based (e.g., imposition of obligation or sense of duty); - Persuasive (e.g., ability to provide arguments that move people to a desired course of action); - Avoiding (e.g., refusing to participate). PROJECT MANAGER POWER Expert & Reward Punitive or Coercive PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 70 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  71. 71. COMPARISON OF LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 71 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  72. 72. Laissez-faire Transactional Servant leader Transformational Charismatic Interactional LEADERSHIP STYLES PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 72 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  73. 73. LEADERSHIP STYLES  Laissez-Faire (e.g., allowing the team to make their own decisions and establish their own goals, also referred to as taking a hands-off style);  Transactional (e.g., focus on goals, feedback, and accomplishment to determine rewards; management by exception);  Servant Leader (e.g., demonstrates commitment to serve and put other people first; focuses on other people’s growth, learning, development, autonomy, and well-being; concentrates on relationships, community and collaboration; leadership is secondary and emerges after service);  Transformational (e.g., empowering followers through idealized attributes and behaviors, inspirational motivation, encouragement for innovation and creativity, and individual consideration);  Charismatic (e.g., able to inspire; is high-energy, enthusiastic, self- confident; holds strong convictions);  Interactional (e.g., a combination of transactional, transformational, and charismatic). PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 73 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  74. 74. Personality refers to the individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving.  Authentic (accepts others for what and who they are, show open concern);  Courteous (ability to apply appropriate behavior and etiquette);  Creative (ability to think abstractly, to see things differently, to innovate);  Cultural (measure of sensitivity to other cultures including values, norms, and beliefs);  Emotional (ability to perceive emotions and the information they present and to manage them; measure of interpersonal skills);  Intellectual (measure of human intelligence over multiple aptitudes);  Managerial (measure of management practice and potential);  Political (measure of political intelligence and making things happen);  Service-Oriented (evidence of willingness to serve other people);  Social (ability to understand and manage people);  Systemic (e.g., drive to understand and build systems). PERSONALITY PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 74 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  75. 75. Three Dimensions of Complexity:  Human Behavior: The interplay between diverse individuals and groups.  System Behavior: The interdependencies of components and systems.  Ambiguity: Uncertainty of emerging issues and lack of understanding or confusion. INTEGRATION AND COMPLEXITY Groups Causes Associated Human behavior - Individual behavior. - Behavior of the group, organization and politician. - Communication and control. - Development and organizational design. System Behavior - Complexity of the project product, - Technical and design problems. Ambiguity - Uncertainty. - Emergency. PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 75 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  76. 76. PROJECT MANAGEMENT KNOWLEDGE AREAS  Project Integration Management: Includes the processes and activities to identify, define, combine, unify, and coordinate the various processes and project management activities within the Project Management Process Groups.  Project Scope Management: Includes the processes required to ensure the project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully.  Project Schedule Management: Includes the processes required to manage the timely completion of the project.  Project Cost Management: Includes the processes involved in planning, estimating, budgeting, financing, funding, managing, and controlling costs so the project can be completed within the approved budget.  Project Quality Management: Includes the processes for incorporating the organization’s quality policy regarding planning, managing, and controlling project and product quality requirements, in order to meet stakeholders’ expectations. Triple-Constraints PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 76 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  77. 77. PROJECT MANAGEMENT KNOWLEDGE AREAS  Project Resource Management: Includes the processes to identify, acquire, and manage the resources needed for the successful completion of the project.  Project Communications Management: Includes the processes required to ensure timely and appropriate planning, collection, creation, distribution, storage, retrieval, management, control, monitoring, and ultimate disposition of project information.  Project Risk Management: Includes the processes of conducting risk management planning, identification, analysis, response planning, response implementation, and monitoring risk on a project.  Project Procurement Management: Includes the processes necessary to purchase or acquire products, services, or results needed from outside the project team.  Project Stakeholder Management: Includes the processes required to identify the people, groups, or organizations that could impact or be impacted by the project, to analyze stakeholder expectations and their impact on the project, and to develop appropriate management strategies for effectively engaging stakeholders in project decisions and execution PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 77 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  78. 78. PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESS GROUPS  Initiating Process Group: The process(es) performed to define a new project or a new phase of an existing project by obtaining authorization to start the project or phase.  Planning Process Group: The process(es) required to establish the scope of the project, refine the objectives, and define the course of action required to attain the objectives that the project was undertaken to achieve.  Executing Process Group: The process(es) performed to complete the work defined in the project management plan to satisfy the project requirements.  Monitoring and Controlling Process Group: The process(es) required to track, review, and regulate the progress and performance of the project; identify any areas in which changes to the plan are required; and initiate the corresponding changes.  Closing Process Group: The process(es) performed to formally complete or close a project, phase, or contract. PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 78 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  79. 79. PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESS GROUPS Remember: - Process Groups are not project phases PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 79 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  80. 80. Project Management Process Group and Knowledge Area Mapping Project Management Process Groups & Knowledge Areas PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 80 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  81. 81. Project Management Process Group and Knowledge Area Mapping Project Management Process Groups & Knowledge Areas PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 81 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  82. 82. PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESS GROUPS Process Group InteractionsWithin a Project or Phase PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 82 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  83. 83. PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESSES  Processes used once or at predefined points in the project The processes Develop Project Charter and Close-Project or Phase are examples.  Processes that are performed periodically as needed The process Acquire Resources is performed as resources are needed. The process Conduct Procurements is performed prior to needing the procured item.  Processes that are performed continuously throughout the project The process Define Activities may occur throughout the project life cycle, especially if the project uses rolling wave planning or an adaptive development approach. PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 83 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  84. 84. ROLLING WAVE PLANNING ROLLING WAVE PLANNING is an iterative planning technique in which the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail, while work further in the future is planned at a higher level. It is a form of PROGRESSIVE ELABORATION applicable to work packages, planning packages, and release planning when using an agile or waterfall approach. “During early strategic planning when information is less defined, work packages may be decomposed to the known level of detail. As more is known about the upcoming events in the near term, work packages can be decomposed into activities.” RollingWave Planning Work Package gains more details The closer they are to being current activities PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 84 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE
  85. 85. PMP Exam Preparation; Based on PMBOK 6th Edition Eng. Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE shamilhabet@yahoo.com 85 PMP Exam Preparation; Shamil Habet; MSc; PMP; JPE

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