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Lecturer: CHEA Lim
Department of English
GRAMMAR_CLAUSE Page 1
CLAUSE

Clause is divided into two parts.
- Main clause...
Western University Lecturer: CHEA Lim
Department of English
GRAMMAR_CLAUSE Page2
She is waiting for what she wants.
4 It c...
Western University Lecturer: CHEA Lim
Department of English
GRAMMAR_CLAUSE Page3
II. Relative Pronoun of Adjective Clause:...
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Clause

  1. 1. Lecturer: CHEA Lim Department of English GRAMMAR_CLAUSE Page 1 CLAUSE  Clause is divided into two parts. - Main clause is a group of words which contains a subject and a predicate of its own and completes sense by itself. - Subordinate clause is a group of words which contains a subject and a predicate of its own but does not complete by itself. Subordinate clause is divided into three kinds. - Noun clause - Adjective clause - Adverb clause Main clause and Subordinate clause join together by relative conjunction/pronoun. He said that he was a teacher. (Noun clause) (relative conjunction) This is the book that I want. (Adjective clause) (relative pronoun) It rained while I was reading my book. (Adverb clause) (relative conjunction) NOUN CLAUSE I. Definition: Noun clause is a group of words which contains a subject and a predicate of its own and does the work of noun. I know where he lives. (Noun clause) II. Relative Conjunction of Noun clause: that, how, what, which, where, when, why, who, whom, whose, if/whether He said that he was a teacher. I do not know how he did it. III. Position of Noun clause: There are six positions of Noun clause. 1.It can stand before verb, and its function is subject of verb. What suits you does not suit me. Whether we can start tomorrow or not seems uncertain. 2 It can stand after transitive verb, and its function is object of verb. I want to know where she lives. He promised that he would pay back the debt. She told us that she was very happy. Ask her if dinner is ready. 3 It can stand after preposition, and its function is object of preposition. He laughed at what you said.
  2. 2. Western University Lecturer: CHEA Lim Department of English GRAMMAR_CLAUSE Page2 She is waiting for what she wants. 4 It can stand after linking verb, and its function is complement of linking verb. This is where I live. It seems that it is impossible. 5 It can stand after adjective. I am sure that he will come in a moment. I am very happy that you will be able to come. 6 It can stand after noun or pronoun, and its function is Noun clause in apposition to the noun or the pronoun. Your statement that you found the money in the street will not be believed. The belief that the earth moves round the sun is true. You must not forget this, that the honesty is the best policy. Note:  “That” in Noun clause standing as object of verb or after adjective can be omitted. He said (that) he is a teacher. I am very happy (that) you passed your examination.  If the subject of the Main clause and Subordinate clause is the same, we can sometimes replace “Noun clause” by “Noun phrase”. I know how I do it.  I know how to do it. (Noun clause) (Noun phrase) She does not know what she buys.  She does not know what to buy. (Noun clause) (Noun phrase) ADJECTIVE CLAUSE There are three kinds of Adjective Clauses.  Defining clause  Non defining clause  Connective clause I. Definition: Adjective clause is a group of words which contains a subject and a predicate of its own and does the work of adjective. This is the book which I want. (Main clause) (Subordinate clause/Adj. clause) (Relative pronoun) (Antecedent)
  3. 3. Western University Lecturer: CHEA Lim Department of English GRAMMAR_CLAUSE Page3 II. Relative Pronoun of Adjective Clause: Defining cl. Non-defining cl. Connective cl. Function Person Thing/Ani. Person Thing/Ani. Person Thing/Ani. Subj. of v. Obj. of v. Obj. of prep. Possessive who,that who(m),that who(m),that whose which,that which,that which,that of which …,who… …,who(m)… …,who(m)… …,whose… …,which… …,which… …,which… …,of which… …,who… …,who(m)… …,who(m)… …,whose… …,which… …,which… …,which… Note: We can use “whose” instead of “of which” in some cases. III. Function of Relative Pronoun: In adjective clause relative pronoun has two functions. 1. It is used to replace “noun/pronoun” standing before. (Noun/pronoun is called “antecedent”.) 2. It is used to join “main clause” and “subordinate clause”. This is the book which I want. DEFINING CLAUSE I. Definition: Defining clause is an adjective clause which explains or describes its antecedent. 1 Subject of verb for person (who, that). He is the man who/that robbed the bank yesterday. (adjective clause) She is a girl who/that wanted to kill herself yesterday. 2 Object of verb for person (who(m), that) He is a boy who(m)/that I like. She is a girl who(m)/that he wants to marry. 3 Object of preposition for person (who(m), that) It’s my brother who(m)/that he is speaking to. He is the man who(m)/that she is interested in. 4 Possessive for person (whose) He is the man whose wife died of road accident. She is the girl whose boyfriend lives near me. 5 Subject of verb for thing and animal (which, that) Rolls Royce is the car which/that is the most expensive. In my house there is a cat which/that catches the mouse every day. 6 Object of verb for thing and animal (which, that) This is the book which/that I want.
  4. 4. Western University Lecturer: CHEA Lim Department of English GRAMMAR_CLAUSE Page4 This is the cat which/that my friend loves. 7 Object of preposition for thing and animal (which, that) This is the film which/that I am interested in. It is the dog which/that I am afraid of. 8 Possessive for thing and animal (of which) It is the story of which the writer was dead last year. It is Ky’s dog of which the tail is long. IV. Note 1 If relative pronoun is object of verb or preposition we can omit it and it is called contact clause. He is the boy whom I like. He is the boy I like. This is the book which I want. This is the book I want. He is the man whom I spoke to. He is the man I spoke to. It is the dog which I am afraid of. It is the dog I am afraid of. 2 If relative pronoun is object of preposition, we can put it (preposition) at the beginning of subordinate clause, but we can only use “whom” for person and “which” for thing and animal. He is the man who(m)/that I spoke to. He is the man to whom I spoke. It is the dog which/that I am afraid of. It is the dog of which I am afraid. 3 In adjective clause subordinate clause can stand after main clause sometimes in the middle of main clause. He is the man whom I like. (After man clause) The girl whom I love is beautiful. (In the middle of main clause) 4 Position of Relative Pronoun Relative pronoun must follow its antecedent. The book which I want is on the table. The book is on the table which I want. 5 If main clause contains “superlative degree, ordinal number, quantitative adjective and compound pronoun (as an antecedent), we can only use relative pronoun “that”.
  5. 5. Western University Lecturer: CHEA Lim Department of English GRAMMAR_CLAUSE Page5  Superlative degree He is the most patient man that I have ever seen. She is the best student that I have ever seen.  Ordinal number China is the first country that I am going to visit. She is the first girl that I do love.  Quantitative adjective Money is the only thing that I need. I have few books that I can lend to her. He has many plans that he offers to us. They are all merchandises that we export.  Compound pronoun Someone Anyone Everyone No one Somebody Anybody Everybody Nobody Something Anything Everything Nothing Somewhere Anywhere Everywhere Nowhere There is nothing that I can do for you. Is there anything that can be used to open this can? There is everything that we want. 8 9 6 “but” can be relative pronoun. It stands instead of “who…not” or “which…not”. There are no pupils but wish to continue at university. There are no men here but wish to be a good man. There is not one of us but wishes to help you. 7 If antecedent is a noun expressing the place, we can use relative pronoun “where” instead of “on which, to which, in which and at which”. This is the beach which I lie on. on which I lie. where I lie. This is the village which I live in. in which I live. where I live. 8 If antecedent is a noun expressing the time (time, day, week, month, year…etc.), we can use relative pronoun “when” instead of “on which, at which, in which”. Sunday is the day which I have no work to do on. on which I have no work to do. when I have no work to do. April is the month which we celebrate New Year Festival in. in which we celebrate New Year Festival. when we celebrate New year Festival 10 9 If antecedent is a noun expressing a reason (reason, cause, motive…etc.), we can use 11 relative pronoun “why” instead of “for which”. The reason for which she cried is well known. why she cried is well known. 10 Position of relative pronoun “of which” (possessive for thing and animal) The tree of which the leaves are yellow is dying.
  6. 6. Western University Lecturer: CHEA Lim Department of English GRAMMAR_CLAUSE Page6 The tree the leaves of which are yellow is dying. The table of which the leg is broken is mine. The table the leg of which is broken is mine. NON-DEFINING CLAUSE I. Definition: Non-defining clause does not explain its antecedent, but it says some more about it (antecedent). Note: 1. In Non-Defining clause we have to use a comma (,) between main clause and subordinate clause. 2. In Non-Defining clause although relative pronoun is object of verb or preposition, we can’t omit it. 3. Relative pronoun “that” cannot be used in Non-Defining Ex: Peter, who had been driving/had driven all day, suggested stopping at next town. Mr. Brown, whom everyone suspected, turned out to be innocent. She introduced me to her husband, whom I hadn’t met before. Mr. Jones, for whom I was working, was very generous. Ann, whose children are at school all day, is trying to get a job. The 8.15 train, which is usually punctual, is late today. His house, for which he paid $1.000, is now worth $50.000. Remark: “all, both, few, most, several, some …etc of whom / which” can be used as relative pronoun in Non-Defining clause. Ex: Her sons, both of whom work abroad, ring her up every week. He went with a group of people, few of whom were correctly equipped for such a climb. CONNECTIVE CLAUSE I. Definition: Connective clause does not explain or describe its antecedent but continues the story. Note: 1. In connective clause we have to use comma between main clause and subordinate clause. 2. Relative pronoun “that” and “of which” cannot be used in connective clause. 3. Although relative pronoun is object, it cannot be omitted. Ex1: He ate a fungus, which made him ill. I told Peter, who said it was his business. I threw the ball to Sok, who threw it to Pheak. We went with Dara, whose bike broke down before we were half way there. He drank beer, which made him fat. Ex2: He said he had no money, which was not true. It rained heavily, which flooded the area. The clock struck thirteen, which made everyone laugh. ADVERB CLAUSE I. Definition: Adverb clause is a group of words which contains a subject and a predicate of its own and does the work of adverb. I was writing a letter to my friend when it rained.  Adverb clause is divided into eleven kinds. 1) Adverb clause of time 2) Adverb clause of place
  7. 7. Western University Lecturer: CHEA Lim Department of English GRAMMAR_CLAUSE Page7 3) Adverb clause of manner 4) Adverb clause of reason 5) Adverb clause of result 6) Adverb clause of purpose 7) Adverb clause of concession/contrast 8) Adverb clause of comparison 9) Adverb clause of reservation 10) Adverb clause of condition 11) Adverb clause of strong contrast 1.Adverb clause of time Relative conjunction adverb clause of time: when whenever while since as till as soon as until before as long as after so long as all the time (that) by the time (that) at the time (that) I knew him well while I was in London. The thief was caught as he was getting off a taxi. I have been here since the sun rose. She will live here till/until the last day comes. We talk of time whenever we meet. He had died before the doctor arrived. I was born after the Second World War had ended. As soon as the bell rings, the student will go home. I did not see you so long as I was in Paris. As long as he is alive, he still loves her. I am very happy all the time (that) I live with her. He will be working in the garden by the time (that) I reach his house. 2.Adverb clause of place Relative conjunction adverb clause of place: where wherever as far as as near as I want to die where I was born. I will go wherever she goes. The young boy ran as far as he could. Billy drove his car as near the cliff as he could. 3.Adverb clause of manner Relative conjunction adverb clause of manner: as as though as if He works as a machine does. He treats me as if I were his wife. (contrary to the fact in the present) He acted as though he had been a doctor. (contrary to the fact in the past)
  8. 8. Western University Lecturer: CHEA Lim Department of English GRAMMAR_CLAUSE Page8 4.Adverb clause of reason Relative conjunction adverb clause of reason: because due to the fact that as owing to the fact that since in view of the fact that now that because of the fact that seeing that on account of the fact that whereas inasmuch as He is unhappy because he is poor. He has decided to come as he loves music. Since you have worked very hard, you will certainly succeed. Now that / Seeing that he was ill, he could not come to work. Whereas he disobeyed the law, he was punished. Inasmuch as he did not finish working, he was not paid money. He was punished due to the fact that he disobeyed the law. He failed owing to the fact that he was sick. I agree in view of the fact that your plans are good. I love her because of the fact that she is beautiful. On account of the fact that the country was at war, all the young men were drafted. 5 Adverb clause of result Relative conjunction adverb clause of result: so that so + adj. + (that) adv. so + many + plural countable noun + that few so + much + uncountable noun + that little so + adj. + a/an + singular countable noun + that such + adj. + plural countable noun + that uncountable noun such + a/an + adj. + singular countable noun + that He won the national lottery yesterday so that he can now buy a motor bike. She is so weak that she cannot work hard. She sang so beautifully that everybody applauded her sound. They have got so many houses that they can live in any of them. He drank so much wine that he is ill. It is so hard a job that I cannot bear doing it. She has such pretty hair that we enjoy looking at it. They are such good servants that we let them go home every year. It is such a hot day that I cannot go on working. 6 Adverb clause of purpose Relative conjunction adverb clause of purpose: so that for the purpose that that in case ( that ) so for fear that in order that lest
  9. 9. Western University Lecturer: CHEA Lim Department of English GRAMMAR_CLAUSE Page9 Note: - Present / Future + so that + can, will, may, shall + v1 - Past + in order that + could + would, might, should + v1 - Present / Future + in order that + may, shall + v1 - Past + in order that + might, should + v1 - Present + in case (that) + Present / should + v1 - Past + in case (that) + Past / should + v1 - Present / Past + lest + should + v1 I study hard so that I may pass my exam. We eat that we may live. She comes so she sees her mother. Some people live in order that they may eat. He took the medicine for the purpose that he might recover. Don’t let him go to near the bank of the river in case (that) he falls in. I helped him for fear that he failed his exam. I am telling you this lest you should make a mistake. 7 Adverb clause of concession / contrast Relative conjunction adverb clause of concession / contrast: though in spite of the fact (that) although despite the fact (that) even though not with standing the fact that even if however + adj. / adv. admitting adj. / adv. + as not with standing that adj. / adv. + though considering that He is honest though he is poor. Although he is stupid, he does his work well. I will get there even though /even if I have to walk all day. Admitting that he was poor, he decided not to cancel the wedding. He went on working not with standing that the sun was going to set. She is going there in spite of the fact that I told her it was very dangerous. She still becomes Prime Minister despite the fact that she is not expert at economics. He could pass his exam not withstanding the fact that he did not study hard. However hard he tried, he never seems to succeed. However difficult the problem is, she will not give up. Much as I admire him, I dislike him doing that thing. Rich as he is, he is never happy. Note: More relative conjunctions adverb clause of concession / contrast whenever whatever wherever no matter why whether … or not Whenever he arrives, he will be punished. Whatever you may say, I still think I did the right thing. Wherever you put it, I could find it easily. No matter why he did that thing, he must be punished. Whatever games he plays, he cannot do them well. Whether he likes it or not, he must take it.
  10. 10. Western University Lecturer: CHEA Lim Department of English GRAMMAR_CLAUSE Page10 8 Adverb clause of comparison Relative conjunction adverb clause of comparison: as + adj. + as as + adv + as comparative degree + than such + a / an + singular countable noun + as such + plural countable noun + as such + uncountable noun + as He is as clever as I am. John ran as fast as Billy did. He is not as tall as I am. He did not write as fast as I did. He loves her more than I do. You worked harder than I did. I have no such a pen as you do. There is not such a motor bike as you need. There are not such things as you need. I do not have such loving as you think. Note: The + comparative + clause, the + comparative + clause The more you learn, the more you get knowledge. Sometimes clause is omitted. The sooner, the better. 9 Adverb clause of reservation Relative conjunction adverb clause of reservation except (that) except for the fact that She is a very good girl except (that) she rarely talks. That was a very good concert except for the fact that the singing was very bad. 10 Adverb clause of condition Relative conjunction adverb clause of condition: If unless if only but that supposing (that) in the event (that) providing (that) in case (that) provided (that) as long as / so long as on condition (that) on the understanding that (We use “unless” when main clause is negative or implies negative meaning.) Note: Conditional sentences Main clause Subordinate clause Real condition - present simple - present simple - imperative sentence Possible condition - future simple - present simple Impossible condition - would + v1 - past simple (subjunctive mood) Unreal condition - would +have + v3 - past perfect If the water boils, it changes into steam. If you need anything, don’t forget to tell my servant.
  11. 11. Western University Lecturer: CHEA Lim Department of English GRAMMAR_CLAUSE Page11 If you study hard, you will pass your exam. If I were a bird, I would fly to you now. If I had enough money, I would buy a car. If I had met him yesterday, he would have given me some money. I would go with you if I were not busy. If only he had not gone to work there, he would not have been killed. Supposing (that) it rains, what shall we do? (possible) Provided (that) I am free, I shall come. (possible) You may take this book from the library on condition (that) you return it next week. (real) I shall be so happy on the understanding that you all become my friends. (possible) We will not have the picnic unless the weather is good. He would come with us but that he were busy. Do not let anybody do it for him in the event (that) he fails to come. In case (that) I forget, please remind me about that. You may borrow my bicycle as long as you keep it clean. (real) 11 Adverb clause of strong contrast Relative conjunction adverb clause of strong contrast: while whereas While I sympathize with your point of view, I cannot accept it. Remark: “Noun Clause” in apposition is different from “Adjective Clause” with “that” because in Noun Clause in apposition relative conjunction “that” is not “subject” or “object”. Compare: The belief that the earth moves round the sun is true. (Noun clause in apposition) (“that” is not a subject of verb.) The belief that says the earth moves round the sun is true. (Adj. clause) (“that” is a subject of verb.) Compare the three sentences with “where”: 1) She wants to know where she was born. (N. Clause) 2) She wants to go to the village where she was born. (Adj. Clause) 3) She wants to die where she was born. (Adv. Clause) Compare some sentences with “as”: 1) As I love her, I want to marry her. (reason) 2) He is very pleased as he has passed his exam. (reason) 3) As you finish (have finished) your work, you may go home.(time) 4) They acted as they loved each other. (manner) Y

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