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# Statistics:Fundamentals Of Statistics

Fundamentals Of Statistics-Definition of statistics,Descriptive and Inferential Statistics,Major Types of Descriptive Statistics,Statistical data analysis

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### Statistics:Fundamentals Of Statistics

1. 1. Shitha Francis Assistant Professor Department of Statistics St. Mary’s College, Thrissur FUNDAMENTALS OF STATISTICS
2. 2. Fundamentals of Statistics, Shitha Francis , St.Mary’s College Definition of statistics a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of masses of numerical data collection of quantitative data
3. 3. Fundamentals of Statistics, Shitha Francis , St.Mary’s College Population and Sample Population is the collection of all individuals or items under consideration in a statistical study Sample is that part of the population from which information is collected.
4. 4. Fundamentals of Statistics, Shitha Francis , St.Mary’s College  Descriptive statistics consist of methods for organizing and summarizing information  Inferential statistics consist of methods for drawing and measuring the reliability of conclusions about population based on information obtained from a sample of the population Descriptive and Inferential Statistics
5. 5. Fundamentals of Statistics, Shitha Francis , St.Mary’s College Major Types of Descriptive Statistics 1. Measures of Frequency: Count, Percent, Frequency. 2.Measures of Central Tendency : Mean, Median, and Mode. 3.Measures of Dispersion or Variation :Range, Variance, Standard Deviation. 4.Measures of Position : Percentile ,Quartile, Decils
6. 6. Fundamentals of Statistics, Shitha Francis , St.Mary’s College 1.point estimation 2.interval estimation 3.hypothesis testing which are all based on probability theory.
7. 7. Fundamentals of Statistics, Shitha Francis , St.Mary’s College A parameter is an unknown numerical summary of the population. A statistic is a known numerical summary of the sample which can be used to make inference about parameters. Parameters and Statistics
8. 8. Fundamentals of Statistics, Shitha Francis , St.Mary’s College The goal of statistics is to gain understanding from data. Any data analysis should contain following steps: Step1. Formulate the research problem Step2. Define population and sample Step3. Collect the data Step4. Do descriptive data analysis Step5. Use appropriate statistical methods to solve the research problem Step6. Report the results Statistical data analysis
9. 9. Fundamentals of Statistics, Shitha Francis , St.Mary’s College Variables A characteristic that varies from one person or thing to another is called a variable, i.e. a variable is any characteristic that varies from one individual member of the population to another.
10. 10. Fundamentals of Statistics, Shitha Francis , St.Mary’s College Types of Variable  Quantitative (or numerical) variables  Qualitative (or non numerical) variables
11. 11. Fundamentals of Statistics, Shitha Francis , St.Mary’s College Example height, weight, number of siblings, sex, marital status, and eye color.  The first three of these variables yield numerical information  last three yield non-numerical information
12. 12. Fundamentals of Statistics, Shitha Francis , St.Mary’s College Quantitative variables can be classified as either discrete or continuous. a variable is discrete if it can assume only a finite numbers of values or as many values as there are integers . Continuous variables. Quantities such as length, weight, or temperature can in principle be measured arbitrarily accurately. There is no indivible unit.
13. 13. Fundamentals of Statistics, Shitha Francis , St.Mary’s College Scales 1. nominal scale 2. ordinal scale 3. interval scale or ratio scale
14. 14. Fundamentals of Statistics, Shitha Francis , St.Mary’s College Reference 1.Gupta and Kapur: Introduction to mathematical statistics 2.Statistical Wikipidia