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A School of Philosophy and Suicide: Udayan and Adrian

  1. Suicide of Adrian and Udayan: (act of cowardice or exercisers of philosophical choice?) Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University Department of English Semester 4 Enrollment no. 2069108420200018 Paper : The New Literature Batch year: 2019 - 21 Presented by: Ruchi Joshi
  2. Characterizing the suicide? • Suicide is the act or an instance of taking one's own life voluntarily and intentionally. (Suicide) • Suicide as a symptom- both of individual psychopathology and social disorganization. (Cholbi, Suicide)
  3. Problem of perception with suicide • Moral problem • Religious problem • Historical western thoughts • Scientific problem Scientific Problems Egoistic suicide Altruistic Suicide Anomic Suicide
  4. Self destruction (self cause death is not suicide) Are these deaths suicide?
  5. School of Philosophy and Suicide (There are two main philosophical issues regarding suicide) Issues first, whether suicide is morally permissible, and if so, in what circumstances whether a person who knows that someone is contemplating or attempting suicide has an obligation to intervene and if so, how strong that obligation is. Common philosophical opinion of suicide since modernization reflected a spread in cultural beliefs of western societies that suicide is immoral and unethical. One popular argument is that many of the reasons for committing suicide —such as depression, emotional pain, or economic hardship—are transitory and can be ameliorated by therapy and through making changes to some aspects of one's life.
  6. Suicide: A Philosophy A philosophical learning (What is to do something intentionally?) • Edwin Schneidman defines suicide as “the conscious act of self-induced annihilation, best understood as a multidimensional malaise in a needful individual who defines an issue for which the act is perceived as the best solution”
  7. Neglect of civic life and duty Unnatural act and also as all offense against the state
  8. Socrates Lucretius Epictetus Camus Wittgenstein Noteworthy philosophers who supported philosophy of suicide
  9. From absurd to ‘philosophical suicide’ (1) Physical Suicide (2) Philosophical suicide (3) Accepting the absurd Kinds of suicide According to Durkheim…
  10. Goes beyond the deontological argument from the sanctity of life two philosophical characters – Adrian and Udayan The simplest moral outlook on suicide holds that it is necessarily wrong because human life is sacred. Though this position is often associated with religious thinkers, Ronald Dworkin (1993) points out that atheists may appeal to this claim as well. According to this ‘sanctity of life’ view, human life is inherently valuable and precious, demanding respect from others and reverence for oneself. (Cholbi Suicide) Finally, it is not obvious that adequate respect for the sanctity of human life prohibits ending a life, whether by suicide or other means. Justifying from both the characters…
  11. Reading Philosophical Suicide from… Adrian Finn Udayan
  12. What if instead of Adrian, Tony had committed suicide? Is there any chance of happening this? If yes, Is there any possibility that it would not been out of unhappiness? If Tony commit suicide at the end of the novel out of remorse, is it really possible to look at philosophically? Before analyzing Adrian and Udayan’s suicide as philosophical let’s assume that… What if instead of Udayan, Aniket had committed suicide? (here this question reaches to much depth as Aniket is not character like Tony, Aniket’s philosophy towards life is also quite rational) Is there any chance of happening this this? Is it possible that it would not been out of unhappiness because it is quite difficult to look at by wearing this lens as it is also difficult to assume even as it is nearly impossible to character like Aniket to reach state where suicide becomes philosophically compulsion?
  13. How Udayan’s death is suicide? • Doesn’t commit suicide directly • His making of choice to meet patients of Radio Active at Japan • His denial to medical treatment • His behavior in car when sunlight irritates him yet he keeps mum • Do not commit suicide but invites or just waits • Ultimately chooses not to live
  14. Idealizing rationality in Adrian and Udayan’s Suicide • Even moral permissibility • It depends on how these questions are ought to be answered (Peretz The Illusion of 'Rational' Suicide) • Both kill their selves but not out of emotional force but they justifies also and with their own responsibility • not out of carelessness What if Adrian and Udayan chose it out of rationality?
  15. • Libertarian views and the right to suicide • Exercise right to noninterference • Relation to body • For example, What’s wrong if any woman is in need of money and owns it by the means of prostitution – but society, religion and morals will prove it wrong! • Is it really slut or act of cowardice or compulsion of exercising that choice?
  16. Adrian and Udayan’s Suicide as a philosophical and moral duty • Philosophical arguments against and in favor of suicide (Kehinde and Austin PHILOSOPHICAL PERCEPTIONS OF SUICIDE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE SANCTITY OF LIFE) • Self destruction out of happiness Adrian : His last days were happy Udayan : dies in the absence of any regret (Udayan’s last will and words which are written by Amrita in hospital)
  17. Death with dignity Adrian and Udayan’s travel ( School of Philosophy and Suicide) • End v/s conclusion • Adrian and Udayan’s suicide will be tempting to say that suicide is any self- caused death, this account is vulnerable to obvious counterexamples. • If we refuse to adopt the notion of rational suicide of Adrian and Udayan, we fail to honor the moral imperative of allowing individuals intolerable and irremediable circumstances their fundamental right to die. • Both are cautious and not confuse in philosophizing about suicide which is an attempt to bring maximum rationality to bear, with choosing suicide as a cause of action.
  18. Social, utilitarian and role-based argument Utilitarian views holds that we have a moral duty to maximize happiness- from which it follows that when all act of suicide will produce more happiness than will remaining alive- then that suicide is not just permitted but required! Thus, Adrian and Udayan require an honor. Here, suicide itself becomes an honor. Adrian and Udayn fulfil moral duty.
  19. Adrian and Udayan: (suicide, virtue and life’s meaning) Kant’s opposition and Bogen’s argument ‘Bogen’ observes that even when we have adequately determined that a given act of suicide is morally and philosophically permissible, question remains about whether that act represents ‘the best way to live and to end one’s life’ Do you find meaning even in the self killing of Udayan and Adrian? Meaning lies in how it is answered Solves major conflict between knowing and acting on it
  20. Victory over life “Some dispositions or temperaments may never be morally comfortable with such a choice like suicide, which they would regard as cowardly, disloyal, or fundamentally irrational. Within the framework of an ethics of virtue similar to the one sketched here, the act of suicide may indeed be the most courageous, loving, or flirting thing to do, and for that reason morally correct.” (KLINEFELTER THE MORALITY OF SUICIDE)
  21. Are you coward? Do you still consider suicide as a act of cowardice? If not, is suicide only answer to prove courage in philosophy?
  22. Work cited • Barnes, Julian. The Sense of an Ending. Vintage, 2017. • Cholbi, Michael. “Suicide.” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University, 21 July 2017, • Kaufmann, Walter. “Existentialism and Death.” Chicago Review, vol. 13, no. 2, 1959, pp. 75–93. JSTOR, Accessed 24 Apr. 2021. • Kehinde, Obasola, and Omomia O. Austin. “PHILOSOPHICAL PERCEPTIONS OF SUICIDE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE SANCTITY OF LIFE.” Global Journal of Arts Humanities and Social Sciences, vol. Vol.2, Dec. 2014, pp. 47–62.,;_ylu=Y29sbwNzZzMEcG9zAzEEdnRpZAMEc2VjA3Ny/RV=2/RE=16193191 04/RO=10/ Implications-for-the-Sanctity-of-Life.pdf/RK=2/RS=kbj5bw6vy53zsVs40ZYZ2HLanpA-. • KLINEFELTER, DONALD S. “THE MORALITY OF SUICIDE.” Soundings: An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol. 67, no. 3, 1984, pp. 336– 354. JSTOR, Accessed 24 Apr. 2021. • Noon, Georgia. “On Suicide.” Journal of the History of Ideas, vol. 39, no. 3, 1978, pp. 371–386. JSTOR, Accessed 24 Apr. 2021. • Peretz, David. “The Illusion of 'Rational' Suicide.” The Hastings Center Report, vol. 11, no. 6, 1981, pp. 40–42. JSTOR, Accessed 24 Apr. 2021. • Wenquan, WU. On the Motif of Death in Julian Barnes’ The Sense of an Ending. Canadian Social Science, 2015,;_ylu=Y29sbwNzZzMEcG9zAzEEdnRpZAMEc2VjA3Ny/RV=2/RE=161932844 5/RO=10/ • “Suicide.” Merriam-Webster, Merriam-Webster, Reference