BIOLOGICALATTRIBUTES AND FEEDING EFFICIENCY OF
CHRYSOPERLA CARNEA (GREEN LACEWING) (NEUROPTERA
CHRYSOPIDAE) AGAINST SUGARCANE MEALY BUG
DEPARTMENT OF PLANT PROTECTION
FACULTY OF CROP PROTECTION SCIENCES
THE UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE
Mir Abdul Qayoom
Under Supervision: Dr. Zelle Huma
The common Green Lacewings, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens)
(Neuroptera:Chrysopidae) is an important bio agent mostly employed
for immatures of soft bodied insects (Hassanpour et al, 2021)
The day by day increasing resistence of insect pest against chemical
pesticide allows researchers to introduce bio agents against group of
insect pest (Sajjad et al, 2021).
C. carnea larvae has voracious hunting against mealy bug. (Radadia et
The mealy bug and other scale insect are responsible for major loss in
crops(Ahad et al, 2015).
The pink sugarcane mealy bug Saccharicoccus sacchari (cockerel 1985)
(Hemiptera: Psodococoidea) are main risk for all sugarcane growing
regions (Vidya, 2018).
Their attack starts from roots of newly planted cane and establish their
colony as plant grows (Tohamy et al, 2008).
The infestation leads death of shoots via decreasing weight up to 13%
(Gamal EL-Dein et al, 2009).
Damaage starts from sap sucking and resulting sooty mold by
honey dew secretion (Charles et al ,2006).
They transmit (SCBV) sugarcane bacilium viral disease(Victoria,
Also causes colletotricum disease called root stock (Abbas et al
2010; Sharma and Tamta ,2015).
Un able to control chemically due to their protective waxy layer on
Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) belongs to family Poaceae
is the main cash crop which is being grown in the tropic and sub
tropic region of the world (Khaliq, 2002).
It is an big energy source for alkaline fuel and vital things such as
paper, chip board, sugar and paints (Junejo et al, 2009).
Grown 107 countries with per anum production 1333 million tons
and Pakistan comes at fifth largest producer (PSMA 2018).
This crop is an huge risk against 1300 insect invading species (Hashmi
Introducing of resistant varieties is an other effective method to save
the crop productivity (Karthikeyan et al, 2012)
To identify biological
attributes of green
carnea) reared on
sugarcane mealy bugs
To evaluate the
population density of
variety of Pakistan
under laboratory and
To evaluate feeding
efficacy of C. carnea
against mealy bugs
under lab condition.
The research study were conducted on Biological attributes and feeding
efficacy of Chrysoperla carnea (Green lace wing) against sugarcane Mealybug
(Saccharicoccus sacchari) crawlers. Furthermore The Research studies were carried
out on the evaluation of Sugarcane approved varieties collected from Punjab, KPK,
Sindh and Balochistan against Sugarcane Mealy bug under screen house condition at
Insectary Bio control labs IPMP-IPEP-NARC.
Maintenance of Host plant for rearing sugarcane mealy bug S. sacchari
Initialy S. sacchari mealybugs were collected from infested crop sown at
insectry research field and stock culture was maintained on Punna sugarcane variety
already sown and existed under glass house at Insectary Bio-control labs
Rearing of Chrysoperla carnea larvae and Adult
Initially male and female C. carnea were captured from already established
culture at insectry
Allowed in adult rearing cages about 20 cm width and 35 cm length with 2mm
holes in side walls for proper ventilation.
The top of the cage were covered with black sheacth for egg production and the
eggs were harvested with razor.
As the larvae emerges they were fed upon S. sacchari mealy bug crawlers till the
pupae were collected and kept in adult cages to become adults.
Exp#1: To study the biological attributes of Chrysoperla carnea Fed on
sugarcane mealy bug crawlers under laboratory condition
(a) Biological attributes of immature developmentall duration
100 no of C. Carnea eggs were collected from already maintained culture
20 no of 1st instar larvae were kept separately inside transparent vails (1/5" W,
2/1" L) covered with muslin cloth.
No of 3rd instar of S. sacchari mealy bug crawlers were provided daily and the
moulting duration were checked daily till larvea enter into pupal stage.
(b) Biological attributes of adult developmental duration
10 pairs of newly one day old male and female were collected from stock culture
maintained on S. sacchari crawlers and kept in medium rearing cage for breeding
The adult were provided artificial diet consist of consists of yeast+sugar+honey+
water in ratio (2:1:1:6) .
The lab condition were kept constant with 26±1ºc temperature and60±5 relative
The observation was done on each 24 hours per each replicate till the adult
1st to 3rd instar larval duration
Total larval duration
Pre-pupal and pupal period (days)
Period from Egg to adult duration (days)
Post oviposition period
No of eggs per female
No of eggs /female/day
Total male and female longevity
Exp#2 : Feeding efficacy of C. carnea larval instars feed on sugarcane
Mealybug S. sacchari crawlers under laboratory condition.
20 no of 1st instar larvae were kept in vials and counted no of S.
sacchari crawlers were provided daily.
The no of unconsumed crawlers were checked after each 24 hour and
the moulting were checked also to verify C. carnea larval stage.
Number of consumed mealy bug crawllers per each larval stage of C.
Total number of consumed crawlers per each larvae.
C. CARNEA FEEDING ON
MEALY BUG S. SACCHARI
All the collected data were analyzed through statistical software
by appropriate RCBD and CRD design of Statistix 8.1 version
and mean was compared using Least significant Difference
(LSD) test at 5% level of significance (Steel and Torrie, 1984).
Exp#3 :To evaluate the population density of Pink sugarcane mealy bug S. sacchari
on different approved varieties under lab and screen house condition.
this experiment was conducted on the evaluation of ten sugarcane varities
;CPF-234, CPF-246, CPF-247, CPF-248, CPF-249, CPF-250, CPF-252, HSF-240,
US-633 AND PUNNA against Mealy bug infestation. This experiment was conducted
on screen house and lab both controlled condition.
(a) Population dynamics of female adult mealy bug on different sugarcane
varieties under screen house controlled condition.
Five sections of each variety were selected and ten no of sugarcane mealybug
crawlers were left by artificial insimulation per each replication in the month of
Data was recorded after each 20 days with repitive observation on daily bases by
counting no of female adults.
(b) Population dynamic and duration of female adult mealy bug from F1 to F2
under Lab condition.
At first the single plant of ten different varieties were selected
After selecting verity each plant were cutted down into three sections about
eight inches along with leafy part having two nodes.
The cutted cane were dipped in fungicide solution of phenyl mercuric acetate and
the cut ends sealed with paraffin to retard desiccation.
The ten no of S. sacchari crwalers were inoculated per each replication to find
out the capability of each colony establishment per each varity by counting no of
adult and adaptation level on different varieties
The method of was followed for this experiment was by (Uichanco ,1961)
No of female S. sacchari mealy bug infestation per each varity in screen house
Month vise population growth in screen house
Adult female population of S. sacchari in F1 under lab condition
The duration from F1 to F2
No of S. sacchari female from F1 to F2
All the collected data were analyzed through statistical software by
appropriate RCBD and CRD design of Statistix 8.1 version and mean was
compared using Least non significant Difference (LSD) test at 5% level of
significance (Steel and Torrie, 1984)
stages of C. carnea
period (days) ±SE
Range immature duration
Incubation stage 3.29±0.88 ef 2.5 4.0
1st instar 3.62±0.09 e 3.1 4.4
2nd instar 2.71 ±0.04 f 2.4 3.1
3rd instar 4.74 ± 0.07 d 3.9 5.2
Total larvae 11.08 ±0.10 b 10.4 11.9
Pre-Pupa 1.97±0.05 g 1.3 2.5
Pupa 7.25±0.20 c 6.7 11.0
Egg to adult 23.6 ± 0.30 a 22.2 28.5
LSD values 95% 4.285
Table 4.1 Mean Developmental period of immature stages of Chrysoperla carnea
feeding on sugarcane mealybug under laboratory condition.
Reproductive stage of
period (days) ±SE
Range of reproductive
Pre-oviposition time 6.2±0.24 d 5.0 7.0
Oviposition time 23.2±6.27c 11.0 32.0
Post-oviposition time 5.6±0.22 d 5.0 7.0
No of eggs per female 286.6±9.57 a 240.0 330.0
No of eggs per female per day 25.8±0.67c 24.0 30.0
Female longevity 35.5±0.41b 34.0 37.0
Male longevity 31.2±0.57 bc 28.0 34.0
LSD values ≤0.05 1.999
Table 4.2 Biological observation and developmental duration of adult
stages of C. carnea reared on artificial diet under lab condition
Table 4.3 Mean feeding ±SE of Chrysoperla carnea fed on sugarcane mealybug crawlers under
stage of C.
Crawlers of S. sacchari
Mean feeding ±SE Minimum feeding Maximum
1st instar 19.05±0.56d 14.0 24.0
2nd instar 51.10±0.44c 48.0 55.0
3rd instar 159.30±1.22b 150.0 172.0
Larvae 229.45±1.46a 222.0 242.0
LSD values 95% 1.992
Table 4.4 Mean month wise population dynamics of sugarcane mealy bug in screen
house condition on selected 10 varities
Monthly Adult female population±SE
MAY JUNE JULLY AUGUST SEPTEMBE
2.40±0.24E 35.80±3.16 D 47.00±1.22D 63.00±4.35
Table 4.5 Mean adult female population of S. sacchari in screen house condition on selected 10 varities.
S. No. Varieties Population dynamic of
on different varieties
1 CPF-234 30.85±3.57 80.0 2.00
2 CPF-246 174.6±29.51 700.0 4.00
3 CPF-247 170.9±24.8 620.0 4.00
4 CPF-248 144.5±25.01 530.0 3.0
5 CPF-249 132.4±22.21 540.0 3.0
6 CPF-250 183.7±31.33 800.0 3.00
7 CPF-252 138.8±22.15 500.0 3.00
8 HSF-240 41.62±5.57 120.0 2.00
9 PUNNA 374.7±60.33 1400.0 4.00
10 US-633 231.0±39.86 1000.0 3.00
Table 4.6 Population of adult female S. sacchari on different varieties under controlled condition and
observation of time difference from F1 to F2 generation.
Varieties No of Adult
Days No of adult
F2 Adult Range
Min Max Min Max Min Max
1 CPF-234 0.00±0.00D 0.00 0.00 ------ ----- ----- ------- ------- -------
2 CPF-246 2.66±0.67 BC 2.00 4.00 28.0±1.00 A 27.0 29.0 70.0±26.4B 30.0 120.00
3 CPF-247 2.00±0.57 C 1.00 3.00 28.33±0.33 A 28.00 29.00 55.00±7.63 B 40.00 65.00
Varieties No of Adult
Days No of adult F2 F2 Adult
Min Max Min Max Min Max
4 CPF-248 0.00±0.00 D 0.00 0.00 ------- ----- ----- ------- ------- -------
5 CPF-249 2.33±0.33 BC 2.00 3.00 28.00±1.15 A 26.00 30.00 75.33±12.45 B 60.00 100.00
6 CPF-250 3.33±0.66 B 2.0 4.0 28.00±1.15 A 26.00 30.00 104.00±37.00
7 CPF-252 1.66±0.57 C 1.00 2.00 28.00±0.57 A 27.0 29.0 60.00±0.00 B 60.00 60.00
Varieties No of Adult
Duration F2 ±SE Days No of adult F2 F2 Adult
Min Max Min Max Min Max
8 HSF-240 0.00± 0.00D 0.00 0.00 ------- ----- ----- ------- ------- -------
9 US-633 4.66±0.57 A 4.00 5.00 27.66±0.33 A 27.00 28.0 246.67±37.11 A 200.0 320.0
10 PUNNA 5.33±0.66 A 4.00 6.00 27.66±0.33 A 27.00 28.0
273.33±46.6 A 180.0 320.0
The results of the present study show that C. carnea successfully completed
their life cycle on sugarcane mealy bug and the 3rd instar larva is a
voracious predator of mealy bug crawlers. The results regarding the
screening of verities shows that sowing of CPF-234 and US-633 is more
effective to eradicate sugarcane pest for the un availability of food and
further more releasing of Chrysoperla carnea in field area will control the
Based on the present results it is recommended that green lacewing
larvae can successfully use for the management of sugarcane mealy bug
as a part of successful IPM strategies in the field. The results regarding
population recommended the sowing of resistant varieties will control the
pest activities to avoid destruction in field. Further studies on biological
and ecological aspects and field application of the predator is best option
for the management of insect pests.
SOME PICTURE OF C.CARNEA DURING MY RESEARCH
EGG 1ST TO 3RD INSTAR LARVEA PUPEA
PUPAL DEATH MALE ADULT FEMALE ADULT
SOME PICTURES S. SACCHARI DURING MY STUDY
MEALY BUG EGG SAC 1ST TO 3RD CRAWLER STAGES FEMALE ADULT
MEALYBUG DURING HONEY MEALYBUG POPULATION ON LOSS OF PLANT BY
DEW SECRETION SUGARCANE MEALYBUG INFESTATION
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