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Instruments - Part 2

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In this session you will learn:
Instruments
Transmitters
Control valves
Valve actuators
Valve positioner

For more information, visit: https://www.mindsmapped.com/courses/industrial-automation/complete-training-on-industrial-automation-for-beginners/

Publicada em: Tecnologia
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Instruments - Part 2

  1. 1. Control System Training Instruments – Part 2
  2. 2. Page 2Classification: Restricted Agenda: • Instruments • Transmitters • Control valves • Valve actuators • Valve positioner
  3. 3. Page 3Classification: Restricted INSTRUMENTS Transmitters used in Process Instrumentation In the process industries, there four common process variables of interest: (a) Pressure (b) Temperature (c) Flow Level (d) Level In addition to these variables, there is also the need to analyze various chemical compositions and components. The following transmitters are commonly used in the process industries. • Pressure Transmitters • Temperature Transmitters • Flow Transmitters • Level Transmitters • Analytic Transmitters – O2(Oxygen), CO (Carbon Monoxide), PH etc.
  4. 4. Page 4Classification: Restricted Pressure Transmitters Pressure transmitters are essentially used in measuring various types of process pressures. Absolute Pressure Transmitter ‐ This transmitter measures the pressure relative to perfect vacuum pressure. Gauge Pressure Transmitter ‐ This transmitter measures the pressure relative to atmospheric pressure at a given location. When the pressure gauge reads 0 PSI, it is means pressure is atmospheric. Differential Pressure Transmitter ‐ This transmitter measures the difference between two or more pressures introduced as inputs to the sensing unit. They are used to measure the pressure drop across an oil filter for example. They are also popularly used to measure flow or level in pressurized vessels. Various technologies can be used to create pressure transmitters – vibrating wire sensor, capacitance pressure sensor, strain gauge sensor, LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer) etc
  5. 5. Page 5Classification: Restricted Level Transmitters Level transmitters are used to measure the level of a liquid or solid material within a vessel or space. These transmitters can measure level continuously or at determined points: • Point Level Transmitters ‐ Provides an output when a specific level measurement is reached. This output is generally in the form of an audible alarm or an electrical signal to turn on a switch. • Continuous Level Transmitters – Measures level within a specified range and provide an output as a continuous reading in proportion to the changing level.
  6. 6. Page 6Classification: Restricted INSTRUMENTS • There are various types of level transmitters in use in the process industries. Some of them include: • Ultrasonic Level Transmitters – Used for non‐contact level sensing of highly viscous liquids, as well as bulk solids. • Conductive Level Transmitters – Used for point level detection of a wide range of conductive liquids such as water, and is especially well suited for highly corrosive liquids such as caustic soda, hydrochloric acid, and similar liquids. • Pneumatic Level Transmitters – Used in hazardous environments and where there is no electric power. They are also ideal in applications involving heavy sludge or slurry. • Capacitance Level Transmitters – They are used in liquids that are non‐conductive and have a high dielectric constant and can be used for continuous level monitoring. • Hydrostatic based Level Transmitters – These transmitters use the hydrostatic pressure at a point in a liquid to determine level.
  7. 7. Page 7Classification: Restricted Temperature Transmitters • A temperature transmitter comprises a temperature sensor and transmitter. The transmitter receives a signal from temperature sensors such as a thermocouple or RTD, computes the temperature based on this signal and then converts it to a 4 – 20mA output signal meant for a receiving device such as a controller. • There are different types of temperature transmitters used in the process industries utilizing various temperature measurement technologies. The most common types include: • Thermocouple type Temperature Transmitter – With a thermocouple, the electromotive force generated by changes in the process temperature is used to calculate temperature. • RTD type Temperature Transmitter – When an RTD is used, changes in process temperature results in change in the electrical resistance of the RTD sensor. This relationship between process temperature and electrical resistance is then used to calculate temperature by the transmitter.
  8. 8. Page 8Classification: Restricted Flow Transmitters • A flow transmitter is used to measure and indicate flow. It combines a flow sensor and transmitter in one piece. • The flow signal from the flow sensor is used by the transmitter to generate a 4 – 20m A output that represents changes in flow in the actual process. • Various technologies are used in flow transmitters to measure flow. • They range from velocity based flow sensors, Ultrasonic flow sensors to Differential pressure flow sensors.
  9. 9. Page 9Classification: Restricted Final Control Elements • Final control elements are devices that complete the control loop. They link the output of the controlling elements with their processes. Some final control elements are designed for specific applications. The final control element is the last element of the closed control loop that implements the control action. It receives the output signal (control or actuating signal) from a process controller and adjusts accordingly the value of the manipulated variable by changing the amount of matter or energy entering the process in a way to bring the controlled variable (process variable) to its set point. The final control element is probably the most important because it exerts a direct influence on the process. • Final control elements are general application devices such as valves, dampers, pumps, and electric heaters. Valves and dampers have similar functions. Valves regulate flow rate of a liquid while dampers regulate flow of air and gases. Pumps, like valves, can be used to control flow of a fluid. Heaters are used to control temperature.
  10. 10. Page 10Classification: Restricted Control Valves • A control valve is a valve with a pneumatic, hydraulic, electric or other externally powered actuator that automatically, fully or partially opens or closes the valve to a position dictated by signals transmitted from controlling instruments. • The control valve is the most widely used type of final control element and it must perform satisfactorily with a minimum amount of attention, even in severe conditions of temperature, pressure, corrosion and contamination. • A control valve functions as variable resistance in a pipeline. It provides a pressure drop, called throttling, which limits the flow through a pipeline. • There are many different kinds of control valves in common use like globe valves, butterfly valves, ball valves, eccentric disc valves and diaphragm valves.
  11. 11. Page 11Classification: Restricted GLOBE VALVE Globe valves are the most frequently encountered control valves in process plants. Figure shows the side view of a typical globe valve, which is named after its globular shaped valve body. The globe valve consists of two main components: • The valve body: which contains and regulates the fluid flow • The valve actuator: which converts electrical or pressure energy into stem movement which changes the regulating effect of the valve body.
  12. 12. Page 12Classification: Restricted GLOBE VALVE BODY The bonnet assembly is the part of the valve body through which the valve plug stem moves. The bonnet provides a means of sealing against leakage along the stem by using packing in the packing box. Force is exerted by the stud and nuts on the packing material to squeeze it against the walls of the packing box and the valve stem. This acts as a effective seal. The valve stem extends through the bonnet to permit positioning of the valve plug, and therefore provide a variable restriction to the fluid flow.
  13. 13. Page 13Classification: Restricted GLOBE VALVE • Globe valve bodies can be classified as either direct or reverse acting. • In a direct acting valve body, a downward movement of the valve plug stem results in the valve closing. • In a reverse acting valve body, a downward movement of the valve plug stem results in the valve opening.
  14. 14. Page 14Classification: Restricted VALVE ACTUATORS A control valve actuator is a device which is used to drive the valve plug stem and therefore sets the position of the plug with respect to the valve seat. The most common valve actuator is the pneumatic diaphragm actuator. It is simple in construction and very reliable. It operates by the injection of a single, low pressure air signal into the diaphragm housing. The diaphragm housing is made up of two sections. Between the two sections is a flexible diaphragm.
  15. 15. Page 15Classification: Restricted VALVE ACTUATORS • The air pressure applied on the diaphragm develops a working force. This force is transmitted to the actuator stem via the diaphragm plate, which is a supportive metal disk attached to the diaphragm. • The actuator spring provides a restoring force which positions and returns the actuator stem. • The travel indicator (a pointer attached near the stem connector) indicates the valve travel on the indicator scale. • The actuator is supported rigidly on the valve bonnet assembly by the yoke. • The actuator stem is connected by the stem connector to the valve plug stem.
  16. 16. Page 16Classification: Restricted PNEUMATIC ACTUATOR • The pneumatic valve is an air-operated device which controls the flow through an orifice by positioning appropriately a plug. • An air to close (A/C) valve, can be obtained with the combination of a reverse acting actuator and a reverse acting valve body or a direct acting actuator and a direct acting valve body. In the air to close valve the pressure on the diaphragm causes the plug to move downwards and close the opening thus restricting the flow. • Similarly, an air to open (A/O)/fail close valve, can be obtained with a combination of direct actuator and reverse body or reverse actuator and direct body. In the air to open valve the pressure on the diaphragm causes the stem to move upwards thus, causing the plug to move away from the opening causing the fluid to flow.
  17. 17. Page 17Classification: Restricted PNEUMATIC ACTUATOR Air to Close (A/C) Valve Air to Open (A/O) Valve
  18. 18. Page 18Classification: Restricted HYDRAULIC ACTUATORS • Pneumatic actuators are normally used to control processes requiring quick and accurate response, as they do not require a large amount of motive force. However, when a large amount of force is required to operate a valve (for example, the main steam-stop valves), hydraulic actuators are normally used. • Hydraulic actuators use fluid displacement to move a piston in a cylinder positioning the valve as needed for 0-100% fluid flow. Although hydraulic actuators come in many designs, piston types are most common.
  19. 19. Page 19Classification: Restricted HYDRAULIC ACTUATORS • It consists of a cylinder, piston, spring, hydraulic supply and returns line, and stem. The piston slides vertically inside the cylinder and separates the cylinder into two chambers. The upper chamber contains the spring and the lower chamber contains hydraulic oil. The hydraulic supply and return line are connected to the lower chamber and allows hydraulic fluid to flow to and from the lower chamber of the actuator. The stem transmits the motion of the piston to a valve. • When the hydraulic force is greater than the spring force, the piston begins to move upward, the spring compresses, and the valve begins to open. As the hydraulic pressure increases, the valve continues to open. Conversely, as hydraulic oil is drained from the cylinder, the hydraulic force becomes less than the spring force, the piston moves downward, and the valve closes. By regulating amount of oil supplied or drained from the actuator, the valve can be positioned between fully open and fully closed.
  20. 20. Page 20Classification: Restricted ELECTRIC SOLENOID ACTUATORS • Solenoid actuators are used on small valves and employ an electromagnet to move the stem which allows the valve to either be fully open or fully closed. • It consists of a coil, armature, spring, and stem. The coil is connected to an external current supply. The spring rests on the armature to force it downward. The armature moves vertically inside the coil and transmits its motion through the stem to the valve.
  21. 21. Page 21Classification: Restricted INSTRUMENTS When current flows through the coil, a magnetic field forms around the coil. The magnetic field attracts the armature toward the center of the coil. As the armature moves upward, the spring collapses and the valve opens. When the circuit is opened and current stops flowing to the coil, the magnetic field collapses. This allows the spring to expand and shut the valve • A major advantage of solenoid actuators is their quick operation. Also, they are much easier to install than pneumatic or hydraulic actuators. • However, solenoid actuators have two disadvantages. • First, they have only two positions: fully open and fully closed. • Second, they don’t produce much force, so they usually only operate relatively small valves.
  22. 22. Page 22Classification: Restricted VALVE POSITIONER • Pneumatic valve positioners are the most commonly used valve accessories. A valve positioner is a device which will accurately position a control valve in accordance with the pneumatic control signal. • With a positioner, the control signal goes to the positioner instead of directly to the valve actuator. The positioner outputs another pneumatic signal which operates the valve actuator.
  23. 23. Page 23Classification: Restricted VALVE POSITIONER The positioner compares the control signal (the requested valve position) with the actual valve position through the mechanical feedback linkage. • If the valve position is incorrect, the positioner will either load or exhaust air from the valve actuator until the correct valve position is obtained. • A positioner requires both a control signal and an instrument supply air for normal operation. Most positioners come equipped with three gauges to indicate supply air pressure, control signal pressure and actuator diaphragm (output) air pressure.
  24. 24. Page 24Classification: Restricted Topics to be covered in the next session: • Programmable Logic Controller(PLC) • Types of PLC’s • PLC architecture • Scan cycles • Scan patterns • PLC programming • Ladder diagram programming • Latch and Unlatch • DCS architecture
  25. 25. Page 25Classification: Restricted Thank you!

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