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Fermented food products Bread

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Fermented food products Bread

  1. 1. Presented by: R. Petchiammal II M.sc, Microbiology Reg no: 20201232516112 Submitted to: Dr. Mariappan Assistant professor Department of microbioloy SPKC-Alwarkurichi
  2. 2.  Fermentation  Bread- Definition  History  Types of bread  Steps in yeast bread production  Bread making process  Steps in bread production  Components of bread  Benefits of bread CONTENTS
  3. 3.  Fermentation is a metabolic process that produces chemical changes in organic substrates through the action of enzymes.  The science of fermentation is known as zymology.  Example : yeast perform fermentation to obtain energy by converting sugar into alcohol.  Bacteria perform fermentation by converting carbohydrates into lactic acid.
  4. 4.  Louis pasteur became the first scientist to study fermentation.  He showed that lactic acid fermentation is caused by living organisms.
  5. 5.  BREAD is a dietary product obtained from the fermentation and the subsequent baking of a dough mainly made of cereal flour and water, made in many different ways and sometimes enriched with typical regional ingredients.  Bread may be leavened by naturally occurring microbes (e.g: sourdough), chemicals(e.g: baking soda), industrially produced yeast, or high-pressure aeration, which creates the gas bubbles that fluff up bread.
  6. 6. Yeast Lactic acid bacteria Saccharomyces cerevisiae Lactiplantibac plantarum
  7. 7.  Bread is one of the oldest prepared foods.  Evidence from 30,000 years ago in Europe and Australia revealed starch residue on rocks used for pounding plants.  It is possible that during this time, starch extract from the roots of plants, such as cattails and ferns, was spread on a flat rock, placed over a fire and cooked into a primitive from of flatbread.
  8. 8. 1. Banana bread:  To this category, we can also add zucchini bread. Both banana and zucchini bread are dense, moist, sweet treats, usually chemically leavened with baking soda and baking powder.
  9. 9.  Nothing else in the bread family, not even the wonderfully flaky croissant, conjures images of the Eiffel Tower and all things French the way the baguette does.  The long, stick-like loaf, also called French bread.
  10. 10.  Our taste buds owe the French a huge debt of gratitude for inventing brioche, a traditionally sweet yeast bread loaded with eggs and butter.
  11. 11.  Ciabatta hails from Italy, where the word means, “slipper” in the native language. Usually broad, flat, and somewhat collapsed in the middle, it’s he perfect bread to use in paninis and sandwivhes.
  12. 12.  The bread may be most associated with the region below the Mason-Dixon Line, corn bread originated with Native Americans. Made from finely ground corn, wheat flour eggs, milk, either unleavened or with baking powder.
  13. 13.  As anyone who seriously celebrates St. Patrick’s Day will tell you, the world’s most legendary soda bread comes courtesy of the Emerald Isle.
  14. 14.  Thought to have originated in Egypt in 1500B.C., sourdough bread is created via a long fermenting process using yeasts and lactobacilli that occur naturally.
  15. 15.  Speaking of healthy breads, whole wheat, which is one of a range of whole grain breads, is one of the very best breads for your body.  Made from flour that uses the entire grain, including the bran & germ, fiber, protein, vitamins than white bread.
  16. 16. Selection of Raw Ingredients Weighing of Raw Materials Preparing of Raw materials Mixing Fermenting Knock back Floor time
  17. 17. Dividing and Rounding Intermediate proofing Moulding & planning Proofing Backing Cooling Slicing & Wrapping
  18. 18. 1)Selection of Raw Ingredients:  Quality of the basic ingredients. 2)Weighing of Raw Materials:  Correct weight of raw ingredients.
  19. 19.  Basic mise-en-place  Seiving the flour for removal/bran& aeration  Mixing yeast in luke warm water& addition of sugar.  Addition of salt in the flour for even mixing
  20. 20.  Glutenin& Gliadin joins together to form gluten.  Initially the gluten is wet but the elasticity and WAP increases to improve the dough till it becomes homogeneous.  Stages of mixing:  Pick up  Drying up  Clean up  Development stage
  21. 21. Drying up – Gluten takes up water. Clean up – Leaves sticking & leaves the sides of the container. Development stage – Proper homogeneous mixing.
  22. 22.  Yeast feed on sugar to produce carbon dioxide.  Part of the alcohol evaporates & part is converted into acetic acid.  78 F to 80 F is the optimum temperature.  70 to 75% is the optimum relative humidity.  Soft& sticky& has an open texture and collapse during proofing / baking.
  23. 23.  It is done after 2/3 of the estimated fermentation.  Centre comes on top in contact with the fresh air and the dough is virtually turned upside down.
  24. 24.  Dough is cut into pieces of desired eight according to the size of the mould.  The dough should not be pulled/ turn as it may disturb the gluten strands, thus adversely affecting the final texture of the product.
  25. 25.  During the dividing process some gas escapes and the gluten strands collapse, giving a rough surface.  The cut dough is rested for some time when the pieces are again filled with gas and the gluten comes back to its original position.
  26. 26.  Shaping into desired shapes the finished product.  Moulding pressure should be even and uneven pressure will result in uneven texture.
  27. 27.  Proofing is done under optimum conditions of temperature and humidity for maximum fermentation (95 F to 98 F & 80-83%).  Proofers are like chambers where a controlled conditions is provided to the dough.
  28. 28.  Temperature is 400F to 480F.  Oven spring increase in volume inside the oven is seen as the yeasts are still alive.  At 140F yeast cells ceases functioning.  Weight is reduced due to the evaporation of moisture & the crust starts acquring golden brown colour.
  29. 29.  Bread should be de-moulded immediately from the tins.  Moisture trapped between the bread and surface of the mould will make the product soggy (sweating).  Breads to be sliced when it cools slightly for even slicing.
  30. 30.  Flour  Yeast  Water  Salt  Sugar  Fat  Liquid (Water & Milk)
  31. 31.  Bread is a source of complex carbohydrates.  It is rich in B group vitamins that have energetic function.  Bread consumption is important for people who have a lot of mental activity, people with stress and depression.  Stable food that must be present in any healthy diet, specially for kids.
  32. 32.  Trends in wheat and bread making edited by Charis M. Galanakis in the year of 2020.  Flour milling and bread making edited by C. Louis Philllips in 2017.  Bread and its fortification: Nutrition and health benefits edited by Cristina M. Rosell, Joanna Bajerska, Aly F. El Sheikha in 2015.

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