WHAT IS HUMAN RESOURCE
Human Resource Environment is a part of social environment which includes the
concept, viewpoints, work culture, attitudes, efficiency, skills, productivity, nature and
behaviour of HR, employees’ demand and supply, motivational aspects,
compensation methods and industrial relation concerning of HR practices.
With the growing and integrated role and perception of social and human resource
environmental factors, there is a transformation process was emerged for the last two
The shift from manual process to machinery process, from unskilled employees to the
skilled employees, from manufacturing economy to a service economy, from machine
age to the autocratic age have been accompanied by many transformations.
MANAGING HUMAN RESOURCES
Human resources management seems to be mostly good
intentions and whistling in the dark or averting
unionization. And the results of the 1970s suggest that
we may not even be holding our own. The poor
management of the work force in this country is
damaging the nation and our standard of living. It is
making us uncompetitive with the Japanese and some
other Asians, the West Germans, the Swiss, and many
Managers have had difficulty managing human resources for four reasons:
1. Achieving wholehearted cooperation, energy, and commitment from large numbers of
employees is difficult, so managers are often unrealistic in their hopes.1
2. Concepts concerning the management of large numbers of people often convey
contradictory messages to managers.
3. Critical problems in the corporate management of personnel, such as the place of human
resources management (HRM) in corporate decision making, the role of personnel staff, and a
lack of sufficient human resources management know-how at top management levels, remain
4. Some management assumptions concerning HRM undermine the efforts of many
managers, no matter how well intentioned they may be.
Managers use many different organizational techniques to achieve
collaboration and productivity. Researchers can take large credit for the
multitude of concepts and tools on hand. They must also, however, accept
responsibility for the fact that their different disciplines often conflict and work
For example, in most companies managers employ four different disciplines to
improve employee performance and relations—human relations, labor
relations, personnel administration, and industrial engineering. Since human
relations itself includes at least three major schools, six fairly distinct sets of
ideas and concepts can be at work in the same organization at the same time.
1. Human relations.
Theories of group behavior deal with social interaction and interpersonal
relationships through such tools as theories X and Y and sensitivity training.
The school’s precept is that because group behavior is critical to collaboration
and success, groups must bestow authority and control upward.
The individual behavior school of human relations focuses on individual
psychology, leadership, power, authority, responsibility, and the subconscious.
Its main concern is the individual’s feelings and drives and, how they affect the
Organizational development goes further and focuses on the need for people
to reason together about their common difficulties. Its central belief is that
employees can often manage themselves better than managers can.
2. Labor relations.
Labor laws, public policy, the economics of wages and costs,
demographics and manpower management, collective bargaining,
contract administration, and grievances are under the purview of
labor relations. It sees politics at the plant, corporation, union,
state, and national levels together with labor laws as keys to any
situation. Its stance is usually adversarial and tough—sticking to
contract terms, denying exceptions, avoiding precedents, and
building a powerful position for bargaining.
3. Personnel management.
Activities involved in managing large numbers of people in the
aggregate—namely, recruiting, selecting, training, compensating,
and developing them—are the province of personnel. This
discipline holds that if companies perform those tasks well, they
will acquire a set of employees with appropriate motives, habits,
and behavior. Personnel holds that if managers are consistent and
apply policies that induce desired behavior, a good climate will
TREND IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
AND PROVIDING EQUAL EMPLOYMENT
OPPURTUNITY IN SAFE WORKPLACE
Human Resource is changing its structure almost every day in
accordance with the changes in technology. With the right
measures and approaches from enterprise leaders, it ought to have
a positive impact on the daily operations, and subsequently the
From our perspective, here are the beaming trends in Human
1. A hybrid structure
The personnel groups relocated when work-from-home became a routine,
leaving all the teams and companies to disband from one particular
geographical location to anywhere in the nation.
Where some organizations are encouraging their employees to start in-office
jobs again, many are content with a hybrid culture and are continuing to play
2. Global expansion on the rise
Shifting your work into the global market – remote working is an initial step.
With changing times and technology the trends in HRM have taken a turn
too, and the inauguration of a business in foreign lands is becoming a
cakewalk. Furthermore, governments uplifting strict policies in this post-
pandemic era – support the businesses too.
3. Employee experiences take precedence
Employees today don’t just want a good paycheck but a quality culture and
healthy work environment as well. As a part of trends in HRM, a good
remuneration retains an employee, and a qualified environment and
experience assist in the choice too.
HR leaders should bring about methods to encourage positive workforce
health, making the employees more flexible to changes and disruptions.
4. Analytics gaining the front seats
With no physical human contact, tracking and measuring the work and
employees became strenuous, especially when the workforce is spread
throughout the globe. Analytics is said to play an impacting role in offering
information for decision-making.
5. A surge in monitoring the employees
With the growing number of hybrid workers, managers are often unable to scrutinize every
single employee and their work. The lack of personal interaction led to a surge in employee
monitoring techniques that gave birth to yet another set of trends in HRM.
Keeping track of work and performance, attendance, and leaves, are just a portion of
employee monitoring practices.
6. Automation of everyday tasks
To give precedence to high-value and productive workings, HR leaders can leverage AI-
powered solutions to automate their daily tasks that were carried out manually. Practices such
as screening, sourcing talents, onboarding, keeping check of attendance, etc., and a lot more
now can be carried out by the systems in this tech-driven world.
7. Augmenting the hiring processes
Yet another perk that can be considered as a part of trends in HRM are chatbots. With their
assistance, employers can now manage to select quality candidates for relevant positions out
of the ample talent pools available.
Solutions such as resume screening choose explicit candidate profiles, subsequently ensuing
in higher work performance and enhanced productivity.
ANALYZING WORK AND DESIGNING
Human Resource Management is a vital task to be performed by the management. It
is the job of HRM to place the right man at the right place. For this, the employer
needs to understand the job, design the job and check what kind of personnel needs
to be placed at such job. Thus it is the task of HR Management to analyze the jobs
needed in the business and designing them to achieve efficiency and effectiveness.
To produce their given product or service, companies require a number of tasks to be
performed. The tasks are grouped in various combinations to form jobs. Ideally, the
tasks should be grouped in ways that help the organization to operate efficiently and
obtain people with the right qualification to do the jobs well. This function involves
the activities of job analysis and job design. Job analysis is the process of getting
detailed information about jobs. Job design is the process of defining the way work
will be performed and the tasks that a given job requires.
Job analysis is the function of obtaining information about a specific job, tasks
involved in it, skill sets required and the other responsibilities and finding
other pertinent information related to it. It forms the basis for the further
designing of the job. Every individual is studied deeply and after analysis, it is
further sent for designing. Job analysis helps in explaining the following two
Job Description- refers to the information regarding the type of job, what
work is to be done, how it is linked to other jobs, its location in hierarchy,
Job Specification- refers to the information about the employee required to
do the job, his qualification, experience, communication skills, personality etc.
Process of Job Analysis:
Gathering Information: The first and foremost step for Job analysis is
gathering information. All the pertinent information related to the job is
collected and compiled. It helps in the further analysis of the job.
Analyzing the job and its requirements: From the information so obtained, it is
is found out what the job is necessary for and what are the functions it carries
out. According to the functions it is seen that what are its requirements and
what are the skills and qualifications required for doing the job. A complete
report is made about the Job Analysis so done.
Forming a Job Description and Job Specification: Once the job is analyzed and
and all the relevant information about its working is obtained; the job
description and job specification is formed.
Methods of Job Analysis:
Work optimization through Redesigning: Job analysis help in observing every minute
detail about the jobs. As a result the job analysis function can find shortcomings in
the existing processes and help in correcting them through redesigning the job i.e.
reengineering the working process.
Assisting Human Resource Management: Job analysis help in ascertaining the job
requirements in the business and how they are to be filled. It formulates the number
of employees or workforce required for the timely and efficient completion of the
work. It helps the HR Management to formulate the recruitment plans.
Forming the basis for selection: Job Analysis gives the details about the Job
specification i.e. skills, qualifications, trainings, attitude etc. required in an employee
to carry out the specific job. Thus it gives the basis to the selection committee to
look for the candidate with the stated requirements
Job Design the process of how a particular job will be performed,
what will be done and what are the tasks required for this. Job
designing also consists of redesigning any existing job for a better
and effective utilization of resources
Approaches to Job Design:
Job Extension: Job extension refers to the process of adjoining or
adding specific small jobs to the existing job. These small tasks re
related to the job itself. This helps in broadening the jobs and the
responsibility attached to it. When the same person is doing all the
tasks related to a job, he will be able to carry it out efficiently.
Job Enlargement: Job enlargement refers to the task of broadening the whole
job. Its aim is to remove duplicity of work and make the work more
interesting. This kind of design requires more number of skills and there is
more pressure and workload on the employee.
Job Rotation: Job rotation is a method where employees are rotated among
different jobs. Generally the employees are shifted from one department to
another so that he can gain knowledge and experience about the other
department as well. This helps in increasing the coordination among the
Job Enrichment: Job Enrichment refers to the task of making the job easier for
the employee by granting him the decision making power, and a greater level
of autonomy. This helps in increasing the efficiency of the employee and
boosting his morale.