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Large scale- emigration with
technical skill and knowledge.
HISTORY OF BRAIN DRAIN
PUSH AND PULL FACTORS OF BRAIN DRAIN
MAGNITUDE OF BRAIN DRAIN
BRAIN DRAIN OF INDIA
REVERSE BRAIN DRAIN
A brain drain or human capital flight is an emigration of trained
and talented individuals ("human capital") to other nations or
Brain drain can occur either when individuals who study abroad
and complete their education do not return to their home country,
or when individuals educated in their home country emigrate for
higher wages or better opportunities.
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF
There are numerous flows of skilled and trained persons from
developing to developed countries.
In these flows engineers, medical personnel and scientists
usually tend to predominate.
They are characterised by large flows from a comparatively small
number of developed countries and by small flows from a larger
number of developing countries.
PUSH FACTORS OF BRAIN DRAIN
Lack of research and other facilities.
Lack of freedom.
Discrimination in appointment and promotion.
Poor working facilities
Desire for a better urban life.
Better career expectation.
Lack of satisfactory working conditions.
PULL FACTORS OF BRAIN DRAIN
Better economic prospects.
Higher salary and income.
Better level of living and way of life.
Prestige of foreign training.
Better working condition and better employment
Allocation of substantial funds for research.
MAGNITUDE OF BRAIN DRAIN
Migration of people as a phenomenon differs from country to
country and from time to time.
The phenomenon of migration of high quality manpower can
justify the use of the expression on the term “brain drain”.
COUNTRIES WITH HIGHEST BRAIN DRAIN
COUNTRY STUDENTS GOING ABROAD (PER YEAR)
REPUBLIC OF KOREA 105300
BRAIN DRAIN IN INDIA
Above data shows that the students going for higher studies abroad
has increased by 256% in the last 10 years. When 53,000 Indian
students went abroad for higher studies in 2000, the figure shot up to
1.9 lakh in 2010.
INDIAN HIGHER EDUCATION
ENROLLMENT IN TOP 7 COUNTRIES
YEAR USA UK AUS CANADA NZ CHINA GER TOTAL
2012 96754 12629 28929 11349 10237 5745 190055
2011 100270 29900 15395 23601 12301 9370 4825 228774
2010 103895 39090 21932 17549 11616 9014 3821 253743
2009 104897 38500 28020 9561 9252 8468 3236 247631
2008 103260 38065 28411 8325 6348 8145 3217 216516
2007 94563 25905 27078 7304 3855 7190 3431 205852
2006 83833 19228 29497 6927 2599 3245 3583 158215
INDIANS IN EUROPE
EU country Indian
EU country Indian
UK 16,001 1,50,676 UK 64,000 2,93,000
Germany 8,949 35,183 Italy 12,769 91,855
Italy 4,820 32,507 Germany 12,009 47,025
Austria 836 4,879 Spain 5,956 29,754
Spain 835 6,790 Holland 2,699 8,003
Holland 684 3,361 Sweden 1,795 4,676
Belgium 1,787 6,749
France 1,458 13,000
Poland 1,137 269
Ireland 1,078 4,046
Portugal Germany Italy Other
% of total EU % of total EU % of total EU % of total EU % of total EU
31,100 85.3% 3.2% 2.9% 2.9% 5.7%
Employment Education Family reunification Other
% of total
73,851 37% 51,501 26% 45,237 22% 30,809 15%
MAJOR PROBLEMS FACED BY INDIA DUE
TO BRAIN DRAIN
A shortage of skilled and competent people in India.
A tremendous increase in wages of high-skill labors in India.
Problems for the public sector : With the exception of ICICI, none of
the public sector finance companies have done a serious job of revamping
their pay scales. They face two alternatives: a sharp increase in wages of high-skill
labours, or bankruptcy.
Problems of governance : In government itself, low wages at senior
levels are a serious problem. An economic advisor at the Finance Ministry
earns less than Rs.20,000 a month. It is possible to have individuals take up
these roles if they are independently wealthy; altruistic; power-hungry; corrupt
or incompetent. This is not a happy state of affairs etc.
An opposite situation, in which many trained and
talented individuals seek entrance into a country, is called
a brain gain.
While simultaneously many qualified immigrants were
coming to home country from a number of different
This phenomenon is common in developed countries
where people come from many nations for higher studies
& didn't return back.
REASON OF MIGRATION
NO OF MIGRANTS PERCENTAGE OF
EMPLOYMENT 14,446,224 14.7
EDUCATION 2,915,189 1.2
BUSINESS 1,136,375 3
OTHERS 79,803,557 81.1
Brain drain vs brain gain
A brain drain or human capital flight is an emigration of
trained and talented individuals ("human capital") to other
nations is called brain drain.
Brain drain can occur either when individuals who study
abroad and complete their education do not return to their
home country, or when individuals educated in their home
country emigrate for higher wages or better opportunities.
This phenomenon is perhaps most problematic for
developing nations, where it is widespread. In these
countries, higher education and professional certification
are often viewed as the surest path to escape from a
troubled economy or difficult political situation.
REVERSE BRAIN DRAIN
§ Reverse brain drain is a form of brain drain where human
capital moves in reverse from a more developed country to
a less developed country that is developing rapidly.
§ These migrants may accumulate savings, also known as
remittances, and develop skills overseas that can be used in
their home country
§ Brain drain can occur when scientists, engineers, or other
intellectual elites migrate to a more developed country .
These professionals then return to their home country after
several years of experience to start a related business,
teach in a university, or work for a multi-national in their
home countryTheir return is thus "Reverse Brain Drain".
BRAIN- DRAIN REVERSAL
India, the world’s 4 largest GDP.
30% IT industry growth in last 10 years.
Recruit over 100,000 people in 2007-2008 in big 6 software companies.
Indian companies now pay global salaries.
COUNTRIES THAT RECEIVED HIGHEST
AMOUNT OF REMITTANCE FROM
NATIONALS WORKING ABROAD
(MILLIONS IN US $)
% OF GDP
INDIA 11.97 2.6
PHILIPPINES 7.016 8.9
MEXICO 6.649 1.7
TURKEY 4.529 2.3
EGYPT 3.196 4.0
MOROCCO 1.918 5.5
BANGLADESH 1.803 4.1
BOON OF REVERSE BRAIN DRAIN
60000 arrivals in India in 2010 from
72% IIT graduates see India as having
most promising future (only 17%
Drop in numbers of graduates thinking
of emigrating, from 75% in 80’s to
Brain Drain Index improved from 3.0 to
TOP FIVE BRAIN DRAIN AND
BRAIN GAIN METRO REGIONS
CITY NO. OF MIGRANTS
DALLAS-FORT WORTH 54814
SAN FRANCISCO 48614
CITY NO. OF MIGRANTS
NEW YORK 122000
Beginning of the end of brain drain
For fifteen young innovators of Indian origin who were honoured with the MIT Global
Indus Technovators awards, the question of 'brain drain' has always been a seminal
The ‘brain drain’ trend is reversing. Many colleagues have decided to stay in India
and many of my students from India are planning to return.
But was the 'brain-drain' a bad thing in itself? Perhaps, researchers and
entrepreneurs in India found it difficult to escape from the shackles of poverty and
anonymity, and wanted greener pastures to feed their passion for creativity.
As a solution to India's brain drain, the government needs to demonstrate to
researchers a sincere commitment to supporting research while allowing scientists to
remain as independent as possible.
There is such a wealth of talent in India that it would take long for even a small
number of successful researchers based there to attract others and make India one of
the world's leading nations for technical innovation.
Current brain drain issues
In particular, Eastern European countries have expressed
concerns about brain drain to Ireland and the United
In Western Europe France is currently experiencing a
brain drain, with young graduates moving to Britain, USA,
and Canada because of economic and labor regulations
making it extensively difficult to find white-collar private
Certainly there is a brain drain occurring in the last 5
years in Germany, with 144 814 people leaving their
country in 2005 due to economic problems, the highest
rate of emigration from Germany since the end of World
Larger countries have less brain
Report shows the extent of the drain brain problem in larger
countries is much less.
On average for countries with more than 30 million people,
the brain drain is less than five percent of all college educated
people. The reason is that they have a large population of
skilled people, so that even with a large share of skilled
people in the migrant population, their share in the skilled
population is nevertheless small, Countries such as China and
India only have about three to five percent of their graduates
living abroad. And it's a similar situation in Brazil, Indonesia
and the former Soviet Union.
ADVANTAGES OF BRAIN DRAIN
The money the emigrants have sent back home has helped in alleviating It has resulted in less child labor, greater child schooling, more hours The money remittances have also reduced the level and severity Moreover, the money migrants sent back are spent more in investments
Due to the influence of brain drain, the investment in higher education is lost as Also, whatever social capital the individual has been a part of is reduced by his With all the college graduates leaving their homelands, it raises the question as The chances of Brain Waste are possible. In a similar way, there is a shortage A tremendous increase in wages of high-skill labour can be seen now in India.
The emigration has also created innumerous problems in the public sector.
Scientists who have emigrated for several reasons are
recoverable assets who can play a part in developing
opportunities at home. However, recovery requires the
opening of diverse and creative conduits.
Foreign professionals could be used to develop innovative
graduate education opportunities at home and technology to
be transferred to areas of national priorities for research and
Building an enlightened leadership and an enabling national
scientific community, with the help of expatriate citizens, for
the coherent development of scientific and technological
capacity in developing countries will be mutually beneficial.