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Pregnancy, early signs, stages and key physiologic changes presentation 4.pptx

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Pregnancy, early signs, stages and key physiologic changes presentation 4.pptx

  1. 1. PREGNANCY, EARLY SIGNS, STAGES AND KEY PHYSIOLOGIC CHANGES VND 2201: Maternal, Infant, and Childcare Ndahura Nicholas Bari Kyambogo University
  2. 2. Pregnancy & some of the early signs ■ The period from conception to birth, after the egg is fertilized by a sperm and the n implanted in the lining of the uterus. ■ Pregnancy is considered full-term at 40 weeks; infants delivered before the end of week 37 are considered premature. ■ Pregnancy is measured in trimesters from the first day the last menstrual period, totalling 40 weeks. The first trimester of pregnancy is week 1 through week 13, or about 3 months. The second trimester is week 14 to week 26. And the third trimester of pregnancy spans from week 27 to the birth.
  3. 3. Pregnancy & some of the early signs
  4. 4. Pregnancy & some of the early signs ■ In addition to a missed period, the earliest signs and symptoms of pregnancy may include: – Tender, swollen breasts, nipples darken – Nausea with or without vomiting, metallic taste in the mouth – Increased urination, constipation – Fatigue – Food aversions or cravings ■ Need to do a pregnancy test to confirm.
  5. 5. Stages of pregnancy ■ First trimester – During the week after fertilization, the fertilized egg grows into a microscopic ball of cells (blastocyst), which implants on the wall of your uterus. This implantation triggers a series of hormonal and physical changes in the woman’s body. – The third through eighth weeks of growth are called the embryonic stage, during which the embryo develops most major body organs. During this process, the embryo is especially vulnerable to damaging substances, such as alcohol, radiation, and infectious diseases e.g. rubella (German measles). – Having reached a little more than 1 in. (2.54 cm) in length by the ninth week of growth, the embryo is called a foetus. – Also at this stage there is development of placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic sac.
  6. 6. Stages of pregnancy ■ Second trimester – During this time, the foetus is still building up body fat and starting to put on a lot of weight. By the end of the second trimester , the foetus is about 10 in. (25.4 cm) long and weighs about 1.5 lb (680 g). ■ Third trimester – The third trimester of pregnancy spans from week 27 to the birth. Although the due date marks the end of your 40th week, a full-term pregnancy can be delivered between week 37 and week 42. During this final trimester, the foetus grows larger and the body organs mature. At the end of the third trimester, a foetus usually settles into a head-down position (crowning) in the uterus.
  7. 7. Key physiologic changes that occur during pregnancy ■ Blood volume and Composition – Blood volume expands approximately 50% by the end of pregnancy. This results in decreased haemoglobin, serum albumin, other serum proteins, and water-soluble vitamins. – The decline in serum albumin may be the result of fluid accumulation. The decrease in water-soluble vitamin concentrations makes determination of an inadequate intake or a deficient nutrient state difficult. In contrast, serum concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins and other lipid fractions such as triglycerides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids increase.
  8. 8. Key physiologic changes that occur during pregnancy ■ Cardiovascular and Pulmonary function – Increased cardiac output accompanies pregnancy, and cardiac size increases by I2%. – Diastolic blood pressure decreases during the first two trimesters because of peripheral vasodilation (dilation of the veins and arteries of the periphery), but returns to pre- pregnancy values in the third trimester. – Mild lower extremity edema is a normal condition of pregnancy resulting from the pressure of the expanding uterus on the inferior vena cava. Blood return to the heart decreases, leading to decreased cardiac output, a fall in blood pressure, and lower extremity edema. – Maternal oxygen requirements increase and the threshold for CO2 lowers, making the pregnant woman feel shortness of breath (dyspnea). Adding to this feeling of dyspnea is the growing uterus pushing the diaphragm upward.
  9. 9. Key physiologic changes that occur during pregnancy ■ Gastrointestinal Function – In the first trimester nausea and vomiting may occur followed by a return of appetite. Cravings for and aversions to foods are also common. – Increased progesterone concentrations relax the uterine muscle to allow for foetal growth while also decreasing GI motility with increased reabsorption of water. This often results in constipation. – In addition, a relaxed lower oesophageal sphincter and pressure on the stomach from the growing uterus can cause regurgitation (the reflex act of ejecting the contents of the stomach through the mouth) and gastric reflux (backflow of the contents of the stomach into the oesophagus, caused by relaxation of the lower oesophageal sphincter).
  10. 10. Key physiologic changes that occur during pregnancy ■ Renal Function – The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) increases by 50 % during pregnancy. Renal tubular reabsorption is less efficient than in the non-pregnant state, and glucosuria or glycosuria (excretion of glucose into the urine) may occur, along with increased excretion of water-soluble vitamins. Small amounts of glycosuria increase the risk for urinary tract infections. ■ Placenta – The placenta is the principal site of production for several hormones responsible for regulating foetal growth and development of maternal support tissues and it is the conduit for exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products.
  11. 11. Key terms – Primigravida: pregnant for the first time. – Multigravida: a woman who has been pregnant previously, regardless of outcome. – Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) refers to poor growth of a foetus while in the mother's womb during pregnancy. The causes can be many, but most often involve poor maternal nutrition or lack of adequate oxygen supply to the foetus.
  12. 12. Find out: ■ Rhesus factor ■ ectopic pregnancy ■ Difference between Fraternal (binovular) and identical (univular) twins ■ The role of the placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic sac. ■ See link: https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/wellness-and-

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