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  2. 6/29/2022 Source: Confidential 2
  3. 6/29/2022 Source: Confidential 3
  4. POLLUTION “Any undesirable change in the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the environment (air, water, soil) which can cause harmful effects on various life forms or property” 4 1. Air Pollution 2. Water Pollution 3. Noise Pollution 4. Soil Pollution 5. Marine Pollution 6. Thermal Pollution 7. Nuclear Pollution Types of Pollution
  5. AIR POLLUTION Air pollution may be described as “the imbalance in quality of air so as to cause adverse effects on the living organisms existing on earth”. Air pollution is generally disequilibrium condition of air caused due to the introduction of foreign elements from natural & man made sources to the air so that it becomes injurious to biological communities.
  6. CLASSIFICATION: Air pollutants may occur in gaseous or particular form and may be organic or inorganic in nature. PRIMARY POLLUTANTS: These are emitted directly from the point source Eg:-CO,NOX, SOx, Radioactive substances, Hydrocarbons. SECONDARY POLLUTANTS: These are formed by interaction of primary pollutants with other primary pollutants Eg:-O3, Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), Photochemical smog 7
  7. • Some primary air pollutants may react with one another or with other chemicals in the air to form secondary air pollutants.
  8. Composition of unpolluted air GASES • Nitrogen • Oxygen • Water • Argon • Carbon dioxide • Neon • Helium • Methane • Krypton • Nitrous oxide • Hydrogen • Xenon • Organic vapors PARTS PER MILLION(VOL) 756,500 202,900 31,200 9,000 305 17.4 5.0 0.97-1.16 0.97 0.49 0.49 0.08 Ca.0.02
  9. Major air pollutants are • Carbon monoxide • Carbon dioxide • Chlorofluorocarbons • Lead • Ozone • Nitrogen oxide • Suspended particulate matter • Sulphurdioxide
  10. Photochemical Smog Hydrocarbons + NOx + sunlight → Photochemical smog (oxidants) • Primary oxidants produced: – ozone (O3) – formaldehyde – peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN)
  11. Causes of Air Pollution 1. NATURAL SOURCES of air pollution are volcanic eruptions, forest fires, sea and salt sprays etc 2. MAN MADE sources include thermal power plants, industrial units, vehicular emissions, fossil fuel burning, Agricultural activities etc 3. Automobile engines, incomplete combustion of fuels in furnaces. 4. Lead particles from automobile exhaust, soot, fly ash from power station from asbestos, fluorides, aluminium metallic dusts, etc., and other natural sources. 12
  12. Sources of air pollution Man-made sources Domestic burning of fuel Burning of fossil fuels Industrialization Agricultural activities Vehicular emissions Air craft Wars Nuclear tests Deforestation Incineration Power generation Mining Metallurgy Waste treatment plants Refrigeration Industries Natural sources • Volcanoes • Forest fires • Sulphur springs • Spray from the oceans • Natural geysers • Deflation of sands and dust • Natural organic & inorganic dacays • Marsh gases • Extra terrestrial bodies • Cosmic dust • Pollen grains of flowers • Soil debris • Fungal spores • Photochemical reactions
  13. 14 Indoor Air Pollution •The most important indoor air pollutant is Radon gas. •This is emitted from building materials like bricks, concrete, tiles etc which are derived from soil containing radium. •During cooking (in rural) coal, kerosene are using. •The incomplete combustion produces CO and SO2. •Along with these some other toxic agents are HCHO and BAP (benzo-(a) pyrene). BAP is also found in Cigar smoke.
  14. Some Important Indoor Air Pollutants
  15. 16 EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON HUMAN HEALTH  Exposure to air pollutants causes lung cancer, asthma chronic bronchitis and emphysema.  Particulate matter causes decreasing of visibility and lung diseases.  CO when reacts with blood forms carboxyheamoglobin and causes suffocation, dizziness, unconsciousness and even death.  Many other pollutants like benzene (from unleaded petrol), HCHO and particulates like Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), toxic metals and dioxins (from burning of polythene) can cause mutations, reproductive problems, cancer.  The hazardous materials like Asbestos, Beryllium, Mercury, Arsenic and radioactive substances cause cancer, lung diseases, kidney, liver, spleen, brain problems.
  16. Major Components of the Human Respiratory System
  17. Health impacts • Cancer • Burning sensation in eyes & nose • Throat irritation • Bronchitis • Severe asthma • Hay fever • Loss of coordination • Decrease in lung function • Digestive problems • Nausea • Headache  Allergic diseases
  18. 19 EFFECTS ON PLANTS • Effects on plants: Damage to leaf structure causes • Necrosis (dead area of leaf), • Chlorosis (loss of chlorophyll causing yellowing of leaf), • Epinasty (downward curling of leaf) and • Abscission (dropping of leaves).
  19. 6/29/2022 Source: Confidential 22 •Effect on aquatic life: Air pollutants mixing up with rain can cause high acidity in fresh water lakes leads to death of fishes and other aquatic life forms. •Effect on Materials: Corrosion of metallic surfaces, disfigurement of statues made up of marble and limestone. SO2 causes damage to book bindings, paper, leather, fabric and paint. O3 can cause cracking of rubber, nylon, damage to the tyres and fading of cotton and rayon fibres
  20. • Reduction of pollutant discharge at the source by the application of control equipment • Reduction at the source through raw material changes, operational changes or modifications, or replacement of process equipment and controlling devices like cyclones, bag house filters, Wet scrubbers and electrostatic precipitators. • Dilution of the source discharge by the use of tall stacks • Dispersion of source locations through allocation of land usage i.e., proper planning and zoning of industrial areas • The hazardous chemicals should be converted into less-harmful substances. • Instead of using low grade and conventional fuels, environment-friendly fuels such as GOBAR GAS, LPG,and natural gas should be generated and used. • The vehicular pollution can be controlled by using good-quality fuel, by keeping engine fully effective and minimizing the use of motored vechicles. Stricter fuel standards should be set. • For effective control of air pollution, raising of green belts must be promoted. CONTROL MEASURES:
  21. Cyclonic separator Baffle type separator
  22. Around 1 a.m. on Monday, the 3rd of December, 1984, in a densely populated region in the city of Bhopal, Central India, a poisonous vapor burst from the tall stacks of the Union Carbide pesticide plant. This vapor was a highly toxic cloud of methyl isocyanine. Of the 800,000 people living in Bhopal at the time, 2,000 died immediately, and as many as 300,000 were injured. In addition, about 7,000 animals were injured, of which about one thousand were killed. A series of studies made five years later showed that many of the survivors were still suffering from one or several of the following ailments: partial or complete blindness, gastrointestinal disorders, impaired immune systems, post traumatic stress disorders, and menstrual problems in women. A rise in spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and offspring with genetic defects was also noted.” (The Bhopal Disaster) This incident we now refer to as the Bhopal Gas Tragedy, which has also been called “Hiroshima of the Chemical Industry” one of the worst commercial industrial disasters in history.(Cohen) BHOPAL GAS TRAGEDY
  23. The unpleasant and unwanted sound is called noise. 35 NOISE POLLUTION
  24. CAUSES OF NOISE POLLUTION 1.The main sources of noise are various modes of transportation, industrial operation, construction activities 2.Rocket engine, jet palne take off, thunder cap etc are some sources of sound 3.Electronic devices such as radio, television,etc., also produce considerable amount of noise leading to noise pollution inside homes. 4.Bursting of crackers and playing loud music during social gathering and festivals lead to lot of noise pollution and cause great discomfort to old and sick people around the area. 5.Exessive use of domestic appliances, such as mixers, washing machines, telephones,etc., 36
  25. 37 EFFECTS OF NOISE POLLUTION • 1.Interferes with mans communication: in a noisy area communication is severely effected • 2.HEARING DAMAGE: noise can cause temporary or permanent hearing loss • 3. Physiological disorders like anxiety, insomnia, high blood pressure, fatigue etc., occur as a consequence of over exposure to noise. • 4. Exessive noise leads to poor concentration and reduces the ability to think. • 5.Regular exposure to loud noise may cause speech and reading disabilities in young children. • 6.Many animals become dull and inactive and their health deteriorates due to continued exposure to high intensity noise.
  26. 1. Reduction in sources of noise 2. Noise making sound machines should be kept in containers with sound absorbing media 3. Proper oiling will reduce the sound from the machinery 4.Public awareness regarding different modes of noise pollution should be generated in people. 5.More and more trees should be planted since trees act as sound absorbers and hence contribute to minimizing noise pollution. 6.Aircraft noise may be reduced by designing engines that makes less noise. 7.Industrial noise may be reduced by redesigning the machine 8.Playing music above certain permissible level during marriages and other social and religious functions should be prohibited,etc., CONTROL MEASURES FOR NOISE POLLUTION
  27. Water pollution can be defined as alteration in physical and chemical, biological characteristics of water making it unsuitable for designated use in natural state 39 WATER POLLUTION
  28. Causes of water pollution 1. Major point sources of water pollution are industries, power plants, underground coal mines, offshare oil wells etc.. 2. Septic tanks, industries, deep well, injection, mining etc.. are mainly responsible for underground water pollution 3. Sewage, industrial wastes, synthetic detergents, agro chemical oil, waste heat are major source of natural pollution 4. Disposal of dead bodies and immersion of idles of gods and goddesses degrade the quality of water. 5. Modern agriculture practices require the use of large amounts of fertilizers, pesticides and other soil additives. These slowly move to water bodies through irrigation rainfall etc and cause water pollution. 40
  29. 41 EFFECTS OF WATER POLLUTION • 1. TOXIC COMPOUNDS: pollutants such as heavy metals, pesticides, cyanides and many other organic and inorganic compounds are harmful to aquatic organisms. Toxic substances tend to accumulate in the organism’s body this process is called “bioaccumulation”. • 2. PATHOGENS: water born diseases like cholera, dysentery, typhoid, jaundice. • 3. EUTROPHICATION: The presence of excess amounts of nitrates and phosphates in water increases the growth of certain plants on the surface of water body. This phenomena is called “eutrophication”. This reduces the oxygen supply to aquatic plants and other living organisms.
  30. Raw sewage from sewers Bar screen Grit chamber Settling tank Aeration tankSettling tank Chlorine disinfection tank Sludge Sludge digester Activated sludge Air pump (kills bacteria) To river, lak or ocean Sludge drying bed Disposed of in landfill or ocean or applied to cropland, pasture, or rangeland Primary Secondary
  31. Odors Odors may cause illness or indicate presence of harmful gases Dust Particles Particles of dried sludge carry viruses and harmful bacteria that can be inhaled, infect cuts or enter homes. BUFFER ZONE Exposure Children may walk or play in fertilized fields. Livestock Poisoning Cows may die after grazing on sludge-treated fields. Surface Runoff Harmful chemicals and pathogens may pollute nearby streams, lakes, ponds, and wetlands. Groundwater Contamination Harmful chemicals and pathogens may leach into groundwater and shallow wells. Sludge
  32. 1. Use of nitrogen fixing plants to supplement use of fertilizers 2. Planting trees would reduce pollution by sediments and will also prevent soil erosion. 3. Non biodegradable waste materials such as plastics should not be dumped into water bodies. 4. Industrial wastes and affluent should be treated in order to reduce their toxicity. 5. Human activities such as bathing and washing in rivers, ponds and lakes, washing animals, throwing half burnt dead bodies and idols made of plaster of paris must be completely stopped. 6. Rural people should be aware of the effects caused due to water pollution. CONTROL MEASURES FOR WATER POLLUTION
  33. Soil pollution can be defined as alteration in physical and chemical, biological characteristics of soil making it unsuitable for designated use in natural state 45 SOIL POLLUTION
  34. Causes of soil pollution 1.Thermal power plants generate a large quantity of fly ash, huge quantities of these wastes are dumped on the soils and pollute the environment 2.Agrochemicals released with the wastes of pesticide and fertilizers factories or during agricultural practices also reach the soil and pollute it 3.Soil also receive excreta from animals and humans. the sewage sludge contains many pathogenic organisms, bacteria causes pollution. 4. Mining leads to change in structure and composition of soil and hence causes soil pollution. 5. Construction of dams, houses, factories etc leaves the land in the adjacent areas unfit for agriculture hence contribute into water pollution. 46
  35. 47 EFFECTS OF SOIL POLLUTION • 1. Sewage and industrial effluents which pollute the soil ultimately effect human health • 2. Some of the persistent toxic chemicals inhibit the non-target organisms, flora and fauna and reduce soil productivity • 3. Nitrogen and phosphorous from the fertilizers in soil reach hear by water bodies with agricultural run-off and cause eutrophication. • 4. The disposal of industrial wastes on fertile lands degrade the quality of soil and renders the land unfit for use in the long-run. • 5. Radio-active elements that are present in the pollutant soil enter the food chain through plants. They cause a number of adverse health effects such as cancer, deformities in bones, etc in humans and animals.
  36. 1. Solid wastes should be properly collected and disposed off by appropriate method 2. Effluents should be properly treated before discharging them on the soil 3. The disposal of hazardous radio-active wastes into the soil should be prohibited as it is almost impossible to completely cleans the soil of radio-active elements. 4. The use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides should be minimized as far as possible. 5.Planting of trees must be encouraged. Trees bind the soil and prevent the loss of fertile top soil during heavy rains and floods CONTROL MEASURES FOR SOIL POLLUTION
  37. Thermal pollution can be defined as the presence of waste heat in the water. 49 THERMAL POLLUTION
  38. Causes of Thermal pollution 1.Heat producing industries .i.e..thermal power plants, nuclear power plants, refineries, steel mills, etc are major sources. 2. Power plants utilize only 1/3 of the energy provided by fossil fuel for their operations. Remaining 2/3 is generally lost in the form of heat to the water used for cooling .They reach water bodies which causes thermal pollution of water. 3. Soil erosion and contamination of water also cause retention of heat hence contributing to thermal pollution. 50
  39. 51 EFFECTS OF THERMAL POLLUTION • 1.Toxicity of pesticides ,detergents and chemicals in the effluents increase with increase in pollution. • 2.Fish migration is affected due to formation of various thermal zones. • 3.The increase in water temperature may cause the activities of certain pathogenic micro-organisms to accelerate. • 4.The heated industrial effluents may contain toxic pollutants such as cadmium, copper and arsenic that may make the water unsuitable for any purpose.
  40. COOLING PONDS: Water from condencers is stored in ponds where natural evaporation cools the water. SPRAY PONDS: Here water from condensers is received in spray ponds and water is sprayed through nozzles where fine droplets are formed and dissipated to atmosphere. COOLING TOWERS: a).Wet cooling towers,dry cooling towers are used. b).The excess heat energy that is produced in the generation of electricity may be utilized in another industry where this energy may be required.This process is called co-generation. CONTROL MEASURES FOR THERMAL POLLUTION
  41. MARINE pollution can be defined as the presence of unwanted wastes in marine water. 53 MARINE POLLUTION
  42. Causes of Marine pollution 1.Rivers,which bring pollutants from their drainage basins 2.Catchment area i.e..coastline where human settlements in the form of hotels, industry, agricultural practices..etc. 3.Oil drilling and shipment. 4.Discarded nuclear sub-marine and military waste also causes marine pollution. 5.Water that is used as coolant in power plants and industrial sites is also responsible for marine pollution. 54
  43. 55 EFFECTS OF MARINE POLLUTION • 1.Oil in seawater effects sensitive flora and fauna. • 2.Death occurs due to loss of buoyancy and subsequent drawing of birds. • 3.Phytoplankton, zooplankton, algal species ,various species of invertebrates, coal reefs, birds, fish are affected by oil pollution. • 4.Consumption of marine food obtained from such polluted water cause a number of fatal diseases such as viral hepatitis, cholera, typhoid and digestive problems. • 5.Toxicity of the water is increased due to the addition of heavy metals which adversely effects the marine life.
  44. 1.Development activities on coastal areas should be minimized. 2.Oil ballast should not be dumped into sea. 3.Dumping of toxic, hazardous wastes and sewage sludge should be banned. 4.Oil and grease from service stations should be proceed for reuse. 5.Sewage and industrial waste should be treated before releasing into sea water. 6.Solid wastes such as plastic, glass, metal, papers etc. should be recycled for different purposes instead of being discarded as wastes. CONTROL MEASURES FOR MARINE POLLUTION
  45. 57 NUCLEAR POLLUTION Causes of Nuclear pollution Causes of Nuclear pollution NATURAL SOURCES: Like cosmic rays from outer space, radioactive radon-222,soil, rocks, air, water and food..etc. 1.Anthropogenic Sources:- like nuclear power plant, nuclear accidents, X-rays, test laboratories etc.
  46. 58 EFFECTS OF NUCLEAR POLLUTION • 1.Genetic damages: This damages is caused by radiations which effects genes chromosomes and often seen in the off springs and may be transmitted upto several generations. • 2.Somatic damage:-Includes burns, miscarriages, eye cataract and cancer of bone, thyroid, breast cancer etc… • 3.Radio nuclides enter the water bodies coming in contact with the contaminated soil or rock.
  47. 1. Setting of nuclear power plant should be carefully done after studying long term and shot term effects 2. Proper disposal of water from laboratory involving the use of radio isotopes should be done CONTROL MEASURES FOR NUCLEAR POLLUTION
  48. At a height between 15-60 Kms, there is a layer of ozone in the upper atmosphere. This layer is very important for the existence of life on earth. The depletion of ozone layer is due to the use of chemicals called aerosol spry pollutants like fluorocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons. The aerosols released form jet planes remove the ozone layer. Freon gas is used in refrigerators and air conditioners release fluorocarbons-CFCs are mainly used as refrigerants, solvents, forming agents and as aerosol propellants for such products as deodorants, hairspray, and spray paint. Depletion of Ozone Layer
  49. The Stratospheric Ozone Layer: a Giant Umbrella for Earth Ozone in the stratosphere protects the biosphere of the Earth by absorbing harmful ultraviolet radiation in the range of ~200-310 nm.
  50. Location of Stratosphere Thermosphere Exosphere Troposphere Mesosphere Stratosphere 10 km 40 km 50 km 300 km 400 km
  51. Lesson 9: Stratospheric Ozone and the Ozone Hole
  52. OZONE Is An oxygen molecule consists of two oxygen molecules. When an oxygen molecule (O2) is struck by UV radiation, it splits into two separate oxygen atoms Free oxygen molecules can then combine with oxygen molecules to create ozone, or O3.
  53. Oxygen in the Atmosphere UV radiation + O2 O O + O + O2 O3 (ozone)
  54. •Ozone is a triatomic form of oxygen (O3) found in Earth’s upper and lower atmosphere. •The ozone layer, situated in the stratosphere about 15 to 30 km above the earth's surface. •Ozone protects living organisms by absorbing harmful ultraviolet radiation (UVB) from the sun. •The ozone layer is being destroyed by CFCs and other substances. • Ozone depletion progressing globally except in the tropical zone. The ozone layer eng/earth/ozone_layer_depletion/susumu.html
  55. Lesson 9: Stratospheric Ozone and the Ozone Hole The Thickness of the Ozone Layer If you compressed the total amount of ozone throughout the height of the atmosphere to a pressure of 1 atmosphere and measured its height in millimeters then … • 1 mm = 100 Dobson Units • 3 mm = 300 Dobson Units • 5 mm = 500 Dobson Units
  56. EGEE 102 - Pisupati 68 Ozone-Depleting Substance(s) • CFCs, • HCFCs, • halons, • methyl bromide, • carbon tetrachloride, and • methyl chloroform.
  57. Chemical Mechanism • Different chemicals are responsible for the destruction of the ozone layer • Topping the list : – chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) – man-made, non-toxic and inert in the troposphere – In the stratosphere are photolysed, releasing reactive chlorine atoms that catalytically destroy ozone
  58. The depletion of ozone layer is due to the use of chemicals pollutants like fluorocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons. The aerosols released form jet planes remove the ozone layer. Freon gas is used in refrigerators and air conditioners release fluorocarbons- CFCs are mainly used as refrigerants, solvents, forming agents and as aerosol propellants for such products as deodorants, hairspray, and spray paint.
  59. CFC’s and ozone depletion • Chlorofluorocarbons are created and used in refrigerators and air conditioners. • These chlorofluorocarbons are not harmful to humans and have been a benefit to us. • Once released into the atmosphere, chlorofluorocarbons are bombarded and destroyed by ultraviolet rays. • In the process chlorine is released to destroy the ozone molecules
  60. Original Research 1974: Rowland and Molina UV radiation + Cl Cl F F C C Cl F F + Cl- “free radical”
  61. 1.UV radiation breaks off a chlorine atom from a CFC molecule. 2.The chlorine atom attacks an ozone molecule (O3), breaking it apart and destroying the ozone. 3.The result is an ordinary oxygen molecule (O2) and a chlorine monoxide molecule (ClO). 4.The chlorine monoxide molecule (ClO) is attacked by a free oxygen atom releasing the chlorine atom and forming an ordinary oxygen molecule (O2). 5.The chlorine atom is now free to attack and destroy another ozone molecule (O3). One chlorine atom can repeat this destructive cycle thousands of times. Destruction of Ozone:
  62. Cl- “Free Radicals”… Cl- “free radical” O3 (ozone) + O2 ClO + ClO + O Cl- “free radical” + O2
  63. Impacts of Ozone Depletion Human Health • Skin cancer • Melanoma • Cataracts • Immune system function • Increased incidence, severity and duration of infectious diseases • Reduced efficacy of vaccinations Ecological Health • Pathogen locally up & down • Biodiversity locally up & down • Aquatic organisms adversely impacted • Decreased biomass productivity • Polar systems especially vulnerable
  64. • Limiting the use of CFC’s is difficult • Ban the production and use of CFC’s • Use CFC substitutes such as HCFC’s and HFC’s • Recycling refrigerants • Alternatives to gas-blown plastics • Alternative propellants • Alternatives to methyl bromide, a fungicide
  65. 77 What can we do? • Make sure that technicians working on your car air conditioner, home air conditioner, or refrigerator are certified by an EPA approved program to recover the refrigerant (this is required by law). • Have your car and home air conditioner units and refrigerator checked for leaks. When possible, repair leaky air conditioning units before refilling them. • Contact local authorities to properly dispose of refrigeration or air conditioning equipment. • Protect yourself against sunburn. Minimize sun exposure during midday hours (10 am to 4 pm). Wear sunglasses, a hat with a wide brim, and protective clothing with a tight weave. Use a broad spectrum sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of at least 15 and 30 is better.
  66. Global Warming An increase in the earth's average atmospheric temperature that causes corresponding changes in climate and that may result from the greenhouse effect.
  67. • Global warming is the rise in temperate concerning the earth resulting in climate change •Greenhouse effects •Heat being trapped in the earth’s atmosphere •Lead to changes in rainfall pattern, rise in sea level, range of impact on wildlife, plants and humans
  68. What causes climate change or global warming? Carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere through: - natural processes (e.g. breathing, decomposition) - man-made processes (e.g. car exhaust, factories, brush fires) The carbon dioxide builds up in the atmosphere and absorbs and re- radiates heat which increases surface and atmospheric temperature. The buildup of carbon dioxide has increased exponentially due to human activity.
  69. Causes of Global Warming One cause is the release of carbon dioxide from everything such as air planes, buildings, power plants Another cause like the Greenhouse effect is water vapor increasing in the air and deforestation
  70. Atmospheric Pollution is the contamination of the atmosphere with harmful by product of human activity. Vehicular Industries Factories Transport Refrigerators releasing chlorofluorocarbons Anthropogenic activities
  71. Green house effect • The green house effect is the rise in temperature that the earth experiences because certain gases in the atmosphere trap energy from the sun. •What are the Greenhouse gases? Water vapor, CO2, nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4). •These gases are essential for keeping the earth’s temperature in an ideal range i.e. not too hot and too cold.
  72. Greenhouse Consequences • Due to greenhouse gases, the atmosphere absorbs more infrared energy than it re-radiates to space, resulting in a net warming of the Earth-atmosphere system and of surface temperature • Without the Greenhouse effect our temperature would drop and we would freeze • Extreme Weather • Increase Evaporation • Sea Level Rise • Temperature to Rise • Economy such as, Agriculture, Insurance, Transportation • Ecosystems such as, Forests, Mountains, and Ecological productivity • Health by increasing the risk of spreading disease
  75. FORMATION OF ACID RAIN When water vapour condeses, or as the rain falls, they dissolve in the water to form sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and nitric acid (HNO3).
  79. EFFECT ON HISTORICAL MONUMENTS 1) TAJMAHAL,INDIA 2) Leshan Giant Buddha, Mount EMEI, China 3)Longmen Grottoes, China 4) Acropolis of Athens, Greece
  81. Acropolis of Athens, Greece
  82. Westminster Abbey in London
  83. Leshan Giant Buddha, Mount EMEI, China
  84. Longmen Grottoes, China