1. SHRI G.S. INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY &
Department Of Electrical Engineering
B.Tech IIIrd Year
EE32999- Minor Project & Industrial Training
Session : 2022-23
An electric vehicle (EV) is a vehicle that uses one or more electric motors for propulsion.
EVs first came into existence in the mid-19th century, when in 1828 an inventor Anyos Jedlik
invented an electric motor by which he was able to use his motor to create a small electric
The first mass-produced electric vehicles appeared in America in the early 1900s. However,
with the production of cheap assembly line cars by Ford Motor Company, the popularity of
electric cars declined significantly.
Also due to the limitations of storage batteries at that time, the wide availability of
affordable made internal combustion powered cars cheaper to operate over long distances.
Also, internal combustion powered cars became ever-easier to operate due to the invention
of the electric starter in 1912 and the noise emitted by ICE cars became much more reduced
due to the use of the muffler, invented in 1897.
Finally, the initiation of mass production of petrol powered vehicles by Henry Ford in 1913
reduced significantly the petrol cars as compared to electric cars. petrol electric cars did not
gain much popularity
Electric cars function by plugging into a charge point and taking electricity from the grid. They store
the electricity in rechargeable batteries that power an electric motor, which turns the wheels.
When the accelerator pedal is pressed it sends a signal to the controller which is like the brain of a
vehicle, managing all of its parameters. Power is converted from the DC battery to AC for the electric
motor using an inverter. The electric motor draws power from the battery to drive the car’s wheels
and enable propulsion. Most electric cars will use lithium-ion batteries as they can store a lot more
energy. In electric cars batteries are usually found positioned low down in the car, this helps to
regulate the car’s centre of gravity. Electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy
Rotation of the motor rotor rotates the transmission so the wheels turn and then the car moves.
Less maintenance required due to fewer moving parts
Environment friendly and reduced emissions
Instant power delivery
7. TYPES OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES
BATTERY ELECTRIC VEHICLE (BEV)
HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE (HEV)
FUEL CELL ELECTRIC VEHICLE (FCEV)
8. BATTERY ELECTRIC VEHICLE (BEV)
A Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV), also called All-Electric Vehicle (AEV), runs
entirely on a battery and electric drive train. This types of electric cars do not
have an ICE. Electricity is stored in a large battery pack that is charged by
plugging into the electricity grid. The battery pack, in turn, provides power to one
or more electric motors to run the electric car.
Intially the power is converted from the DC battery to AC for the electric motor.
The accelerator pedal sends a signal to the controller which adjusts the vehicle’s
speed by changing the frequency of the AC power from the inverter to the motor.
The motor connects and turns the wheels.
When the brakes are pressed or the electric car is decelerating, the motor
becomes an alternator and produces power, which is sent back to the battery
10. HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE (HEV)
This type of hybrid cars is often called as standard hybrid or paralel hybrid.
HEV has both an ICE and an electric motor. In this types of electric cars,
internal combustion engine gets energy from fuel (petrol and others type of
fuels), while the motor gets electricity from batteries.
The petrol engine and electric motor simultaneously rotate the transmission,
which drives the wheels.
The difference between HEV compared to other type of electric vehicles is
where the batteries in HEV can only charged by the ICE, the motion of the
wheels or a combination of both.
There is no charging port, so that the battery cannot be recharged from
outside of the system, for example from the electricity grid.
12. FUEL CELL ELECTRIC VEHICLE (FCEVS)
Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs), also known as fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) or
Zero Emission Vehicle, are types of electric cars that employ ‘fuel cell
technology’ to generate the electricity required to run the vehicle.
In this type of vehicles, the chemical energy of the fuel is converted directly
into electric energy.
The working principle of a ‘fuel cell’ electric car is different compared to
that of a ‘plug-in’ electric car.
This types of electric cars is because it generates the electricity required to
run this vehicle on the vehicle itself
The progress that the electric vehicle industry has seen in recent years is not only extremely
welcomed, but highly necessary in light of the increasing global greenhouse gas levels. As
demonstrated within the economic, social, and environmental analysis sections of this
webpage, the benefits of electric vehicles far surpass the costs. The biggest obstacle to the
widespread adoption of electric-powered transportation is cost related, as gasoline and the
vehicles that run on it are readily available, convenient, and less costly. As is demonstrated
in our timeline, we hope that over the course of the next decade
technological advancements and policy changes will help ease the transition
from traditional fuel-powered vehicles