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Buddhism and Hinduism Change Traditional Hindu and Buddhist Beliefs • Hinduism blends Aryan beliefs and other beliefs; polytheistic—believes in many gods. • To Buddhists, desire causes suffering, but suffering can be overcome.
Buddhism and Hinduism Change A More Popular Form of Buddhism • Belief in bodhisattvas develops— potential Buddhas who save humanity • Mahayana sect—Buddhists accepting new doctrines of worship and salvation. • Theravada sect—Buddhists who follow original teachings of Buddha • Wealthy Buddhist merchants build stupas—stone structures over relics
Buddhist Denominations and Schools Buddhism Hinayana Mahayana“The Lesser Vehicle” “The Greater Vehicle” (Theravada) Zen (7th Century C.E., China Vadjrayana Tantric Buddhism Vietnam, Korea, Japan) (6th-7th Century India) Tibetan (Tibet) Shingon (Japan) Pure Land Yogacara (4th Century C.E.) (begins 13th Century Japan) Tiantai Madhyamaka (China, Korea, Japan) Tendai (Japan) Nichiren (Japan)
Buddhism and Hinduism Change A Hindu Rebirth • Hinduism is remote from people by time of Mauryan Empire • Hinduism moves toward monotheism; gods are part of one divine force Brahma—creator of the world Vishnu—preserver of the world Shiva—destroyer of the world
Achievements of Indian Culture Literature and the Performing Arts • Kalidasa—poet and dramatist, one of India’s greatest writers • His skillful and emotionally stirring plays are still popular • Madurai writing accademies create literature; 2,000 Tamil poems survive • Drama and dance troupes gain popularity and travel widely
Achievements of Indian Culture Astronomy, Mathematics, and Medicine • Ocean trade leads to advances in astronomy • Indian astronomers in Gupta Empire prove that the world is round. • Mathematicians develop the idea of zero and decimal system • Doctors write medical guides and make advances in surgery
The Spread of Indian Trade India’s Valuable Resources • India has spices, diamonds, precious stones, and good quality wood
The Spread of Indian Trade India’s Valuable Resources • India has spices, diamonds, precious stones, and good quality wood Overland Trade, East and West • Trade routes called Silk Roads connect Asia and Europe • Indians build trading posts to take advantage of the Silk Roads
The Spread of Indian Trade Sea Trade, East and West • Indian merchants carry goods to Rome by sea • Merchants trade by sea with Africa, Arabia, China, Southeast Asia
The Spread of Indian Trade Effects of Indian Trade • Increased trade leads to rise in banking • Bankers lend money to merchants, careful of degree of risk • Increased trade spreads Indian culture to other places • Trade brings Hinduism, Buddhism to other lands