4. Legend: Aeneas settles in Rome after
His descendants, Romulus & Remus
History: 600s BC: Etruscans conquer
509 BC: Etruscan king overthrown &
6. Hills & Rivers
Built on 7 steep hills
What advantages did the land near Rome offer?
Live in simple huts of mud or timber
What values did Roman farmers share?
8. Republic lasted 500 years
Conflict between patricians & plebeians
450 BC: Constitution written (12 Tables)
Three Branches of Government
Commanded army & directed gov’t for
Power of veto
8 judges served for one year
10. Leader with absolute power
In times of crisis, could be
appointed for a limited time
458 BC: Cincinnatus made
Defeated the enemy & returned
power in one day
13. By 275 BC: dominate central Italy & Greece
How did the Romans treat these conquered
15. Three wars with North African city-state Carthage
Starts 264 BC
Rome wins all three wars
2nd: Hannibal invades Rome with elephants
3rd: Rome destroys Carthage and enslaves its people
17. General, politician, dictator
Captures the entire region
Advocated reforms to help
His popularity made others
44 BC: Senate names him
dictator for life
Expanded the Senate
Created jobs for the poor
18. Senators fear Caesar's growing power
March 15, 44 BC: assassinated on the Senate floor
What happens after Caesar is killed?
19. Adopted son of Julius Caesar
27 BC: Becomes first emperor
How did Augustus rule?
20. “Peace of Rome”
Lasted 200 years
2 million square miles
300,000 men in army
Public works projects
By 100s AD: Empire stretches from Spain to
Mesopotamia; N. Africa to Britain
Most Romans farmers
Land and sea trade routes
What’s not grown is traded for
24. What is currency?
What are the advantage of currency?
26. Father was the head of the household
Women ran household and raised children
Could not vote
Wealthy boys educated at private schools
Girls married at age 14
27. Who was in the new middle class?
1/3 of population slaves
Most did physical labor
Slave revolts common, but usually unsuccessful
29. Believed in hundreds of nature spirits
Borrowed the idea of gods in human form from Etruscans
Borrowed many specific gods form the Greeks
Priests were government officials
Emperors worshiped as gods
31. 1 million people (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_United_States_cities_by_population)
What problems existed in the city of Rome?
32. Large homes in countryside
Attended theater and threw dinner parties
What foods were served at Roman dinner parties?
33. Problem: free-flowing human waste
Problem: lack of fresh water
Problem: many Romans dirty
34. “Bread and Games”
Rome gave free grain to the poor
Entertainment at public areas
Chariot races at the Circus Maximus
Gladiator fights in the Coliseum
What did Romans like about these contests?
35. 63 BC: Rome conquers
Jewish kingdoms in
Jewish sacred writings
promise a Messiah
What did the Jews
believe about the
Born in Bethlehem, grew up in Nazareth
Traveling preacher with many followers who
believed him to be the promised Messiah.
38. What was Jesus’ message?
How did Jesus teach his lessons?
39. Jesus’ claim of being the
Messiah made him a
threat to the Roman
Pontius Pilate, the Roman
governor of Judea,
condemned Jesus to
Jesus rose from death,
proving his divinity.
40. Church encouraged charity, helping the
Gentiles (non-Jews) also convert to Christianity
Debate over whether Christians should follow
At first, Rome ignores Christianity
42. Saul converted to Christianity on
the road to Damascus
Expert in Jewish law
Roman citizen. Why did this help?
Took advantage of the Pax
Romana to spread Christianity
43. Gentiles need not follow Jewish law to be Christians
Wrote epistles (letters) to churches he founded
throughout the Mediterranean
Paul explained Christian beliefs and encouraged
44. Arrested by the Romans in
60 AD: House arrest in
Rome for two years
Dies in Rome
Most influential Christian