Recent time Bangladesh has been
populated with 160 million people, about
31% of whom live below poverty line of
US$2 per day . But this situation has
been changed such as, the poverty rate
dropped to 12.9% in 2016 from 18.5% in
2010, where it was 44.2% in 1991.
5. Definition of Poverty:
There is no accurate definition of poverty , it
may be defined by 3 approaches such as:
Income and living standard,
Income and capabilities and
Absolute and relative term.
However, poverty is defined ,generally, as a
condition in which a person or community
is deprived of; or lacks the essentials for a
minimum standard of well-being and life.
6. According to World Bank ,Poverty is
pronounced deprivation in well-being, and
comprises many dimensions. It includes
low incomes and the inability to acquire the
basic goods and services necessary
for survival with dignity. Poverty also
encompasses low levels of health and
education, poor access to clean water and
sanitation, inadequate physical security,
lack of voice, and insufficient capacity and
opportunity to better one's life.
7. Poverty in Bangladesh:
The incidence of poverty in Bangladesh may be divided into:
(a) Rural poverty and
The high population growth and low level of economic activities
in rural areas may be identified as important causative factors
for high incidence of rural poverty. The rural economy has
been growing at a slow pace. On the contrary, the urban
based industrialization has done little to mitigate the problem
of rural unemployment and thus to rural poverty.
9. Factors of Rural Poverty:
The causes of rural poverty are much more complex and
no single factor is sufficient to understand and explain
The important factors of rural poverty are :
High Population Growth and density
Low level of Economic growth
Uneven social structure
Low resource Endowment (land) and low Productivity
Inadequate and inappropriate Rural development
Adverse Effect of Terms of Trade
Country’s Geographical and demographical
Political issues of Rural Impoverishment
11. Urban Poverty:
Urban poverty is the result of rural poverty. It means that
rural poverty also existed .
Causes of urban poverty
Urbanization and Urban Poverty
The ongoing urbanization brings vast challenges. Most
poor urban settlements lack even the most basic
amenities associated with public services such as
running water, sewage systems / latrines, waste
disposal services and formal connections to electricity.
Slum populations also have restricted access to basic
social services, such as health clinics and schools.
12. limited employment opportunities
Lack of good urban planning
Bad housing and sanitation
Incomplete government law
Lack of good urban governance
Unequal resource distribution
13. Environmental problems and poverty:
With 80% of the country situated on the flood plains of the
Ganges, Brahmaputra, Meghna and those of several other
minor rivers, the country is prone to severe flooding. While
some flooding is beneficial to agriculture, high levels of
flooding have been found to be a retardant on agricultural
growth. On average, 16% of household income per year is
lost due to flooding, with roughly 89% of the loss in property
and assets. Of these, households engaged in farming and
fishing suffer a greater loss relative to income.
14. Implications of poverty in Bangladesh:
Poverty matters because it affects many factors of
growth such as
population growth rates,
health of the workforce and
Poverty is most concentrated in the rural areas of
Bangladesh, hence creating disparities between the
rural and urban areas. However, urban poverty remains
a problem too.
15. Scenario of poverty reduction in BD:
Bangladesh continues to reduce poverty but at a slower
pace . Such as,
The pace of economic growth increased since 2010
with GDP growing at a rate of 6.5 percent on average
per year between 2010 and 2016. In contrast, the pace
of poverty reduction slowed. The national poverty rate
fell by 1.2 percentage points annually from 2010 to
2016 compared to 1.7 from 2005 to 2010.
Slower and more unequal household consumption
growth explain the deceleration in poverty reduction
16. Poverty continues to be much lower in urban Bangladesh, but
the rate of poverty reduction was also slower.
Progress in reducing poverty was also uneven across
divisions, with the North West seeing poverty rise.
17. The way of removing poverty:
By ensuring increased local govt. participation
By developing a global partnership.
By eliminating corruption.
By improving maternal health.
By removing unemployment problem.
By promoting gender equality and empowering
18. By achieving universal primary education.
By giving loans and technical education to the
By exporting manpower.
By ensuring budget allocation considering
regional socio-economic condition.
By increasing income tax by reducing VAT and
ensure corruption free tax administration.
By ensuring employment oriented technical
education and changing in vocational training
Though Bangladesh is a poverty stricken country ,this
situation had been changed from 1990. but the
gap between rural and urban poverty is widening,
which is a alarming issue in recent time .urban
poverty is more acute than rural poverty. Most of
the time the urban poor don’t have any shelter and
they sleep in urban footpath and under open sky,
and they have also lack of social services provided
by urban government.