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FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6
1. Too and enough
□Too and enough indicate deg...
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FCE
by Matifmarin
- "Too" can come before a noun IF the adjectives many/much also come before the...
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FCE
by Matifmarin
□ Enough
GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6
1. Too and enough
● He is tall enough...
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FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6
1. Too and enough
Sentences with enough are so...
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FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6
1. Too and enough
EXERCISES
1. Fill in the cor...
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FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6
1. Too and enough
Answer Key:
1. Too
2. Enough...
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FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6
TWO TYPES
2. Relative clauses
Defining Non-def...
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FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6
CONCLUSION:
(1) In defining relative sentences...
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FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6
Relative Pronouns & Adverbs
why
who
that
which...
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FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6
□ In  defining relative clause we use who/ t...
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by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6
This is the house - The house was built in t...
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FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6
□ Whose expresses possession and CAN'T be om...
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FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6
Steps to recognize the type of relative sent...
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FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6
EXERCISE
(1) Sara is a new student. She is v...
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FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6
SUGGESTED ANSWERS:
(1) Sara, who is very har...
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FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6
2.1. Relative clauses
□ When the Relative Pr...
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FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6
THE CAUSATIVE: To have/get something done
Fo...
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FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6
Compare the following examples:
3. THE CAUSA...
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FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6
THE CAUSATIVE: To have/get something done
Th...
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by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6
THE CAUSATIVE: To have/get something done
If...
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by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6
THE CAUSATIVE: To have/get something done
PR...
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by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6
THE CAUSATIVE: To have/get something done
1....
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FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6
THE CAUSATIVE: Make (we saw it in UNIT 5)
Th...
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FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6
SUGGESTED ANSWERS:
THE CAUSATIVE: Make (we saw it in UNI...
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Unit 6 Grammar Contents

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Unit 6 Grammar Contents. An original lesson by matifmarin

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Unit 6 Grammar Contents

  1. 1. 11  Next pageNext page FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6 1. Too and enough □Too and enough indicate degree. They are used with adjectives. ● Too means more than what is needed. ● Enough means sufficient. - We can use too before an adjective. (It shows a negative opinion.) ● It’s too hot = It is very hot and I don’t like it. - We can also use too before an adverb ●The teacher speaks too quietly. = He speaks very quickly and I don’t understand him. ● She is too old to dance in the disco. Examples: □Too:
  2. 2. 22  Next pageNext page FCE by Matifmarin - "Too" can come before a noun IF the adjectives many/much also come before the noun. ● I ate too much food. (food = uncountable noun, so we use "much") ● I ate too many sandwiches.(sandwiche = countable noun, so we use "many") -We can also use too much after a verb. GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6 1. Too and enough ● I ate too much. ● Homer drinks too much.
  3. 3. 33  Next pageNext page FCE by Matifmarin □ Enough GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6 1. Too and enough ● He is tall enough to play basketball. - We write enough before a noun e.g.: We have enough chairs in the classroom. - But we write it after an adjective or verb. ● He works hard enough.
  4. 4. 44  Next pageNext page FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6 1. Too and enough Sentences with enough are sometimes followed by to + verb infinitive. ● I’m not tall enough to reach the flower. ● I ‘m not reach enough to buy that car.
  5. 5. 55  Next pageNext page FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6 1. Too and enough EXERCISES 1. Fill in the correct word (too or enough). 1. I left the coffee for a minute to cool because it was __________ hot to drink. 2. He wasn't strong _______ to lift that heavy box. 3. There aren't ________ policemen in our town. 4. Do you have ________ information to help me with this problem? 5. It is ________ difficult to do for a little child. 6. I do not have _________ much time to prepare dinner. 7. I didn't buy the car because it was ________expensive. 8. He didn't work hard ________to pass the exam. 9. My mum can't sleep because she drinks ________ much coffee. 10. She isn't old ________ to start driving.
  6. 6. 66  Next pageNext page FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6 1. Too and enough Answer Key: 1. Too 2. Enough 3. Enough 4. Enough 5. Too 6. Too 7. Too 8. Enough 9. Too 10. enough
  7. 7. 77  Next pageNext page FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6 TWO TYPES 2. Relative clauses Defining Non-defining Main sentence Main sentence Relative sentence Relative sentence → Unnecessary The student who didn’t come yesterday is ill in hospital. Marta, who is my best friend, has bought a new house. Which student? It identifies /defines ? the student = subject (CAN’T be omitted) It’s already definined (who = subject of the R. clause) The student whom / that I gave the results is very itelligent. Marta, whom I gave the book, has bought a new house. or The student Who / that I gave the results to is very itelligent. or Marta, Who I gave the book to, has bought a new house. Which student? It identifies /defines ? the student = object (CAN be omitted) It’s already definined (whom/who … to = object or the R. clause) the whole Relative clause CAN be omitted
  8. 8. 88  Next pageNext page FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6 CONCLUSION: (1) In defining relative sentences, the relative pronoun CAN only be omitted when it’s the OBJECT of the R. clause. Relative pronoun + Verb = NO omission: The student who/ that came yesterday is very intelligent. R.Pr. Verb Relative pronoun + Subject = Omission: The book which / that they gave you is about plants and flowers. R. Pr. S The book they gave you is about plants and flowers. (ø R. pron) dO S V iO Predicate (dO complement) (2) In Non-defining relative sentences, the whole R. clause CAN be omitted (but Not the R. Pr.): - Your sister, who is very nice, came yesterday. = Your sister came yesterday. (3) The R. Pronoun ”THAT” can be used instead of “who” (people) or “which” (animals or things), It’s used ONLY in defining relative sentences NEVER in Non-defining. Non-defining relative clauses: (a) Are separeted by commas. (b) NEVER use "that" (c) NEVER omit the relative pronoun, though the whole R. clause can be removed from the main sentence. (d) These clauses are used in written or formal speech, therefore they are not very common in everyday communication.
  9. 9. 99  Next pageNext page FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6 Relative Pronouns & Adverbs why who that which whom whose when where   (a) Defining (no commas and essential information) Subject Object Possessive (can be omitted) (b) Non-defining (commas and extra information) subject object possessive (can’t be omitted) People who who/whom whose that that who who/whom whose ----- -------- Animals or things which /that which /that whose/of which which which whose/of which   ( Note that here we don’t use ‘that’) SUMMARY for Relative Sentences:
  10. 10. 1010  Next pageNext page FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6 □ In  defining relative clause we use who/ that/which instead of he/she/they/it. Examples: • The woman –she lives next door –is a doctor. R. Sentence: The woman who lives next door is a doctor. (“who” = subject of the relative sentence →CAN’T be omitted) → We can use “that” instead of “who”: • The woman that lives next door is a doctor. R. Sentence: We know a lot of people who live in London. (“who” = subject of the relative sentence →CAN’T be omitted) Further examples: • We know a lot of people – they live in London. □ We use relative clauses when we need to add some more information; it can be necessary information (defining) or extra information (non-denining).
  11. 11. 1111  Next pageNext page FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6 This is the house - The house was built in the 19th century by a famous architect. → This is the house which was built in the 19th century by a famous architect. The man livis next door - The man is a hairdresser. → The man who lives next door is a hairdresser. Which = the house Who = the man > A relative clause always follow its antecendent (= the noun it refers to) □ The most frequent relative words are: ● Who / whom people ● Which animals / objects ● Where places ● When Time references ● That people / animals / objects □ Whom is mostly used in formal speech and it is only used when it refers to the object of the main clause: ● This is the student about whom the teachers were talking = This is the student the teachers were talking about. ● Why reason
  12. 12. 1212  Next pageNext page FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6 □ Whose expresses possession and CAN'T be omitted: ● The students whose books you are revising are having a break. Relat. clause Main clause □ Examples for the relative adverbs "where", "when" and "why“ (they can be omitted) ● This is the town - she was born there. This is the town where she was born. ● She remembers the time - she lived there. She remember the time when she lived there. ● She is so excited - she has been promoted. The reason why she is so excited is because she has been promoted
  13. 13. 1313  Next pageNext page FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6 Steps to recognize the type of relative sentences (1) Look for the antecedent: The Eiffel Tower. (2) Chose the appropriate relative pronoun for this antecedent: which (3) Start by writing the subject of the main clause: The Eiffel Tower (4) Add the relative pronoun immediately after the subject: The Eiffel Tower which (5) Decide which is the main information and which the secondary (year of construction or appearance? in my opinion, it’s the year of construction): was built in 1889 (6) The secondary or extra information goes between commas, and you have it!! > The Eiffel Tower, which is very impressive, was built in 1889. (= Non-defining R. sentence) Sample sentence: The Eiffel Tower was built in 1889. The Eiffel Tower is very impressive.
  14. 14. 1414  Next pageNext page FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6 EXERCISE (1) Sara is a new student. She is very hard-working. (2) The machine broke down. The machine has now been repaired (3) The white table is now in the dinning room. It is quite large. (4) A laptop. A computer you can carry around. (5) The house is very modern. It has all necessary electrical appliances and air-conditioning. (6) The woman was away on holiday. I wanted to see the woman. (7) Barbara works for a company. The company makes washing machines. (8) John speaks French and Italian. He works as a tourist guide. (9) That guy seems to be very lonely. His family is away.
  15. 15. 1515  Next pageNext page FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6 SUGGESTED ANSWERS: (1) Sara, who is very hard-working, is a new student. (2) The machine which broke down has now been repaired (3) The white table, which is quite large, is now in the dinning room. (4) A laptop is a computer which / that you can carry around. (5) The house, which has all necessary electrical appliances and air-conditioning, is very modern. (6) The woman who I wanted to see was away on holiday. (7) Barbara works for a company which makes washing machines. (8) John, who speaks French and Italian, works as a tourist guide. (9) That guy, whose family is away, seems to be very lonely.
  16. 16. 1616  Next pageNext page FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6 2.1. Relative clauses □ When the Relative Pronoun is the object of a preposition: The formal construction is preposition + which / that / who(m), but it is more usual to move the preposition to the end of the clause, using which / that or who or omitting the relative altogether. Examples: ● The ladder on which I was standing began to slip. The ladder which/that I was standing on began to slip. The ladder I was standing on began to slip ● The man to whom I gave the message is the headteacher. The man who I gave the message to is the headteacher. The man I gave the message to is the headteacher.
  17. 17. 1717  Next pageNext page FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6 THE CAUSATIVE: To have/get something done Form: Subject + have / get + object + past participle □ We use the causative form when we don't do things ourselves, but arrange for someone to do it for us. All tenses can be used to express the causative: TENSE HAVE/GET SOMETHING DONE Present Simple I have / get my hair cut. Past Simple I had / got my hair cut. Present Continuous I'm having / getting my hair cut. Past Continuous I was having / getting my hair cut. Present Perfect I have had my hair cut. Past Perfect I had had my hair cut. will I will have my hair cut. must I must have my hair cut. be going to I'm going to have my hair cut. The different between “have” and “get” is just that “get” is more colloquial, and we don’t use it for something unpleasant: I have had my handbag stolen on my way to the office. (NOT “get”)
  18. 18. 1818  Next pageNext page FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6 Compare the following examples: 3. THE CAUSATIVE: To have/get something done She is cutting her hair = She is doing it herself. She is having her hair cut = the hairdresser is doing it for her. She’s doing her nails. = She’s doing it herself. She’s having her nails done. = the manicurist is doing it for her.
  19. 19. 1919  Next pageNext page FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6 THE CAUSATIVE: To have/get something done There are several ways to get your house painted without having to work. (1) You can pay someone to get it painted. (2) You can get it painted by an ingenious machine. (3) You can get it painted by a nice neighbour
  20. 20. 2020  Next pageNext page FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6 THE CAUSATIVE: To have/get something done If you don’t know how to use the CAUSATIVES, you might have to do everything by yourself. So you’d better learn it!! He got his tonsils removed this morning. She got two wisdom teeth removed yesterday.
  21. 21. 2121  Next pageNext page FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6 THE CAUSATIVE: To have/get something done PRACTICE: Look at the pictures and write the suitable CAUSATIVE sentences At this moment Tomorrow Last week Again tomorrow Every morning Urgently Three months ago
  22. 22. 2222  Next pageNext page FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6 THE CAUSATIVE: To have/get something done 1. She’s having her car fixed / mended / repaired. / Her car is being repaired. 2. He‘ll have his eyes tested by an eye specialist / an ophtalmologist tomorrow. 3. You can have your clothes / suit cleaned at the dry cleaner's. / The suit has been cleaned. 4. He’ll have his bike repaired again tomorrow. 5. You can have breakfast sent to your room every morning / Breakfast is served in your room every morning. 6. The computer must be repaired urgently. 7. The grass had been cut three months ago. SUGGESTED ANSWERS:
  23. 23. 2323  Next pageNext page FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6 THE CAUSATIVE: Make (we saw it in UNIT 5) The verb "make" is similar to "get" and "have" when used to express that someone is doing work for you. □ The word order is: Subject + "make" + direct object + Verb (in the simple form) EXAMPLES: ● I made him do the washing-up. ● The police officer made me pull over (stop). ● My students make me work on Sunday. ● I make my students do very little homework. What do you say in these situations? (1) eat fruit and vegetables Parents to their children (2) clean their room (3) have a bath every evening
  24. 24. 2424  EndEnd FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 6GRAMMAR – UNIT 6 SUGGESTED ANSWERS: THE CAUSATIVE: Make (we saw it in UNIT 5) (1) Their parents make them eat fruit and vegetables. (2) Their parents make them clean their room. (3) His parents make him have a bath every evening.
  • MartaLucasCocho

    Sep. 26, 2017

Unit 6 Grammar Contents. An original lesson by matifmarin

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