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Unit 4 Grammar Contents

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Unit 4 Grammar Contents

  1. 1. FCE by Matifmarin. 1. Simple Past / Past Simple Grammar: Past Tense Summary [5 tenses] 1.3. We use the Simple Past (red) together with the Past Progressive (blue). The action in the Simple Past interrupted the action in the Past Progressive (the one which was in progress). (b) First I got up, then I had breakfast = A series of completed actions in the past. Time linkers : yesterday, last week, a month ago, in 1989 (c) They were playing cards when the telephone rang. [action in progress] [Interuption]  Next pageNext page got up had breakfast Ring 1.2. We use the Simple Past to describe a series of actions in the past. (a) When I was a child I visited my grandmother every weekend = A state and an action finished in the past. 1.1. We use the past simple to talk about actions (red) and states (blue) which we see as completed in the past. Time linkers: then, afterwards, later Time linkers: when, while
  2. 2. FCE by Matifmarin. 2. Simple Past Continuous / Progressive Grammar: Past Tense Summary [5 tenses] 2. Use the Past Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the past was interrupted. The interruption is usually a shorter action in the Simple Past. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time. (was or were + verbing) (a) They were driving to Egypt on holiday when they saw a cow in the middle of the road. [interruption by a shorter action in the past] USE 1 Interrupted Action in the Past: (b) At midnight, they were still driving through the desert.[interruption in time] USE 2 Specific Time as an Interruption: USE 3 Parallel Actions: When you use the Past Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses the idea that both actions were happening at the same time. The actions are parallel. (c) Ann was playing with the children while Peter was making dinner.  Next pageNext page NOTE: “when” ist most often followed but the Simple Past and “while” is usually followed by Past Continuous. I was studying when she called; She called while I was studying.
  3. 3. FCE by Matifmarin. 3. Past Perfect3. Past Perfect Grammar: Past Tense Summary [5 tenses] 3. The past perfect tense refers to activities that happened before a specific time/event in the past. (had + past participle) (a) I had visited my grandmother many times before she died. 4. Past Perfect Continuous / Progressive4. Past Perfect Continuous / Progressive (had + been + verbing) (a) I had been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived. USE 1 Duration Before Something in the Past X 4. We use the Past Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and continued up until another time /event in the past. USE 2 Cause of Something in the Past 4.1. Using the Past Perfect Continuous before another action in the past is a good way to show cause and effect. (b) Sara failed the final test because she had not been attending class.  Next pageNext page
  4. 4. FCE by Matifmarin. Grammar: Past Tense Summary [5 tenses] 5. Used to vs Would + bare infinitive 1. Use (to) (used in the past tense) expresses that an activity was a past habit; it occurred at an earlier stage of life but not now. It focuses on the habit, not duration or frequency. 2. Would expresses that an activity was routine, typical behaviuor, frequently repeated (dynamic verbs only). (both state and dynamic verbs can be used). (a) I used to ride my bike every day when I was young. (b) I would ride bike every day when I was young. I would have a boat…. (c) I used to have a boat when I was younger. BUT I would have a boat one day, but now I can’t afford it. Compare: With state verbs, the meaning is a wish (= the future)
  5. 5. FCE by Matifmarin.  Next pageNext page
  6. 6. FCE by Matifmarin.  EndEnd So and Such (a) She is So pretty (b) She is such a pretty girl (a) So + Adjective → "This test is so hard." (= very hard) (b) such + adjective + noun → Lisa is such a beautiful woman . (NO "a" with uncountable nouns) I don't want to swim in such dirty water. Exception: so + [many/much/few/little] noun "So" can come before a noun IF the adjectives many/much/few/little also come before the noun. Examples: "There are so many balloons!" (balloons = countable noun, so we use "many") "Mike drank so much beer." (beer = uncountable noun, so we use "much") "He has so few friends." (friends = countable noun, so we use "few") "We have so little time." (time = uncountable noun, so we use "little")
  7. 7. FCE by Matifmarin.  EndEnd So and Such (a) She is So pretty (b) She is such a pretty girl (a) So + Adjective → "This test is so hard." (= very hard) (b) such + adjective + noun → Lisa is such a beautiful woman . (NO "a" with uncountable nouns) I don't want to swim in such dirty water. Exception: so + [many/much/few/little] noun "So" can come before a noun IF the adjectives many/much/few/little also come before the noun. Examples: "There are so many balloons!" (balloons = countable noun, so we use "many") "Mike drank so much beer." (beer = uncountable noun, so we use "much") "He has so few friends." (friends = countable noun, so we use "few") "We have so little time." (time = uncountable noun, so we use "little")

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