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Curation and Preservation of CAD Engineering Models in PLM

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A presentation given by Manjula Patel (UKOLN) at the VSMM 2008 Conference (http://www.vsmm2008.org/)

Publicada em: Tecnologia, Negócios
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Curation and Preservation of CAD Engineering Models in PLM

  1. 1. Curation and Preservation of CAD Engineering Models in Product Lifecycle Management Conference on Virtual Systems and MultiMedia dedicated to Digital Heritage 20-25th October 2008 Limassol, Cyprus Manjula Patel, Alexander Ball, Lian Ding UKOLN and IMRC University of Bath, UK This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 UK: Scotland License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/scotland/ ; or, (b) send a letter to Creative Commons, 543 Howard Street, 5th Floor, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA. VSMM, 20-25th October 2008, Cyprus
  2. 2. Background & Context • Digital Curation: the active management of digital data over its useful lifetime, both for contemporary and future use – Archiving: selection, storage, access over time, including integrity, security and authenticity – Preservation: maintenance of data so it can be accessed and understood through changes in technology • Need for long-term data retention and curation in engineering – Product development and maintenance increasingly collaborative, distributed, global and networked – Product-Service Paradigm – Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) – Legislative and regulatory environment VSMM, 20-25th October 2008, Cyprus
  3. 3. Product-Service Paradigm Images courtesy www.FreeFoto.com VSMM, 20-25th October 2008, Cyprus
  4. 4. Product Lifecycle Management • Efficient capture, representation, organisation, retrieval and reuse of product data over its entire life • Sharing of product information between many geographically distributed organisations • Exchange of information between heterogeneous computer-based systems – CAD/CAE/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Engineering/Manufacture) – ERP/CRM/SCM (Enterprise Resource Planning/ Customer Relationship Management/ Supply Chain Management) • At present, no one single system capable of managing entire product lifecycle VSMM, 20-25th October 2008, Cyprus
  5. 5. PLM Information Flows Conceptualisation; Design Organisation; Design; Evaluation; Manufacture & Delivery; Sales & Distribution; Service & Support; Decommission & Disposal Partners Regulators Customers Design team Pre-existing Product 1 information & In service Upgrade In service experience Design team Production Product 2 Design In service Upgrade In service Production VSMM, 20-25th October 2008, Cyprus
  6. 6. Digital Curation Lifecycle Model Full lifecycle stages: Description and Representation Information Preservation Planning Community Watch and Participation Curate and Preserve Sequential actions: Conceptualise Create or Receive Appraise and Select Ingest Preservation Action Store Access, Use and Reuse Transform Occasional actions: Dispose © DCC 2008 Reappraise Migrate VSMM, 20-25th October 2008, Cyprus
  7. 7. Curatorial issues in PLM (1) • Large variety of data, information and knowledge – Geometric models and databases e.g. test results – Unstructured textual documents e.g. emails, minutes of meetings – Tacit knowledge e.g. design rationale, lessons learnt • Large volumes of data – A single, simple component can be several Megabytes – Complex products (e.g. cars, aircraft) can amount to several Gigabytes or even Terabytes • Global and distributed collaboration – Issues relating to Intellectual Property • Different stages of PLM require different views of the data – Manufacturing engineers need machining features and tolerances – Marketing staff need a final, polished, visualisation of the product VSMM, 20-25th October 2008, Cyprus
  8. 8. Curatorial Issues in PLM (2) • Technology obsolescence is exacerbated – CAD software industry is competitive – Move to product-service paradigm • Emulating old software – Difficulties with integration into complex and more modern workflows and systems • Migration – Risk of data loss and subtle design corruption – Rechecking and revalidating costs are substantial • Use of open standards e.g. IGES, STEP – Long timescales make it difficult to keep up with latest capabilities of CAD tools – Level of support for standards is variable between tools • Complex and dynamic environment – Difficult to reliably retrieve and trace provenance information VSMM, 20-25th October 2008, Cyprus
  9. 9. CAD Engineering Models • CAD models becoming important in engineering practice – Definitive record of product data – Gradually superseding paper-based specifications – Used directly for communicating design to manufacturers, builders, maintenance crews and regulatory authorities • Problems due to CAD software and formats – Complex dependencies and relationships between file formats, hardware and software – Proliferation of CAD formats; proprietary, closed and subject to frequent change – Interoperability between CAD software is virtually non-existent – Economically unviable to install and run multiple CAD systems VSMM, 20-25th October 2008, Cyprus
  10. 10. CAD Model Representations • Traditionally used in Design, Manufacture and Evaluation phases of PLM • Product information stored is still largely based on conventional product representations – Boundary representation (B-rep) – Freeform surface modelling – Feature-based models – Parametric models • Components of a CAD Model – Geometry – Dimensions – Tolerances – Materials – Feature semantics – Model history VSMM, 20-25th October 2008, Cyprus
  11. 11. Challenges for CAD Models For CAD models to support information flows in PLM, they need to address: – Protection of commercially sensitive information (Intellectual Property) – Generation of view-point specific representations to support differing processes and users – Rapid sharing of information between geographically distributed applications and users (interoperability, platform and application independence, use of standards, reduced file sizes etc.) – Support for recording feedback from downstream processes – Long-term preservation (recording of metadata, design rationale, open formats, Representation Information, use of standards etc.) VSMM, 20-25th October 2008, Cyprus
  12. 12. Proposed Strategy To extend a CAD model from the design stage into all the phases of a product’s lifecycle, we propose the use of: – Lightweight CAD Model Formats (LWFs) – Multilayer annotations – A registry/repository of Representation Information for Engineering Information VSMM, 20-25th October 2008, Cyprus
  13. 13. Lightweight CAD Models • Simple formats: do not retain all the richness of a full or native CAD model • Easier to curate and preserve – Simpler and more open specifications – Wider and more affordable software support • Smaller files sizes support distributed exchange – Only contain as much information as a particular recipient needs • Variety of LWFs in current use: – 3D XML, JT Format, PLM XML, PRC, Universal 3D, X3D, XGL/ZGL – Each with properties and characteristics better suited to some purposes than others – Alleviate collaborative exchange, offer customised views, security of IP, application independence, reduced file sizes etc. VSMM, 20-25th October 2008, Cyprus
  14. 14. Multilayered Annotation • Need feedback from downstream processes – Being able to augment the geometric model of the product with additional information from different phases of PLM • Annotation allows incorporation of varied information: – Design rationale, context, provenance, etc. – Extra information needed for a certain point of view – Embedding of commercial security levels to restrict access to certain partners or users • “stand-off” (vs. “in-line”) annotation – Stored separately to CAD model; actual model unchanged – Can be selective about which annotations are shared – Same annotation can be applied to derivatives of full CAD model • Use of XML for machine-processing VSMM, 20-25th October 2008, Cyprus
  15. 15. LiMMA LiMMA (Lightweight Models with Multilayered Annotations) A framework for representing CAD models using LWFs with additional layers of XML-encoded annotations VSMM, 20-25th October 2008, Cyprus
  16. 16. Annotation Environments Annotation interfaces in UGS NX CAD package and PDF VSMM, 20-25th October 2008, Cyprus
  17. 17. OAIS Representation Information • A wide range of LWFs with differing characteristics are available • Need format appropriate not only for a particular use and view of the product, but also for long-term retention • Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model – Preservation and curation environment for all types of data – Developed by CCSDS, published as ISO 14721:2003 – Defines a functional model and an information model – Representation Information is any information required to render, interpret, process and understand data • e.g. Software tools for rendering and interpretation; file format specifications and references; conventions and semantics used • Essential for both curation and contemporary use • A planning tool - Registry/Repository of Representation Information for Engineering (RRoRIfE) VSMM, 20-25th October 2008, Cyprus
  18. 18. RRoRIfE • Registry/Repository of Representation Information for Engineering • Holds two XML schemas relating to: – significant properties of CAD file formats – characteristics of conversion software • Facilitates simple preservation planning queries: – Characteristics of file formats and conversion tools – Select a characteristic and see which format supports it – Generate possible migration pathways between two formats – Given a start format and significant characteristics, generate a list of suitable destination formats and conversion pathways VSMM, 20-25th October 2008, Cyprus
  19. 19. Further Work & Conclusions • Further Work – Develop an integrated framework – Persistent identification of geometry between native CAD formats and the LWFs derived from them – RRoRIfE: accumulate a corpus of information on significant properties of file formats and characteristics of conversion tools – Non-intrusive and automated capture of information in PLM – Selection and appraisal of product lifecycle data • Conclusions – Digital curation challenges posed by PLM are significant – Several tools and techniques specific to improving the robustness and longevity of CAD file formats • LiMMA (Lightweight Models with Multilayered Annotations) • RRoRIfE (Registry/Repository of Representation Information for Engineering information) VSMM, 20-25th October 2008, Cyprus
  20. 20. Questions? Thank you Manjula Patel UKOLN, University of Bath, UK m.patel@ukoln.ac.uk www.ukoln.ac.uk Knowledge and Information Management Through Life Digital Curation Centre (Grand-Challenge) Project Innovative Manufacturing UKOLN Research Centre VSMM, 20-25th October 2008, Cyprus