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### Physics

1. Physics
2. Agenda 01 Cooling Process Van der Waals Viscosity Super fluidity Super conductivity 2 04 05 03 02
3. 01 Cooling Processes
4. • Energy flows from hot objects to cold ones. • The more energy the objects have, the more its molecules are able to free from the van der Waals bonds. • Cooling is the extraction of heat energy from an object and deposit it to another. Introduction 4
5. 1) Cooling by conduction: Heat transfer through solids. Example: heatsinks. 2) Cooling by convection: Heat transfer by the flow of a fluid (gas or liquid). Example: wind, refrigerator. 3) Cooling by radiation: The object radiates away its heat. Example: air cooling at night. Cooling processes 5
6. 4) Cooling by perspiration (vaporization): cooling your body via sweating relies on a principle of physics called "heat of vaporization." It takes energy to evaporate sweat off of your skin, and that energy is heat. As your excess body heat is used to convert beads of sweat into vapor, you start to cool down. 6
7. 5) Evaporative (adiabatic) cooling: The adiabatic cooling process occurs when a reduction in the pressure within a system causes a volume expansion, resulting in “work” on the surrounding environment. 7
8. 8
9. 6) Cooling by laser: Six laser beams arranged as three orthogonal pairs of counter-propagating beams are brought together. The lasers are tuned to emit photons of a frequency slightly less than the resonance frequency for absorption by the atoms in the beam. For an atom moving toward the beam, a Doppler shift of the laser frequency occurs, bringing the frequency of the laser photon into resonance, where it is absorbed. Because the photon has momentum, the absorption slows the atom, and a deceleration specific to the direction of motion occurs. But since laser beams come from the six orthogonal directions, the overall effect is to slow fast-moving atoms moving in any direction. 9
10. • The kinetic molecular theory works at high temperatures and low pressures ONLY. • At low temperatures, gases deviate from the ideal state to the real state. • They obey the Van der Waals equation: • Due to the low energy in the atoms, Van der Waals forces are easily created, resulting in the liquefaction of gases. Gaseous behavior at low temperature 10
11. 03 Viscosity
12. Viscosity: is the friction force between molecules of fluids (liquids or gases) it depends on only two factors type of material and temperature
13. At very low temp
14. 04 Super fluidity
15. https://youtu.be/2Z6UJbwxBZI
16. 05 Super conductivity
17. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dJyW8oewj2E
18. Meet the Speaker Michael Johnson Chief Engineering Officer, Name of Company Follow Michael on Twitter! @MichaelJ 23
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22. “Never give up. Today is beautiful design, but the day after tomorrow will be sunshine. JONATHAN SMITH Account Director 27
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25. Thank you.
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