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Project management in the age of accelerating change - IT/Tech specific

- What is Agile and why is becoming increasingly popular?
- For what types of endeavours Agile is best suited?
- What additional tools does Agile add to a PM toolbox?
- How does a traditional project differ from an Agile digital product delivery?
- What is the role of the PM in an Agile delivery?

This session gives a short introduction of Agile for traditional Project Managers and describes the structure, the steps and the activities of an Agile project from Inception to delivery.

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Project management in the age of accelerating change - IT/Tech specific

  1. 1. ProjectManagement intheAgeofAcceleratingChange An Agile overview for traditional Project Managers
  2. 2. LUCA.MINUDEL@SMHARTER.COM HTTPS://WWW.LINKEDIN.COM/IN/LUCAMINUDEL/ LUCA MINUDEL @SMHARTERLTD @LUKADOTNET
  3. 3. Today’s focus • Digital Product delivery effort (software development/evolution) • Single team Today focus is not on: • Non-IT projects • Multi-Team effort • Programme • Portfolio
  4. 4. WHYAGILE,WHYNOW?
  5. 5. HISTORY OF TRADITIONAL MANAGEMENT Main traditional management tools invented before 1920 from people born around 1850 during the second industrial revolution
  6. 6. HISTORICAL CONTEXT OF TRADITIONAL MANGEMENT • Workforce: mainly unschooled, illiterate • Companies, functions, requirements: Loosely connected, mostly independent • Info to process: Moderate amount, no time-pressure to process it • Rate of change: Slow, with minor consequences • Uncertainty/Unknowns: High degree of certainty, very few unknowns
  7. 7. MANAGEMENT CONTEXT IN THE AGE OF ACCELERATING CHANGE • Workforce: Unschooled, illiterate Well trained, motivated knowledge-workers • Companies, departments, requirements: Loosely connected, mostly independent Highly connected, inter-dependent, with frequent interactions • Info to process: Moderate amount, moderate time pressure to process it Large amount, insufficient time to process it, ambiguity • Rate of change: Slow, with minor consequences Fast, with unpredictable consequences and limited control • Uncertainty/Unknowns: High degree of certainty, very few unknowns High degree of uncertainty, many unknowns, diminished capacity to predict
  8. 8. IMPACT OF TRADITIONAL MANGEMENT’S TOOLS IN THE AGE OF ACCELERATING CHANGE • Defined, all-inclusive, prescriptive processes →Separation of Thinkers vs Doers, Heavy-weight slow blind processes • Capital budgeting →Up-front planning, slow/late reaction-time, rigidity or chaos • Task Design →Outcome/end-goal fragmentation, loss of meaning and feedback
  9. 9. • Divisionalisation → Ineffective cross-function collaboration, late integration, defects, re-work, delays • Pay for performance →Teamwork and collaboration discouraged, bad news ceiling / watermelon reporting IMPACT OF TRADITIONAL MANGEMENT’S TOOLS IN THE AGE OF ACCELERATING CHANGE
  10. 10. ELEMENTS OF TRADITIONAL MANAGEMENT MINDSET Unschooled, illiterate workforce If you are smart enough, experienced enough, and work hard enough, you can plan everything upfront
  11. 11. ELEMENTS OF TRADITIONAL MANAGEMENT MINDSET Unschooled, illiterate workforce If you are smart enough, experienced enough, and work hard enough, you can plan everything upfront The tyranny of the omniscient designer Thinkers Vs Doers
  12. 12. THE AGE OF ACCELERATING CHANGE
  13. 13. ELEMENTS OF THE AGILE MINDSET Video Link: https://youtu.be/y885_5tE170
  14. 14. The understanding of the problem and the discovery of a solution gradually evolve together, in concert. ELEMENTS OF THE AGILE MINDSET Well trained, motivated knowledge-workers, and problems that require multiple points of view
  15. 15. The understanding of the problem and the discovery of a solution gradually evolve together, in concert. ELEMENTS OF THE AGILE MINDSET Well trained, motivated knowledge-workers, and problems that require multiple points of view Thinkers Vs Doers The tyranny of the omniscient designer Co-evolution Co-creation
  16. 16. PMI: embracing adaptive management Source: Improving Performance: The PMI/IEEE Computer Society Software Development Extension, 2013 Modern PM Knowledge-work Traditional PM Task-work User Story Product Backlog Co-evolution Product Owner Backlog refinement Sprint Review Co-creation
  17. 17. THEAGILEPRINCIPLES
  18. 18. AGILE AS UMBRELLA TERM Scrum Kanban Extreme Programming (XP) Lean Software Development Crystal Clear Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM) Adaptive Software Development Feature Driven Development (FDD)
  19. 19. THE AGILE MANIFESTO OF SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others do it. Through this work we have come to value: Individuals and interactions over processes and tools Working software over comprehensive documentation Customer collaboration over contract negotiation Responding to change over following a plan That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more. www.agilemanifesto.org
  20. 20. LEAN SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT PRINCIPLES 1. Energise Teams Members 2. Enhance Learning 3. Deliver as Fast as Possible 4. Decide as Late as Possible 5. Optimize the whole 6. Build quality in 7. Eliminate waste
  21. 21. STACEY MATRIX RALPH STACEY, U. of HERTFORDSHIRE, UK
  22. 22. AGILITY DEFINITION (Complexity Science) Agility is: - a new way of thinking about and preparing for the unanticipated - the ability to successfully effect, cope with, and exploit changes in circumstances. Meta-Agility is: - the ability to recognise the approach appropriate for the circumstances, and to transition in a timely manner to this approach.
  23. 23. AGILITY PILLARS (Social Complexity) 1) PROBLEM-SOLUTION CO-EVOLUTION PROBLEM SPACE SOLUTION SPACE
  24. 24. Business Product Customer Delivery Technology AGILITY (Social Complexity) 1) PROBLEM-SOLUTION CO-EVOLUTION 2) SOLUTION CO-CREATION
  25. 25. AGILITY (Social Complexity) 1) PROBLEM-SOLUTION CO-EVOLUTION 2) SOLUTION CO-CREATION - HOLISTIC END-TO-END APPROACH - Busines s Product Vision Requirements Specification Design & Dev Test PROBLEM SPACE SOLUTION SPACE
  26. 26. AGILITY (Social Complexity) 1) PROBLEM-SOLUTION CO-EVOLUTION 2) SOLUTION CO-CREATION Video Link: https://youtu.be/Oe8VTi3m8U8?t=282
  27. 27. AGILITY (Social Complexity) 1) PROBLEM-SOLUTION CO-EVOLUTION 2) SOLUTION CO-CREATION 3) SEMPLICITY
  28. 28. THEAGILEWAYOFWORKING: AGILEPRODUCTDEVELOPMENT PRACTICES
  29. 29. AGILE PROD DEV PRACTICES - GOALS A. Increase the speed of learning B. Reduce the cost of change C. Make decisions and mistakes easy, fast, and cheap to reverse
  30. 30. AGILE PROD DEV PRACTICES – IRREVERSIBILITY Video Link: https://youtu.be/EufUAres_-o
  31. 31. AGILE PROD DEV PRACTICES – IRREVERSIBILITY Irreversibility is one of the prime drivers of complexity and so of costs & risks. Professor of Economics and Management Enrico Zaninotto, 2002 Quoted by Kent Beck & Martin Fowler
  32. 32. AGILE PROD DEV PRACTICES - GUIDELINES 1. Search specific solutions (not general) 2. Search local solutions (not global) 3. Start simple (not all-inclusive) 4. Be just-good-enough just-in-time (not perfect upfront) 5. Focus on one thing at the time (no multi-tasking) 6. If something is hard, do it more often (not less often)
  33. 33. THEAGILEWAYOFWORKING:INCEPTION
  34. 34. DIFFERENT ”INCEPTIONS” • ThoughtWorks (Agile) Inception (about 1÷4 weeks, 1 week x 3 months delivery) • ThoughtWorks Lean Inception (1 week) • Google Design Sprint (1 week) • No Inceptions • Lean Value Tree • Directly into Scrum Sprint Planning (2 hours x 1 week of work)
  35. 35. WHAT IS AN AGILE/LEAN INCEPTON THERE IS AN INNOVATIVE IDEA WORTH PURSUING (OR A PROBLEM WORTH SOLVING) THERE IS BUDGET FOR EXPLORING THE IDEA, AND BUDGET POTENTIALLY AVAILABLE FOR REALISING THE IDEA WE WANT TO KNOW IF THE IDEA IS … Technically Feasible Businesswise Viable Userswise Desirable
  36. 36. WHAT IS AN AGILE/LEAN INCEPTON Vision of Goals, Product, Success High level Scope discovery Technical envisioning and sizing Prioritization, and roadmap The idea is to spend the minimal amount of time to establish : - the vision of the delivery initiative, - a feeling for the amount of work to be done, - an alignment between everyone in the team, the sponsors, and all the stakeholders ½ day 2 ½ days 1 day ½ day
  37. 37. WHAT IS AN AGILE/LEAN INCEPTON Vision of Goals, Product, Success High level Scope discovery Technical envisioning and sizing Prioritization, and roadmap ½ day 2 ½ days 1 day ½ day
  38. 38. WHAT IS AN AGILE/LEAN INCEPTON Technology Delivery Product Tech estimates Delivery roadmap Product/Business priorities Co-Create Co-Evolve Technically Feasible Businesswise Viable Userswise Desirable
  39. 39. THEAGILEWAYOFWORKING:ITERATION BEWARE, AFTER ITERATIONS COMES FLOW
  40. 40. AN EXAMPLE OF AGILE ITERATIONS: SCRUM SPRINTS
  41. 41. AN EXAMPLE OF AGILE ITERATIONS: SCRUM SPRINTS 1-2 Weeks Sprint Planning
  42. 42. AN EXAMPLE OF AGILE ITERATIONS: SCRUM SPRINTS 1-2 Weeks Sprint Planning
  43. 43. AN EXAMPLE OF AGILE ITERATIONS: SCRUM SPRINTS 1-2 Weeks Sprint Planning Backlog refinement
  44. 44. AN EXAMPLE OF AGILE ITERATIONS: SCRUM SPRINTS 1-2 Weeks Sprint Planning Backlog refinement Sprint Review Sprint Retrospective
  45. 45. TECHNICAL EXCELLENCE • Continuous design & refactoring • Continuous Integration • Test Automation • Automated deploy • Automated remediation plans
  46. 46. THEAGILEWAYOFWORKING: SOMEKEYDIFFERENCES BEWARE, AFTER ITERATIONS COMES FLOW
  47. 47. THE AGILE TRIANGLE cost scopeschedule value constraints cost, schedule, scope quality TRADITIONALTRIANGLE AGILE TRIANGLE
  48. 48. AGILE GOALS ARE OBLIQUE • Pursue ways of working efficiency over resources mobilization & efficiency • Manage the workflow over managing tasks schedule and maximizing utilization • Focus on speed and frequency of delivery over reducing costs of delivery • Align authority to responsibility over aligning authority to the orgchart • Move authority to the information over moving information to authority
  49. 49. TEAM&ROLES
  50. 50. T-SHAPED SKILLS – DYNAMIC RACI
  51. 51. SHARED & DYNAMIC RESPONSIBILITIES ROLE A ROLE B PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITIES PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITIES SECONDARY/SHARED RESPONSIBILITIES
  52. 52. EXAMPLE OF AN INDICATIVE TEAM COMPOSITION Agile Team Product Owner Tech Lead Developer Tester Scrum Master Business Analyst CX/UX Designer IT Ops
  53. 53. FIRSTS AMONG EQUALS The three areas equally accountable, in the team: Tech Way of Working/ Delivery Product/ Business Agile Leadership Agile Leadership Agile Leadership
  54. 54. FIRSTS AMONG EQUALS Leaders promotes self-organisation instead of command & control: Facilitates Collective sense-making Facilitates Continuous Improvement & Personal development Promotes Autonomy and accountability, Delegation & Empowerment Nurtures Interpersonal & Communication skills Facilitates Conflict resolution and Consensus building Facilitates Participatory decision-making
  55. 55. THE PRODUCT OWNER • Provides the vision for the product • Is responsible for maximising the commercial & financial success of the product • Is responsible for ensuring customers and users satisfaction about the product • Has the final call on the items in the Product Backlog and in their ordering • Is responsible for keeping the Product Backlog updated, ordered, clear, visible, transparent
  56. 56. THE SCRUM MASTER • Supports the team and the PO understanding and adoption of modern ways of working, and continuously improving their way of working • Supports good team’s dynamic and collaboration, and facilitates team’s ceremonies/rituals/events • Facilitates the collaboration between the agile team and the rest of the organisation and helps the rest of the organisation’s understanding of agile • Facilitates transparency, visualisation and communication of progress of the delivery effort
  57. 57. THE DEVELOPMENT TEAM • They are collectively accountable for the delivery of high-quality, running, and tested product increments delivered at the end of each Sprint • They are collectively responsible for technical excellence, reliability and functionality of the Product • They are cross-functional and self-organising, full-time long-standing team’s members • They are responsible for and have the freedom to decide and improve their way of working
  58. 58. THEAGILEWAYOFWORKING:REPORTING INFORMATION RADIATORS
  59. 59. “Working software is the primary measure of progress” –7th principle of the Agile Manifesto ~ “Don’t move information to authority, move authority to the information” - David Marquet
  60. 60. VITAL SIGNS: PMBOK Project Levers + 1
  61. 61. ProjectVital Signs 1) Scope Burn Up 2) Current State of Delivery (teams boards) 3) Budget Burn Down 4) Delivery Quality 5) Team Dynamics
  62. 62. SCOPE + SCHEDULE: BURN-UP CHART 1 Total scope Completion forecast Scope (size) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Actuals
  63. 63. SCHEDULE: TEAM BOARD
  64. 64. SCHEDULE: TEAM DAILY STAND-UP
  65. 65. DELIVERY QUALITY: BUGS TRACKER BOARD
  66. 66. BUDGET: BUDGET BURN-DOWN
  67. 67. TEAM: DYNAMIC
  68. 68. FROMPROJECTTOPRODUCT
  69. 69. PROJECTS OR PRODUCT Project Product End Predefined When retired Outcome/result Predefined Refined overtime Scope Prevalently predefined Refined overtime Constraints (Scope, Schedule, Cost) Predefined May change overtime inside ranges Organization (people, teams) Temporary, people who don’t normally work together Long-lived, mainly dedicated and permanent, people that usually work together Focus Delivery End-to-end: Ideation, delivery, operation, support, maintenance, evolution Driven by Plan Business outcome and value
  70. 70. AGILECAREEROPTIONSFORTHEPM
  71. 71. You traditional PM 1) You are comfortable with uncertainty & ambiguity 2) You like to work in team among equals 3) You like to be flexible, adaptable, resilient and responsive OPTIONS FOR THE PM’S AGILE CAREER, A HEURISTIC
  72. 72. 1) You are a people person, and love to facilitate, coach, mentor and teach others 2) You love continuous improvement and modern ways of working 3) You understand Digital Products delivery & support 1) You love Digital Products 2) You love to delight Users 3) You understand Marketing, Business models, Financing, and P&L OPTIONS FOR THE PM’S AGILE CAREER, A HEURISTIC You may start the journey to become a Product Owner You may start the journey to become a Scrum Master
  73. 73. ADDITIONAL TIPS • Agile Training • Lot of practice (pairing, shadowing) • Reading • Community involvement
  74. 74. SUGGESTEDREADINGS
  75. 75. COMPANY CULTURE, WORK/WORLD PARADIGM, INDIVIDUAL MINDSET VALUES PRINCIPLES SKILLS PRACTICES More powerful Intangible Less powerful Tangible TOOLS & PROCESS ES
  76. 76. SUGGESTED READINGS THOSE WITH A SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUND MAY LIKE THIS (SEARCH ONLINE CHAPTER 1 ON WICKED PROBLEMS) THOSE WITH A HUMANISTIC BACKGROUND MAY LIKE THIS
  77. 77. SUGGESTED READINGS
  78. 78. GETINTOUCH: LUCA.MINUDEL@SMHARTER.COM

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