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  1. UP 371 Principle of Urban Design UP 371
  2. UP 371 I Design of Cities and Urban Spaces
  3. UP 371 Urban areas Man made structure Full of infrastructure and super structure Heterogeneous group of people Not more than 25% of the area is agricultural Social component (social capital) includes values, citizens’ laws (norms), culture, traditions, behavior, safety/security, demography….
  4. UP 371 Rural areas GOD made structure No infrastructure and superstructure Homogeneous group of people Not less than 75% of the area is an agricultural man-made (buildings, infrastructure...) and natural elements (land, air, water, climate, open spaces, flora and fauna)…
  5. UP 371 “city is composed of different kinds of people; similar people cannot bring a city into existence” (Aristotle, 384-322 BC)
  6. UP 371 Urbanism the way of life people living in the urban center takes the form of private and public spaces, built and un-built environments composed of a “fabric” of solids and voids often represented as figure-ground
  7. UP 371 creating “figural-space” by giving more importance to the quality and definition of the collective public realm Being ‘urban’ has a lot to do with people in the public spaces. In fact urbanity could not have developed without the free movement of people in public spaces (streets, squares, open spaces…) The public space is an integral part of any urban area. The identity and quality of an urban area is not only a factor of the quality of its private spaces but by large the public realm
  8. UP 371 Why Urban Design emerged as a Separate Discipline? Urban planning is the discipline of land-use organization which deals with the •physical, •social, •economic development, •political and managerial ‫ـ‬aspects of urban areas;
  9. UP 371 Architecture is concerned with the design of individual buildings; Landscape design concerned on the features of the natural space; Transport Planning focuses on road traffic management…
  10. UP 371 There was no profession, which deals with the public realm, and which provides a framework on the overall effects of development interventions in the urban scene.
  11. UP 371 Urban Design ‘The way places are designed affects our ability to move, see, hear and communicate effectively. Urban design essentially is a process by which quality in the built environment is facilitated.
  12. UP 371 It is the three-dimensional design of a city both at the local and city scales. It deals with the design of new and regeneration of existing settlements.
  13. UP 371 Urban design is the three-dimensional design of a city both at the local and city scales. It deals with the design of new and regeneration of existing settlements. It is the art of place making or city building; the process of shaping the physical setting for life in cities, towns, villages....
  14. UP 371 Urban Design is ‘the relationship between different buildings and the streets, squares, parks, waterways and other spaces which make up the public domain. the relationship of one part of a town or city with other parts; and the patterns of movement and activity which are thereby established.
  15. Region District Neighborhood UP 371
  16. UP 371 Acceptable way of Classification of cities 1. pre-industrial city 2. Industrial city and 3. Post-industrial city
  17. UP 371 1. The pre-industrial city Concept by the Us Geographer Gideon Sjoberg in the 1960 Islamic cities of the near east, but the idea of the pre-industrial city today covers European cities before the industrial revolution(particularly in the mediaeval period) An old town with narrow winding streets enclosed by defensive walls Walled extended family compound Streets are totally irregular as they are merely the spaces left between the compound
  18. UP 371 2. The industrial city Many of the larger city of the world, specially in North America and Europe. Associated with the rapid urbanization Pre-dominantly agricultural society to an industrialized one Segregation of functions becomes much more noticeable Depopulated city center and mainly given to commercial functions Housing types reflects big social and economic division with in the population
  19. UP 371 Housing types reflects big social and economic division with in the population This rapid urbanization results •Pollution •Congestion •Waste disposal •Unsatisfactory housing •Unemployment(because of ….) •crime
  20. UP 371 2. post-industrial city Dating back to the second half of the twentieth century Cities needed to adjust to other forms of employment in light manufacturing Demolition and clearance of large area of heavy industrial plant Replacement of one physical form with the other
  21. UP 371 The growth of office towers and luxury high- rises or refurbishing of old waterfronts Cafe’s and boutiques arise to feed and clothe the new classes.- Global cities Ideal cities
  22. UP 371 World War II impact on cities development large segregated single-use zone areas  unbreakable with too wide streets and  large parking lots that are designed to make cars happy but hostile (unfriendly) for people
  23. UP 371 pedestrians-hostile large-buildings-setbacks – usually with high solid fences – that failed to properly define the public realm
  24. UP 371 buildings with their backs or sides turned towards the street confronting the pedestrians with long blank walls and building utilities large street blocks with no cross access or connecting streets (alleyways) money replaced known social values and structures such as religion
  25. UP 371 in addition, public spaces became leftover spaces of the private spaces development, a result of uncoordinated exercises carried out by various professionals exposed to abuse and problems: unsafe, dirty and dominated by minority user - the car Due to world war II cities generally became ugly, unhealthy and often with conflicting social relations thus hostile to the majority of their population the poor.
  26. UP 371 Public spaces and Urban Areas Public spaces are everywhere, in and between the places where we live, work and relax. All of us - rich or poor, old or young, men or female – living in cities, towns, villages or the countryside - use public spaces every time we leave our homes
  27. UP 371 Public spaces are the streets and paths we use on the way to work, shops, school, or hang out with friends. the parks and play areas, town centers and waterfronts we visit on weekends or holiday.
  28. UP 371 the privately owned and managed places to which the public has free access, such as car-parks, shopping malls, leisure and business parks, and bus or rail stations or terminals. the front faces of our buildings which are seen from the public space
  29. UP 371 The quality of public spaces has a major impact on our lives. It affects our sense of well-being, experience and feeling about the places where we and others live, work and relax Everybody of us everyday make decisions which, when and how we use places/areas. Many of these decisions are influenced by our perception of the quality and safety of the spaces we encounter
  30. UP 371 Degraded public spaces are not a sign of a vibrant community. Concerns about the real or perceived quality of public spaces affect all areas and are bound up with the social and economic life of communities; indicating whether a community is on the up, in decline or in recovery.
  31. UP 371 Ugly, dirty and dangerous, poor quality places make people, businesses and investments to move to better places; encourage anti-social behaviours; undermine public confidence; discourage investments and eventually lead to the malfunction of the areas
  32. UP 371 Whereas quality environment makes people to visit a place invest 0n it and pursue healthier lifestyles through exercise such as walking, cycling and active children's play
  33. UP 371 characteristics of Well-organized living spaces giving people a sense of access, comfort, and joy
  34. UP 371 making successful vibrant, livable and people-oriented Places; creating community pride
  35. UP 371 attracting and maintaining high quality investments achieving urban regeneration, economic development, real social improvement and sustainable urban areas
  36. UP 371 Main Objectives of Urban Design to create places:- which are not only beautiful, but also properly function and reflect the different social, economy and cultural need of and goals of the current society
  37. UP 371 to create a place for the society which is Healthy settlements that ‘make life more safe, convenient and pleasant’, which care for the total well being of their citizens Comfortable space for the day to day activities
  38. UP 371 to create successful urban areas by integrating time tasted ideas with new ideas, including how people relate to, feel about, and use their places
  39. UP 371 to create a ‘sense of place’ and ensure that an area has identity, where public and private spaces are clearly distinguished yet integrated
  40. UP 371 Major Benefits of Urban Design underpins the role of towns and cities as centers of economic, cultural and social activity helps neighborhoods and communities to be self- sufficiency, permanent thus sustainable
  41. UP 371 attracts businesses and investments by improving the quality of the existing area as well creates a condition for small-scale businesses to establish and operate helps revitalize historic structures/places instead of replacing them with short-term/throw-away structures, visual blights…
  42. UP 371 relieves pressure for developments on green- field sites, thus reduces costly urban sprawls promotes functional and social mix that helps reduce extreme polarization among citizens improves neighborhood values by making them healthy, safe, memorable and dignified
  43. UP 371 promotes ‘citizens surveillance’ of places, reducing crime and enhancing urban livability reduces the need for travel - the distance and number of trips - and increases transport choices reduces air, noise, visual… pollutions makes all including disadvantaged people feel safe and independent in their world and making walking feel more enjoyable
  44. UP 371 Challenges in Practicing Urban Design Identified a number of gaps  between contextual knowledge of urban design and either the design activity or the processes of implementation;  between the formulation of design proposals and the means for their implementation;  between national, regional and city-wide policies and the private and public realm (territory)projects;
  45. UP 371 time limitations: creating civilized places takes time, and urban design must be there right at the initial stage of urban planning, or major opportunities are easily lost....