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  2. Flow of Presentation • Concept of Motivation • Theories of Motivation Content theories  McClelland’s Achievement Motivation theory  McGregor’s Theory Process Theories  Vroom’s Model Contemporary Theories  Equity Theory of Motivation  Attribution Theory • Conclusion
  3. Terence Mitchell defines motivation as ‘the degree to which an individual wants and chooses to engage in certain specified behaviours’. A fuller definition from the Chartered Management Institute is: Motivation is the creation of incentives and working environments that enable people to perform to the best of their ability. The aim of motivation is to engage people with the work they are doing in order to achieve the best possible outcomes for individuals and the organization as a whole. MOTIVATION
  4. Theories of motivation attempt to explain the behaviour of people at work, but the complexity of motivation and the lack of a single answer make them important to the manager. The usual approach to the study of motivation is through an understanding of internal cognitive processes, which should help the manager predict likely behaviour of staff in given situations. These theories are divided into two contrasting approaches: content theories and process theories. After that followed by some contemporary theories. THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
  5. CONTENT THEORIES PROCESS THEORIES CONTEMPORARY THEORIES • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory • Herzberg’s two-factor theory  Vroom’s model o Equity Theory of motivation • McClelland’s achievement motivation theory • Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y o Attribution Theory THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
  7. CONTENT THEORIES Content theories of motivation attempt to explain those specific things that actually motivate the individual at work. These theories are concerned with identifying people’s needs and their relative strengths, and the goals they pursue in order to satisfy these needs. Content theories place emphasis on the nature of needs and what motivates. Major content theories of motivation include: ● Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory; ● Herzberg’s two-factor theory; ● McClelland’s achievement motivation theory.
  8. McClelland’s theory of needs was developed by David McClelland and his associates. It looks at three needs: ■ Need for achievement (nAch) is the drive to excel, to achieve in relationship to a set of standards. ■ Need for power (nPow) is the need to make others behave in a way they would not have otherwise. ■ Need for affiliation (nAff) is the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships MCCLELLAND’S ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION THEORY
  9. Douglas McGregor, through his well-known “Theory X and Theory Y,” drew a distinction between the assumptions about human motivation which underlie these two approaches, to this effect: Theory X assumes that people dislike work and must be coerced, controlled, and directed toward organizational goals. Furthermore, most people prefer to be treated this way, so they can avoid responsibility. Theory Y—the integration of goals—emphasizes the average person’s intrinsic interest in his work, his desire to be self-directing and to seek responsibility, and his capacity to be creative in solving business problems. DOUGLAS MCGREGOR’S THEORY X AND THEORY Y
  10. PROCESS THEORIES Process theories of motivation, or extrinsic theories, attempt to identify the relationships among the dynamic variables that make up motivation and the actions required to influence behaviour and actions. These theories are concerned more with the actual process of motivation and how behaviour is initiated, directed and sustained. Many of the theories cannot be linked to a single writer, but major approaches and leading writers under this heading include: ● expectancy-based models – Vroom, and Porter and Lawler; ● equity theory – Adams; ● goal theory – Locke; ● attribution theory – Heider and Kelley
  11. The underlying basis of expectancy theory is that people are influenced by the expected results of their actions. Motivation is a function of the relationship between: 1. effort expended and perceived level of performance; and 2. the expectation that rewards (desired outcomes) will be related to performance. There must also be: 3. the expectation that rewards (desired outcomes) are available. EXPECTANCY THEORIES
  12. Vroom was the first person to propose an expectancy theory aimed specifically at work motivation. His model is based on three key variables: valence, instrumentality and expectancy (VIE theory or expectancy/valence theory). ● Valence – the term used for the feeling about specific outcomes. This is the attractiveness of, or preference for, a particular outcome to the individual. ● Instrumentality – from which the valences of outcomes are derived. This leads to a distinction between first-level outcomes and second-level outcomes. The first-level outcomes are performance related. Some people may seek to perform well as part of their work ethic and without thinking about the expected consequences of their actions. The second-level outcomes are need related. Many need-related outcomes are dependent upon actual performance rather than effort expended. ● Expectancy – when a person chooses between alternative behaviours that have uncertain outcomes, the choice is affected not only by the preference for a particular outcome but also by the probability that the outcome will be achieved. VROOM’S MODEL:
  14. Equity theory focuses on people’s feelings of how fairly they have been treated in comparison with the treatment received by others. For example, a person may expect promotion as an outcome of a high level of contribution (input) in helping to achieve an important organisational objective. People also compare their own position with that of others. They determine the perceived equity of their own position. Most exchanges involve a number of inputs and outcomes. According to equity theory of Adams, people place a weighting on these various inputs and outcomes according to how they perceive their importance. When there is an unequal comparison of ratios the person experiences a sense of inequity. EQUITY THEORIES
  15. The combination of valence and expectancy determines the person’s motivation for a given form of behaviour. This is the motivational force. Expressed as an equation, motivation (M) is the sum of the products of the valences of all outcomes (V) times the strength of expectancies that action will result in achieving these outcomes (E). Therefore, if either, or both, valence or expectancy is zero, then motivation is zero. The choice between alternative behaviours is indicated by the highest attractiveness score. There are likely to be a number of outcomes expected for a given action. Therefore, the measure of E•V is summed across the total number of possible outcomes to arrive at a single figure indicating the attractiveness for the contemplated choice of behaviour. MOTIVATIONAL FORCE
  16. A feeling of inequity causes tension, which is an unpleasant experience. The presence of inequity therefore motivates the person to remove or to reduce the level of tension and the perceived inequity. The magnitude of perceived inequity determines the level of tension and strength of motivation. Adams identifies six broad types of possible behaviour as consequences of inequity: ● Changes to inputs – Increasing or decreasing level of inputs, for example through the amount or quality of work, absenteeism, or working additional hours without pay. ● Changes to outcomes – Attempting to change outcomes such as pay, working conditions, status and recognition, without changes to inputs. ● Cognitive distortion – Distorting, cognitively, inputs or outcomes to achieve the same results. Attempting to distort the utility of facts, for example the belief about how hard they are really working. ● Leaving the field – Trying to find a new situation with a more favorable balance, for example by absenteeism, request for a transfer, resigning from a job or from the organization altogether. ● Acting on others – Attempting to bring about changes in others, for example to lower their inputs or accept greater outcomes. ● Changing the object of comparison – Changing the reference group with whom comparison is made. For example, where another person with a previously similar ratio of outcomes– inputs receives greater outcomes without any apparent increase in contribution, that other person may be perceived as now belonging to a different level in the organisation structure. BEHAVIOUR AS A CONSEQUENCE OF INEQUITY:
  17. Goal theory is based mainly on the work of Locke. The basic premise is that people’s goals or intentions play an important part in determining behaviour. Locke accepts the importance of perceived value, as indicated in expectancy theories of motivation, and suggests that these values give rise to the experience of emotions and desires. Goals direct work behaviour and performance and lead to certain consequences or feedback. People strive to achieve goals in order to satisfy their emotions and desires. Locke subsequently pointed out that ‘goal-setting is more appropriately viewed as a motivational technique rather than as a formal theory of motivation’ GOAL THEORIES
  18. Part of the process of perceiving other people is to attribute characteristics to them. We judge their behaviour and intentions on past knowledge and in comparison with other people we know. It is our way of making sense of their behaviour. This is known as attribution theory. Attribution is the process by which people interpret the perceived causes of behaviour. The initiator of attribution theory is generally recognised as Heider, who suggests that behaviour is determined by a combination of perceived internal forces and external forces. ATTRIBUTION THEORY
  19. In making attributions and determining whether an internal or external attribution is chosen, Kelley suggests three basic criteria: distinctiveness, consensus and consistency. ● Distinctiveness – How distinctive or different was the behaviour or action in this particular task or situation compared with behaviour or action in other tasks or situations? ● Consensus – Is the behaviour or action different from, or in keeping with, that displayed by most other people in the same situation? ● Consistency – Is the behaviour or action associated with an enduring personality or motivational characteristic over time, or an unusual one-off situation caused by external factors? Kelley hypothesized that people attribute behaviour to internal forces or personal factors when they perceive low distinctiveness, low consensus and high consistency. Behaviour is attributed to external forces or environmental factors when people perceive high distinctiveness, high consensus and low consistency. BASIC CRITERIA IN MAKING ATTRIBUTIONS
  20. MEN BEHIND THE THEORIES: John Stacy Adams American Psychologist Harold Kelley American Psychologist Fritz Heider Austrian Psychologist
  21. Organisational behaviour modification. Another possible approach to motivation is that of organisational behaviour modification (OBMod). This is the application of learning principles to influence organisational behaviour. Luthans and Kreitner suggest that OBMod ‘represents a merging of behavioral learning theory on the one hand and organizational behavior theory on the other’. The concept of OBMod leads us to the next chapter, Creativity. NEXT STEPS
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