3. EV: The First Inception
1/3rd of Vehicle
4. EV: The Saga
Ford Model T
And Invention of
5. Why EV?
According to DOE (USA)
• Transportation accounts for one third of all energy usage.
• Use of 10% of ZEV cuts 1 million tons/year of air pollutants
• With 100% EV - CO2 emission would be cut by half
2.Availability of Fuel
Fast depletion of fossil fuel and dependence on middle east
countries for fuel.
6. Why EV?
3.Capital Cost and Maintenance Cost:
• EV has a more capital cost
• But life cycle cost of EV is lesser than ICEV
4.Well to Wheel Efficiency
The EV is found to have a better WTW efficiency than ICEV
10. Payback Analysis
• Difference in Price between EV and ICEV – Rs. 1 lakh
• Volume of Petrol for Rs. 1 lakh- 1250 litres
• Mileage with 1250 litres of petrol- 21250km
• Average distance driven per year- 11000km
• Payback- 1.9 yrs
11. Regenerative Braking
• A significant amount of energy is consumed in braking.
• Braking a 1000 kg vehicle from 100 km/h to zero speed consumes
about 0.16 kWh of energy.
• The energy lost in brake shoes as heat.
• It can be utilized to charge the battery.
• It makes sense in “Stop and Go Traffic”, “Downhill”
12. Alternate Vehicles: A broad
• All Electric Vehicle
• Hybrid Electric Vehicle
• Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle
14. Commercially Available EV
• Tesla Model S - 417 km, 507 km or 539 km
• Tesla Model X - 381 km, 465km or 475 km
• Jaguar I Pace - 480 km
• Tesla Model 3 - 354 km or 499 km
• Chevy Bolt - 383 km
• Renault ZOE (Only Europe) - 300 km
• Nissan LEAF - 240 km
• Volkswagen e-Golf - 201 km
• Hyundai IONIQ Electric - 200 km
• Kia Soul EV - 179 km
• Mahindra e2o - 120 km
• Mahindra e-Verito - 110 km
19. HEV Vs PHEV
• IC Engine is the primary
• Electric Motor is used to
complement the IC engine
• Electricity is generated on-
• Energy/Cost saving is doesn’t
payback the cost of vehicle
• Electric Motor powered by
battery is the primary source
• IC Engine supports the electric
motor and extends the range
• Battery is charged by Plugging
it into the socket
• Energy/Cost saving is
24. Degree of Hybridization
I. Degree of downsizing the engine and upsizing the electric
II. That is the traction power provided by the IC engine is reduced
and that of the electric motor is increased by varying the
capacity of the prime movers respectively.
26. Conductive Charging
• Conductive charging scheme transfers power through direct
• This scheme uses a conductor to connect the electronic devices to
the extent of energy transfer.
• Conductive charging is simple and highly efficient. It can be a
non-board or off-board method.
• An on-board charger is mainly utilized for slow charging.
• An off-board charger is installed at fixed locations to offer rapid
28. Inductive Charging
• Also known as wireless charging,
• Uses an electromagnetic field to transfer electricity to an EV
• The benefit of inductive charger is that it provides electrical safety
under all-weather conditions.
• The drawbacks of state-of-the-art inductive chargers are low
efficiency and high power loss
30. Battery Swapping
• Users can swap their empty battery with a fully charged one from a
battery swapping station.
• Batteries are not owned by the car owners so the cost is reduced by
• The peak demand on the grid is also reduced.
• Tesla proved to swap the batteries of two Tesla Model S with in the
time taken to fill the tank of a ICEV.
32. Level 1 Charging
• Uses a standard 120 VAC, 15 A or 20 A
• Charging equipment is typically installed on the vehicle
• Time 8 to 16 hrs
• Power rating 1.4-1.9 kW (depends on Amp rating)
33. Level 2 Charging
• Preferred method for a battery electric vehicle charger for both
private and public facilities.
• Private: 240 V AC, Single Phase, 40 A.
• Public: 400 V AC, Three Phase, 80 A.
• Power Rating 7.7 kW to 25.6 kW.
• Time 4-8 hrs.
• The conversion from AC to DC takes place on board.
34. Level 3 DC Fast Charging
• To provide an experience similar to a oil-based fuel station to the
consumers with performing a DC fast charge.
• AC to DC conversion occurs in an off-board charger.
• Three phase circuit, 208–600 V AC, up to 200 A.
• Charged to 80 % SoC within 10-15 min.
43. All Electric Fleet by 2030: Can It
• EV penetration in to the electric power grid poses a threat to power
quality and reliability,
• The backbone network has to be strengthened before integrating the
EVs to the grid. The current distribution system has to be upgraded to
a whole new level to facilitate the rapid growth of EVs on the
• The other issue is the charging time or refueling time required by an
EV which varies from 6-8 hours, is significantly higher than the ICEV.
There is a DC fast charging and battery swapping method which is an
answer to it.
1. Hussain Shareef et al.: “A review of the stage-of-the-art
charging technologies, placement methodologies, and impacts of
electric vehicles”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews.
2. Robert C. Green II et al.: “The impact of plug-in hybrid electric
vehicles on distribution networks: A review and outlook”,
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews.
3. N. Shaukat et al.: “A survey on electric vehicle transportation
within smart grid system”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
4. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Design Fundamentals 2nd edition
by Iqbal Husain.
5. Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles by
Mehrdad Ehsani et al.
Steam vehicles required long startup times -- sometimes up to 45 minutes in the cold -- and would need to be refilled with water, limiting their range
Ford Model T was cheaper 650 USD but EV was 1750 USD