2. A technology that uses glass (or plastic)
threads (fibers) to transmit data.
A fiber optic cable consists of a bundle of glass
threads, each of which is capable of
transmitting messages modulated onto light
3. How an Optical Fiber Works
It works on the principle of total internal
Light rays are reflected and guided down the
length of an optical fiber
4. When light enters the area between 2 materials
the light will be either entirely reflected or a
portion of it will be refracted, depending on
If the light kept at an angle where it is entirely
reflected, it will become trapped inside and
transmitted along the fiber.
5. An optical fiber is made of three sections:
Core, Cladding, Coating
The core carries the light signals
The cladding keeps the light in the core
The coating protects the cladding
Fiber optics r made up from glass or fused quartz
with lengths of 10 to 100µm.
Quartz is used as it is highly transparent
6. The area where light is transmitted is called
the core, and the external area is called the
7. Optical fiber can also be made up of polymer
Plastic optical fibers are optical fibers made of
While they can not reach the performance of
glass fibers in various respects such as
propagation losses and data transmission
8. CORE CHARACTERISTICS
1. The diameter of the light carrying region of
the fiber is the "core diameter.“
2. The larger the core, the more rays of light
that travel in the core.
3. The larger the core, the more optical power
that can be transmitted.
4. The core has a higher index of refraction
than the cladding.
9. Fiber-optic communication is a method of
transmitting information from one place to
another by sending pulses of light through an
The light forms an electromagnetic carrier wave
that is modulated to carry information.
First developed in the 1970s, fiber-optic
communication systems have revolutionized
the telecommunications industry and have
played a major role in the advent of the
10. Fiber optics VS
Traditional metal communication lines
Fiber optics has several advantages over
traditional metal communications lines:
Fiber optic cables have a much greater
bandwidth than metal cables. This means that
they can carry more data.
Fiber optic cables are less susceptible than
metal cables to interference.
11. Fiber optic cables are much thinner and lighter
than metal wires.
Data can be transmitted digitally (the natural
form for computer data) rather than
It is especially advantageous for long-distance
communications, because light propagates
through the fiber with little attenuation
compared to electrical cables
The fibers used in long-distance
telecommunications applications are always
glass, because of the lower optical
Over short distances, such as networking within
a building, fiber saves space in cable ducts
because a single fiber can carry much more
data than a single electrical cable.
13. Fiber is also immune to electrical interference;
there is no cross-talk between signals in
different cables and no pickup of
The main Disadvantage of fiber optics is that
the cables are expensive to install. In
addition, they are more fragile than wire and
are difficult to splice.
14. Specially designed fibers are used for a variety
of other applications, including sensors and
A fiber optic sensor is a sensor that uses
optical fiber either as the sensing element
("intrinsic sensors"), or as a means of relaying
signals from a remote sensor to the
electronics that process the signals
15. Light is kept in the core of the optical fiber by
total internal reflection. This causes the
fiber to act as a waveguide.
Fibers which support many propagation paths
or transverse modes are called multi-mode
while those which can only support a single
mode are called single-mode fibers (SMF).
Fibers are widely used in illumination
They are used as light guides in medical.
Optical fiber illumination is also used for
decorative applications, including signs, art,
and artificial Christmas trees.
17. Optical fiber is also used in imaging optics. A
coherent bundle of fibers is used, sometimes
along with endoscope, which is used to view
objects through a small hole.
Medical endoscopes are used for minimally
invasive exploratory or surgical procedures
Industrial endoscopes are used for inspecting
anything hard to reach, such as jet engine
18. In spectroscopy, optical fiber bundles are used
to transmit light from a spectrometer to a
substance which cannot be placed inside the
spectrometer itself, in order to analyze its
A spectrometer analyzes substances by
bouncing light off of and through them. By
using fibers, a spectrometer can be used to
study objects that are too large to fit inside,
or gasses, or reactions which occur in
19. Optical fiber can be used as a medium for
telecommunication and networking because it
is flexible and can be bundled as cables
American Optical Corporation use a prototype
ruby laser photo coagulator to destroy a
human patient’s retinal tumor
20. Fiber optics is a particularly popular technology
for local-area networks. In addition,
telephone companies are steadily replacing
traditional telephone lines with fiber optic
In the future, almost all communications will
employ fiber OPTICS