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Green building design is a practical and ...
1. MATERIALS: 50% of all resources (sand, gravel, clay, and iron ore, wood)
globally go into construction.
2. ENERGY: 45...
 Selecting siding materials that do not require painting, such as vinyl or brick
instead of wood is required for a gree...
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  1. 1. 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION GREEN BUILDING (GREEN INTERIOR) WHAT IS GREEN BUILDING? Green building design is a practical and climate conscious approach to building design. These buildings were generally made of locally available materials like wood, mud and stone and dealt with the vagaries of weather without using a large amount of external energy to keep the inhabitants comfortable. A green building uses minimum amount of energy, consumes less water, conserves natural resources, generates less waste and creates space for healthy and comfortable living and amount of external energy to keep the inhabitants comfortable. During the 20th century, the energy needs of a person taken as a global average will increase by a factor of four. As life expectancies increase, populations increase, material and wealth increases, all of these four things put a high demand on the ecosystem of the earth.points to be seen:
  2. 2. 2 1. MATERIALS: 50% of all resources (sand, gravel, clay, and iron ore, wood) globally go into construction. 2. ENERGY: 45% is used to heat, light, and ventilate buildings and 5% to construct them. 3. WATER: 40% is globally used for sanitation and other use in buildings.16% is consumed in consumption. 4. LAND: 60% prime agricultural land lost to farming is used for building purpose. 5. TIMBER: 70% of timber products end up in building construction. Green building is defined by the Office of the Federal Environmental Executive as “the practice of: 1) Increasing the efficiency with which buildings and their sites use energy, water, and materials. 2) Reducing building impacts of human health and the environment, through better siting, design, construction, operation, maintenance, and removal throughout the complete life cycle.” Being A GREEN BUILDING the envelope has to be built with some requirement to fulfil its basis. EXTERIOR
  3. 3. 3  Selecting siding materials that do not require painting, such as vinyl or brick instead of wood is required for a green building.  Consider a roof made of metal instead of traditional shingles.  Purchasing plant materials that do not require a lot of water or attention and are appropriate for your climate.  Considering removing part or all of your lawn and replace it with low maintenance plants or other ground cover, such as artificial grass or stone.  Avoiding real wood decks that might require continual resealing. Swimming pools are also a source of continual maintenance BUILDING MATERIAL  Recycled glass an analysis of the eco properties of this material used in interior design and your home.  Concrete There is a divide in the industry whether concrete is green or not. Durability versus extremely energy intensive manufacturing.  Clay plaster an alternative to gypsum plaster with lower levels of embodied energy & excellent eco properties.  Limes plaster the natural more eco-friendly alternative to gypsum plaster for your interior walls. ENERGY CONSERVATION MATERIAL FOR BUILDING  Energy Conservation: Materials that require less energy during construction e.g. precast slabs.  Materials that help reduce the cooling loads- e.g. –aerated concrete blocks.  Products that conserve energy–e. g. CFL lamps.  Fixtures & equipment’s that help conserve water e.g. Dual flush cisterns CONVENTIONAL ECO FRIENDLY MATERIAL 1. Bamboo, Bamboo Based Particleboard & Ply Board, Bamboo Matting 2. Bricks suns dried 3. Clay roofing tiles 4. Gypsum Board, Tiles, Plaster, Blocks, gypsum plaster fibre jute/sisal and glass fibre composites 5. Marble Mosaic Tiles 6. MDF Boards and Mouldings 7. Partial Boards 8. RCC Door Frames 9. Rubber Wood Finger Joint Board 10.Stone dust
  4. 4. 4 WHAT IS GREEN INTERIOR? Green interior design is all about sustainability. Green interior design (sometimes called sustainable design) on the other hand is primarily ethical. Green interior design is about what is good and what is bad for people’s health, for the environment and for saving energy. Green is life. Abundant in nature, green signifies growth, renewal, health, and environment. Green design includes energy conservation, but that's not what it's all about. It's about having good air quality both indoors and outdoors, making the environments in which we work, live, study and play healthier and more comfortable and conserving all of our natural resources. ORIENTATION OF SUSTAINABLE HOME  A home designed for energy efficiency will take advantage of the site, sunlight, view, and natural breezes.  The floor plan and placement of windows are also considered when designing an energy-efficient home.
  5. 5. 5  In addition, an energy-efficient home will have adequate amounts of insulation, an efficient heating system, and high-quality windows and doors. It will also be sealed tightly against air leaks. The orientation of a well- designed, energy-efficient home will take advantage of free energy from the sun  For energy efficiency, the house should be oriented so the long axis of the house is in an east-to west direction so that the largest amount of wall surface and windows face south to take advantage of the lower angle of winter sunlight.  An appropriate home design places most-used rooms and outdoor activity areas on the south to takes advantage of useful heat from winter sunlight during the day  The north, east, and west sides of the home should have the minimum amount of glass area necessary for light and ventilation. Garages, utility rooms, and storage areas should be located to the north.  Because these rooms are used less frequently than the home’s living areas, they do not need continual. These rooms can act as buffers against cold winter winds.  Heat can be collected from sunlight by a variety of methods, including large expanses of windows, a solarium, a sun space, or a thermal storage wall on the south side of the house.  A solarium or sun space attached to the main structure of the house increases the thermal resistance of the outside envelope in two ways: (1) It protects the main living areas from extreme outside temperatures (similar to the air-lock entry), and (2) It reduces infiltration around doors and windows because the main wall of the house is not directly exposed to the outside elements.
  6. 6. 6 In a solarium or sun space, thermal mass materials such as brick, ceramic tile, and concrete are used to absorb heat. They also retain heat so it can be radiated back into the house at night. A thermal storage wall is also referred to as a Trombe wall. Like the solarium and sun space, the Trombe wall uses large expanses of windows to collect heat. The Trombe wall should be constructed of a good heat-retaining material such as concrete, brick, or stone. Heat is distributed to the living areas by convection, conduction, and radiation. In an energy-efficient home, roof overhangs must be wide enough to be effective. A correctly designed overhang eliminates the need for deciduous trees on the south, east, and west sides of the house and shade walls and windows from the high and hot summer sun. If the overhang is designed correctly, it will allow the lower angled winter sunlight to enter the house through the windows and also block the summer sunlight from entering the windows. “Five years ago, the cost of green building came At a higher premium, but now a lot of green products are Comparable [in price] with traditional products.” Lynn Rogien  Green design requires a designer to use recycled products, raw materials And the product construction must meet environmental standards.  Green interior design also means less energy consumption by using led lights and energy saver lights instead of the conventional lighting, as well as, proper insulation of rooms against heat and cold to use less air conditioning and possibly the use of solar power whenever necessary.  This eco consciousness has also led to discovery of some interesting green products like recycled tire rubber and cork as flooring, counter tops made of highly compressed paper (paper stone) or recycled crushed glass, seashells and mirror compressed in a VOC free resin or engineered concrete.  Tile made from the powder of crushed porcelain toilets and tubs or recycled glass.  There are even carpets on the market made from plastic recycled water and coke bottles and it is highly stain resistant and comes in a rainbow of colours.
  7. 7. 7 GREEN INCLUDES ALL LANDSCAPING INCLUDING PLANTS: Plants have a significant effect in reducing the heat of the room temperature. Indoor air-conditioned, usage of plants with a sufficient amount will be lower temperatures 3 ° C-5 ° C.  Interior design projects worldwide are adding green walls and many modern spaces offer a ‘faux garden’ area for employees to relax inside, which leads to the possibility of turning the latter into real gardens.  In re-engaging with our environments, we learn to respect them and not reject them. With all the benefits of potting plants in interior spaces, moving forward with implementing untamed wildlife inside might not seem like such a strange concept. GRASS WALL (VERTICAL GARDENS)
  8. 8. 8  Green walls are found most often in urban environments where the plants reduce overall temperatures of the building.  Plant surfaces however, as a result of transpiration, do not rise more than 4– 5 °C above the ambient and are sometimes cooler."  Living walls may also be a means for water reuse. The plants may purify slightly polluted water (such as grey water) by absorbing the dissolved nutrients.  They are also suitable in arid areas, as the circulating water on a vertical wall is less likely to evaporate than in horizontal gardens.  The living wall could also function for urban agriculture, urban gardening, or for its beauty as art. It is sometimes built indoors to help alleviate sick building syndrome. GRASS ROOFING  The sustainable trend of “Green Roofing” is taking the mundane and unattractive insulators to new green conscious levels. From necessity to design piece.
  9. 9. 9  Glass wool, Rockwool and polyester are just some of the material insulators on the market today. Visually displeasing, these insulators are boarded up in walls and ceilings.  Making a huge impact on cities worldwide, Green Roofs offer sustainable insulation for buildings and a visually pleasing design aspect, among many other positive aspects of this new green building development.  A Green Roof is, in its most basic form, a vegetated rooftop. The application of this process can be seen in green retrofits as well completely new buildings in most major cities. BENEFITS OF GREEN INTERIOR In one human being needs 2.9 kg of oxygen (02) so that the plant helps speed up the procurement of 02 in the room during the day.  Green Interiors enhance occupant’s well-being and productivity  Green Interiors reduce liability associated with poor indoor air quality  Green Interiors increase marketability  Green Interiors decrease churn costs  Green Interiors lower operating and maintenance costs  Green Interiors provide thermal comfort  Green Interiors provide access to daylight and views  Green Interiors minimize interior pollutants  Green Interiors improve controllability of lighting and temperature. The benefits of incorporating greenery into the architecture of a building are well-noted, from reducing stress levels of those working or living inside to offsetting excess carbon and increasing the air quality of a space, balancing the built with the natural should never be discouraged.  Adding plants and trees to a development is great green inspiration, but a site that incorporates greenery and calls itself ‘green’ should not be given more praise or recognition than a carbon zero development that uses various green technologies but is not dripping in ivy. WHAT IS LEED?  LEED stands for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design that was developed by the US Green Building Council (USGBC) (The United States Green Build Council)  Per the USGBC, they are "an internationally recognized green building certification system, providing third-party verification that a building or community was designed and built using strategies aimed at improving performance across all the metrics that matter most: energy savings, water
  10. 10. 10 efficiency, CO2 emissions reduction, improved indoor environmental quality, and stewardship of resources and sensitivity to their impacts.  LEED Certification Level Points Certified 26-32 Silver 33-38 Gold 39-51 Platinum 52-69  "LEED rates the environmental quality of buildings by recognizing performance in sustainable sites, water efficiency, energy & atmosphere, materials & resources, indoor environmental quality, locations & linkages, awareness & education, innovation in design, and regional priority.  A building is given points based on these criteria and if it receives enough points, may be given a ranking of certified, silver, gold, or platinum (platinum being best).  If a building you live or work in has a high ranking, you will know that it is good for the environment and your health.  The building will more than likely end up costing you less to maintain than one that uses building methods traditionally used in the past.  The building will also probably appraise for more because of its lower cost to operate. There are three primary rating systems in India: GRIHA, IGBC and BEE. GRIHA stands for "Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment" and has been developed keeping in mind the various conditions and requirements specific to the design and construction of green buildings in India. IGBC stands for "Indian Green Building Council" and provides the LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) ratings for green buildings devised in the United States in India. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) launched a Star Rating Programme in 2009, for office buildings in order to accelerate the Energy Efficiency activities in commercial buildings. The programme developed by the Bureau of Energy Efficiency, BEE is based on actual performance of the building, in terms of specific energy usage (in kWh/sq. m/year). CHARACTERISTICS OF GREEN BUILDING:
  11. 11. 11 Site Design and Planning  Site a building within close proximity of commuter rail or bus lines, to reduce pollution and any land-development impacts associated with increased automobile usage.  Establish building specifications that maintain the current level of storm- water runoff, or decrease the amount of imperviousness already existing onsite.  Develop a site with a minimum density of 60,000 square feet per acre. Channelling development to urban areas with existing infrastructure protects green spaces and preserves natural habitats and resources. Construction and Demolition Waste  Management Develop and implement a waste management plan that diverts a substantial amount of construction, demolition, and land-clearing debris from landfills to recycling or salvage facilities.  Reuse a percentage of salvage or refurbished materials from construction, demolition, or land clearing as new building material. For more information on the benefits of salvaging materials from existing sites, go to  Energy and Atmosphere Generate building electricity on site, from renewable resources like geothermal, solar, or biogas sources.  Eliminate the use of CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) in new heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC & R) systems. Eliminating the use of CFCs reduces ozone depletion.  Contract with a green power provider to purchase building electricity generated from renewable resources, such as solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, or low impact hydro sources. Optimize energy performance. Material and Product Selection  Utilize rapidly renewable materials, such as bamboo flooring, wool carpets, strawboard, cotton ball insulation (made from denim scrap), genuine linoleum flooring, or poplar oriented-strand board (OSB). Using rapid renewables helps  Some building materials are : 1. Sustainable harvested wood 2. Truss 3. Linoleum 4. Sheep wool 5. Concrete 6. Panels made from paper flakes 7. Baked earth
  12. 12. 12 8. Rammed earth 9. Clay 10.Flax linen 11.Sea grass 12.Sisal 13.Cork 14.Coconut 15.Calcium sand stone 16.Bamboo 17.Non toxics low VOC glues and paints 18.Vermiculite 19.Concrete( high and ultra-high) 20.Sustainable wood Water Management  Install water-efficient or low-flow equipment and appliances in kitchens and bathrooms to reduce water consumption.  Use water-efficient irrigation, captured rain, or site-recycled water for onsite landscaping. Indoor Environment  Design the HVAC system and building envelope to provide for the most optimal delivery and mixing of fresh air. Effective air exchange supports the safety, comfort, and well-being of building occupants.  Reduce the number of indoor air contaminants by selecting paints and coatings, adhesives, carpets, and composite woods that emit low VOCs (volatile organic compounds) or none at all.  Examples of low VOC emitting products are carpets made of wool, carpets made of recycled plastic bottles, and low VOC paint.  Establish segregated areas for chemical using operations (such as copy/printing rooms and housekeeping); these areas should have separate outside exhaust and no air recirculation.  Maximize day lighting and view opportunities. Day lighting and increased view opportunities can save energy costs and enhance worker productivity. WHAT IS USGBC?  The USGBC was created to promote the design and construction of buildings that are environmentally responsible, profitable, and healthy places to live and work.
  13. 13. 13  They are focused on integrating building industry sectors and leading a market transformation towards greener construction.  The organization consists of various trade associations, architects, designers, and individuals all interested in the greening of the construction business.  A committee was formed to study other green building programs currently in existence and after three years LEED 1.0 unveiled. HISTORY GREEN BUILDING
  14. 14. 14  Individuals and companies have only been building green homes for the past thirty years; still, within that time, the green movement has been constantly growing.  The history of green building dates back much further than the 1970's. It was in the midst of the industrial revolution that Henri Becquerel first witnessed the transformation of solar energy into electrical energy, known as photovoltaic power.  Around this time, the late 1800's to early 1900's, a number of solar power plants were built to utilize the sun's energy for steam power. Then, in the 1950's, solar energy was used on an extremely small-scale, making way for the solar panel solution twenty years later.  During the energy crisis of the 1970's, green building moved from research and development to reality. Builders and designers were looking for a way to reduce the reliance of buildings and homes on fossil fuels.  Solar panels were used to make more environmentally friendly homes, although only in small numbers due to high initial costs.  Since then, developers have been able to construct more efficient and less expensive solar panels, making solar energy more of a reality. GREEN INTERIOR Since its inception in 1998 the LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) accreditation program by the US Green Building Council (USGBC) has been the basis for green interior design. LEED is continually involving to come up with better ways of meeting its criteria. These criteria identify 5 keys areas:  Energy saving  Water efficiency  CO2 emissions reduction  Improved indoor air quality AIMS & OBJECTIVE My aim for choosing this topic of green building and green interior is to get maximum knowledge regarding this topic and how these can be applied further in my future. Some reasons behind are:
  15. 15. 15  Green interior design is important for business because in the long run installing energy efficient devices saves money. This is the great incentive to ‘greening up’ buildings.  For town planners and construction companies working under new guidelines to reduce CO2 emissions the ideas of LEED and green interior design are of vital importance.  For anxious parents wishing to protect their children from harmful chemicals these ideas have a profound relevance. And for environmentalists seeking to protect nature from man’s reckless need for economic growth at all costs the concepts of green interior design are like seeds of hope for the future. LET’S SEE BELOW:  PEOPLE, PLANET, PROFIT is the triple bottom line by which green interior design measures the success of its endeavours. Interiors that are healthy for people to live in are essential.  The US Environmental Protection Agency calculates that people spend 90% of their lives indoors and that pollutant levels are 2 to 5 times higher indoors than outdoors (source: and other pollutants are making people sick in their homes. Moreover, many interiors cause people to suffer from allergic attacks because of dust mites.  By reducing energy consumption we can reduce your utility bills. For example by installing a programmable thermostat in your home you can save $180 a year.  By sealing and insulating HVAC ducts we can make your heating and cooling 20% more efficient.  Not only electricity bills can be reduced with green interior design but also water bills. For example a low flow shower head will reduce water flow per minute from 5 gallons to 2.5 gallons without a reduction in spray strength OBJECTIVES CAN BE NOTICED BY:
  16. 16. 16 Saving Energy  Reducing energy bills is a central tenet of green interior design. For most homes, the main source of energy is electricity from the central power grid.  The vast majority of electricity in the world is made by burning non- renewable fossil fuels.  The other problem is that burning fossil fuels produces greenhouse gases that are causing climate change which is playing havoc with man’s attempts to grow food, destroying animal habitats and endangering a wide range of eco-systems.  Opting to go ‘off the grid’ by installing solar panels and wind turbines is one solution. Another is to only buy green energy made from alternative energy sources.  For most homes neither of these options is viable. Instead the best we can do is to reduce our energy consumption.  This can be done by using a programmable thermostat, by not leaving your electrical products on stand-by, by properly insulating your house, by replacing your incandescent light bulbs with compact fluorescent light bulbs, by turning up your cooler in the summer and turning down your heater in the winter, by washing your clothes in cold water, by buying appliances with the Energy Star mark, and by doing a hundred other small things to save electricity. VOCs  'Low VOC', 'zero VOC' and 'VOC free' are new buzz phrases in the green blogosphere that have yet to become fully mainstream. Most commonly the appellations are given to paints, adhesives, and varnishes and paint... Clean Indoor Air  For over 50 years industry has been polluting nature and slowly killing people. It is only recently that governments have started to put in place laws to protect people and the environment from dangerous chemicals.
  17. 17. 17  From a green interior design point of view the main concern is to source indoor flooring, furniture, paint and furnishings that are free of chemicals that pollute and make people sick.  The main culprits are VOCs such as benzene, formaldehyde, methylene- chloride, styrene, chlorofluorocarbons and acetone.  Green interior design is about hunting out products in a building containing these toxic chemicals and replacing them with safe alternatives. VOCs cause respiratory problems, pregnancy complications, cancer, reproductive problems and allergies as well as ground water pollution and smog. Finding furniture and flooring free of VOCs, and using VOC free paint is a key part of green interior design. SCOPE GREEN BUILDING This dissertation contains brief history of green and sustainability, a look at common goals of design and of energy efficiency and green recyclable materials which are elements of the design. It also covers introduction with leed, griha etc. including material, finishes and techniques.
  18. 18. 18 Benefits of Green Development Financial 1. Reduced capital costs 2. Lower operating and maintenance costs 3. Reduced risks and liabilities Environmental 1. Less impact on the natural environment 2. Healthy environments and improved productivity Social 1. Stronger social networks 2. Increased environmental awareness Financial Benefit • High efficiency water fixtures dramatically cut water consumption levels. Additionally, grey water systems filter and reuse water (in toilets and for landscaping) that otherwise flows into the sewer system. • Fewer light fixtures and the use of motion sensors and timing devices decreases energy consumption. • Increased use of daylight improves employee morale and reduces energy operating costs. • Healthier buildings mean less employee sick time and higher productivity, thus lower operating costs. • Structures designed to take advantage of passive heating and cooling minimizes wear on HVAC systems and consistent indoor temperatures reduce HVAC demands and energy consumption. • Longer lasting equipment and more efficient systems result in lower maintenance costs. • Green flooring materials (such as renewable, recyclable cork) last for decades, requiring little to no maintenance beyond cleaning. • Light coloured roofs or green roofs reduce cooling energy needs in the summer months. Green buildings reduce the impact on the natural environment. • Reuse of land for an infill development project reduces the impact of additional roads and sewers on the environment and promotes walking and transit use. • Conscientious construction methods divert tons of waste materials from landfills and minimize site disturbance. • Informed choice of building materials reduces the demand on natural resources and can improve the quality of the building. • Storm water reuse reduces the demand for potable water and municipal groundwater withdrawals. • Smart growth helps protect green and open spaces as well as reduce sprawl which results in occupants not commuting as far, in turn reducing vehicle emissions. • The use of renewable wood and recycled content materials is encouraged.
  19. 19. 19 • Reduced energy consumption means fewer power plant emissions. GREEN INTERIOR  As in a growing number of developing countries, the Indian industry is welcoming the presence of GREEN BUILDING practices throughout its various sectors.  While green implementation was first seen in the architectural design and construction stages, GREEN INTERIOR DESIGN is now trending as a highly fashionable choice.  Today the upcoming phase is opting for green interiors which can be also said as sustainability. Going green is seen as a ‘trendy’ option for Indian clients, who appreciate the aesthetic and environmental impacts of eco- friendly products and materials.  “With global warming becoming a harsh reality and natural resources depleting, the world is bending towards eco-friendly and renewable resources.”  While double-glazing and other ESD features rate highly in terms of energy savings, it is eco-friendly materials and products that are reaching new levels of popularity in the country.  The residential market is handling environmentally responsible design through simple retrofitting, with many clients opting to install organic and sustainable timber, bamboo, grasses, wicker and jute. Such material both aid in removing toxicity from interiors and keep product sourcing local.  Natural fabrics such as leather, cashmere and angora are also on the rise as in terms of use in furniture and fittings.  “Most of the organic products are hand-made,” explains the interior designer. “And India being a thickly populated country, it is also labour intensive. The number of small scale industries is numerous, thereby decreasing the cost of production.”  India is seeing strong growth in replacement products, such as low voc materials and paints in place of high toxicity products and eco-friendly particleboard made of compressed industrial waste.  Small and at-home changes are having the greatest impact on the growth of a green building sector in the country, with industry professionals who understand this notion benefiting greatly from increased clientele.
  24. 24. 24  Grey water is the waste water from our sinks, washing machines, dishwashers, showers and baths. It doesn’t include, however, the waste water from toilets, which is classed as black water, or sewage.  Grey water is easier to treat and recycle than black water, due to its lower levels of contaminants.  It also has the potential to be recycled directly within the home and garden, so you can use grey water to water the garden, clean the car, run the washing machine and flush the toilet.  Grey water is generally the wastewater from a household that does not flow out of a toilet (sewage/backwater).  Grey water accounts for about 60%-80% of the outflow produced in homes. It contains little or no pathogens and 90% less nitrogen than wastewater (toilet water). Because of this, it does not require the same treatment process.  Grey water reuse is currently utilized mostly on small residential scale, with the outflow primarily going to landscaping irrigation. Benefits  Grey water pipe separation is a relatively easy low cost when planned into a new smaller-scale residential construction.  Cost and space savings can even be gained by reducing the wastewater treatment system, especially for septic systems  Reduces the amount of potable, fresh water used by households.
  25. 25. 25  Reduces the flow of wastewater entering sewer or septic systems.  Minimizes the amount of harmful chemicals used by homeowners.  Supports plant growth without using expensive potable water.  Helps recharge groundwater when applied outdoors.  Raises public awareness of natural water cycles.  Saves money on water bills. Grey Water Collection  In order to collect and distribute the grey water, a separate internal waste water drainage system must be fitted.  The water is stored in a tank from where a distribution system takes it, by a pump or gravity, to the toilets and/or garden tap.  A main fed back-up system will be necessary for times when supply of grey water does not meet demand. Equally, an overflow system connected to the sewer will be required when grey water exceeds demand Grey water for the garden Rainwater can – believe it or not – be used for any purpose, including drinking and cooking. But the simplest place to start is in the garden.
  26. 26. 26 The average home can reduce their water consumption by around 30% by re-using grey water on their garden.” A RESEARCH SHOWS THAT about 61% of the 180,000 litres of water that leaves the average home as waste water is reusable grey water. There are two types of grey water systems: diversion systems that push untreated grey water through a sub-surface outdoor irrigation system, and treatment systems that treat grey water so you can use it above surface for irrigation, toilets and washing machines. RAIN WATER HARVESTING Water is an increasingly scarce resource and we are using 50% of our clean water to flush toilets, wash clothes, cars and to water gardens.
  27. 27. 27 Rainwater harvesting simply collects rainwater and substitutes it for mains water in non-potable applications. BENEFITS 1. Reduced mains water consumption (saving up to 50% for domestic and up to 80% for commercial). 2. Lower energy usage to pump rainwater than to process potable water. 3. Reduced risk of flooding as water is retained. 4. Continued water supply during hose pipe bans (subject to design). 5. Our systems are suitable as part of SUDS (sustainable urban drainage system).  Rainwater harvesting involves collection and storage of rainwater for future use.  Rainwater can also be discharged into the ground without loss through evaporation or seepage. Elements of a typical water harvesting system: Quality of the harvested water can be assured by: 1. Filtering at the origin of rooftop drains. 2. Providing a chamber for impurities to settle down. 3. Providing a filter bed. 4. Water can be recharged into the ground through recharge wells, percolation pits or recharge trenches.
  28. 28. 28 Rainwater can be stored in tanks. Rainwater can be recharged into the ground.
  29. 29. 29 Rain garden  Rain gardens capture the water, allowing it to seep into the soil slowly. They can include ponds or water features and can double as a home for frogs.  Rain gardens are designed to capture the flow of storm water coming from paved areas, overflow pipes of rainwater tanks or direct from downpipes from the roof of the house.  Rocks or pebbles should be used as mulch, as these don't float when the water flows and end up clogging drains, but like timber mulch, they protect the soil from evaporation and suppress weeds. WASTE EFFICIENCY
  30. 30. 30 COMPOSIT BIN The kitchen scraps and leaves and dead flowers are put in the hole in the garden. When it is full it is turned covered and it turns into good earth .few years later when it is dug and spread the earth on the garden. The working: A composter is usually a bin that holds plant matter or specific plant matters like egg shells. Microorganisms work out. This heat up the pile sometimes to 140 degree. After the 2 weeks or 2 years dark soil are left over that can be used for things like soil amendment, ground cover etc. The four key ingredients that create compost are:  Organic materials: leaves, grass, fruit and vegetable scraps, etc.  Soil: you can buy soil, but the potting soil sold in stores is often sterized; better to get a shovelful or two of soil from a corner of your yard, or get some (with permission) from a neighbour or friend; this way you may get some worms with your soil worms are GOOD
  31. 31. 31  Air: compost needs oxygen to "operate" properly; make sure your composter has holes in it, and that you mix or turn the compost material regularly  Water: compost material shouldn't be soggy, but it also shouldn't be bone- dry; it should feel slightly moist to the hand o The following materials SHOULD NOT BE COMPOSTED:  Human waste or pet litter - They carry diseases and parasites, as well as cause an unpleasant odour.  Diseased garden plants - They can infect the compost pile and influence the finished product.  Invasive weeds - Spores and seeds of invasive weeds (buttercups, morning glory, and quack grass) can survive the decomposition process and spread to your desired plants when you use the finished compost.  Charcoal ashes - They are toxic to the soil microorganisms.  Pesticide-treated plant material - These are harmful to the compost food web organisms, and pesticides may survive into the finished compost ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENHANCEMENT LANDSCAPING Plants provide a physical surrounding, that is more comfortable to live and work in, by purifying the air, moderating temperatures, removing pollutants from the air and increasing relative humidity.  Landscaping is an important element in altering the microclimate of a place.
  32. 32. 32  Proper landscaping reduces direct sun from striking and heating up of building Surfaces.  Landscaping creates different airflow patterns and can be used to direct or divert the wind advantageously by causing a pressure difference.  Additionally, the shade created by trees and the effect of grass and Shrubs reduce air temperatures adjoining the building and provide evaporative cooling. Properly designed roof gardens help to reduce heat loads in a building.  A study shows that the ambient air under a tree adjacent to the wall is about 2 °C to 2.5 °C lower than that for unshaved areas, which Reduces heat gain by conduction 1. Winter winds, generally from the north and west, can be controlled by creating wind breaks using evergreen trees, shrubs, vines, fences, or earth berms. 2. These wind breaks can be placed or the north and west sides of the home or along the perimeters of the lot. 3. Evergreen trees or medium to tall evergreen shrubs should be planted on the north side of the house to block the north winter winds. 4. These plants do not lose their foliage during the winter. 5. Earth berms and fences can channel winds away from the house and provide insulating features 6. Shrubs and trees next to the house can also provide protection by creating an insulating space next to the walls and by reducing infiltration through the windows and walls. 7. Proper choices and placement of trees are important in controlling sunlight coming into the house. Shade trees should be selected by considering their expected height at maturity. 8. If trees are not properly placed, they won’t be very effective. Trees that are planted too close or too far from the home will not provide protection from sunlight. 9. Heat from summer sunlight can be reduced by planting deciduous trees and shrubs along the east, west, and south sides of the house. If deciduous trees are tall enough, they will not only shade the walls but also the roof.
  33. 33. 33 10.The east and west sides of the home should have shorter deciduous trees or medium to all shrubs to create shade from the hot morning and afternoon sunlight. Because their leaves drop in the late fall and winter, deciduous trees allow sunlight onto south walls and windows. 11.However, if deciduous trees are planted too close to the house and in front of windows, some of the heat gain through the windows in the winter can be blocked by the bare branches. 12.Medium to tall deciduous shrubs along the east, west, and south walls are not only effective in shading walls and reducing temperatures in summer but are also effective in screening hot summer winds and channelling cooling winter breezes toward or away from walls, windows, and outdoor spaces. 13.The concept of xeriscaping (dry landscaping) is useful in conserving water and providing sun and wind control. Many homes have large expanses of entrance planting or front lawns that are often not used as activity areas. 14. Seldom-used areas can be converted to drought-resistant ground cover requiring less frequent watering or to native species requiring no water. IVY PLANTS AND PEACE LILY ARE HIGHY EFFECTIVE AT REMOVING TOXINS FROM INDOOR AIR
  34. 34. 34 INDOOR LANDSCAPE A houseplant is a plant that is grown indoors in places such as residences and offices. Houseplants are commonly grown for decorative purposes and health reasons Such as indoor air purification.  The indoor landscaping for plants (plants, water features etc.); indoors is to be in known so as to enhance the aesthetics as well as reap maximum benefit from these natural resources resulting into a functional eco-friendly interior space.  In view of global warming & excessive use of unfriendly synthetic materials indoors that are leading to health hazards in the occupants, it is essential to bring the outdoors inside to balance this situation & also reduce the load on natural resources as well as preserving them. E.g. Indoor plants are an excellent source of oxygen & also cool the surroundings thereby reducing the load on mechanical air-conditioning systems.  Water features also do their bit in controlling the temperature as well as having a positive psychological effect on the minds of the occupants.
  35. 35. 35  Indoor landscaping is not limited to container plants but has now moved to full-fledged landscaped gardens with plants, pools, streams keeping in view the provision for natural light, water supply & drainage, nutrition for plants, maintenance & cleaning Some types of interiorscaping are: Green wall system It contributes to indoor air quality and providing oxygen and humidity. INDOOR PLANTING PLANT LIFE These plants can be used in interior in hot and sunny and cold and humid climate as in the space creating an environmental effect for the space • MONEY PLANT • PALMS • BAMBOO • CALADIUM • ELEPHANT EARS • HIBISCUS (NO FLOWERING) • PLUMERIA (NO FLOWERING) • AUREACARIA • PEEPAL • SPIDER PLANT There are three basics category of water garden plants: • Oxygenators • Floaters • Marginals SOME INDOOR FLOWERING BULBS:
  36. 36. 36 HYACINTH AMARYLLIS ROOF GARDENING  Roof garden is a garden on roof of a building.  Plants have ability to reduce the overall heat absorption of the building which then reduces energy consumption. Landscaping courtyard Courtyard is a small space in between a space of residence that is exposed to environment. COURTYARD EFFECTS
  37. 37. 37  Due to incident solar radiation in a courtyard, the air gets warmer and rises.  Cool air from the ground level flows through the louvered openings of rooms surrounding a courtyard, thus producing air flow.  At night, the warm roof surfaces get cooled by convection and radiation. If this heat exchange reduces roof surfaces temperature to WBT of air, condensation of atmospheric moisture occurs on the roof and the gain due to condensation limits further cooling.  If the roof surfaces are sloped towards the internal courtyard, the cooled Air sinks into the court and enters the living space through low-level openings, Gets warmed up, and leaves through higher-level openings. However, care should be taken that the courtyard does not receive intense  Solar radiation, which would lead to conduction and radiation heat gains into the building. Intensive solar radiation in the courtyard also produces immense Window boxes These are located at window hanging refreshing the space. Wood, brick, metal, fibre glass etc. can be used for the container. Container garden Contained in a box, can be movable and various plants can be planted. Plants could hold the secret to a simple, easy, cheap and fail-safe way to improve your home’s health.
  38. 38. 38 FOUNTAINS Fountains add a special effect on the space. Together with the fountains using natural resource water lights are added in order to create a natural effect. These lights can be LED. These are some indoor wall table top fountains. Fountains can be from outdoor in a courtyard or in interior from placing in table or a corner space according to the requirement. INDOOR PONDS TYPES OF POND  Basically, there are two types of pond — a formal pond with a hard landscaped edge (brick, stone or tile), and an informal pond designed to blend in with nature.  Both types can be built using either a preformed rigid liner, or a flexible plastic liner. Where the formal pond unit sits above ground level, it is generally easier use a long-lasting preformed rigid liner of fiberglass or plastic.  A pond is going to be there for a long time, so take into account all the constructional, aesthetic and horticultural considerations.
  39. 39. 39 BIOPOOLS Water is a very good modifier of microclimate. It takes up a large amount of heat in evaporation and causes significant cooling especially in a hot and dry Climate. On the other hand, in humid climates, water should be avoided as it Adds to humidity.  Bio pools are natural swimming pools. Rather than relying on chemicals to keep them clean, they use ecological systems (plants) and bio-technology.  The classic bio pool works by having two zones: a central swimming area and a shallower surrounding area with plants specially chosen to purify the water.  Some bio pools have separate swimming and purifying areas, while the latest concept makes it possible to have no plants but use natural bio filters installed inside or outside the pool.  A biological filter keeps the pools clean. This is a water garden where micro-organisms, microbes and water plants continually clean the water. Plant roots absorb nutrients from the water that micro-organisms release during the decomposition of germs and other natural substances.
  40. 40. 40 ANTHROPOMETRICS  Anthropometrics is the comparative study of human body measurements and properties. Anthropometrics literally means man (anthro) measurements (metric).  It enables us to properly size items, including system interfaces, to "fit" the user.  It is the measurement of the size and proportions of the human body, as well as parameters such as reach and visual range capabilities.  Accurate data on height, weight, limb, and body segment sizes are needed to design items ranging from clothing, furniture, automobiles, buses, and subway cars to space shuttles and space stations.
  41. 41. 41 LIVING ROOM Living room should be designed with proper spacing in mind. Chairs should not be too close to each other; always allow for "personal space" for each user. Remember to allot an area of at least 1 square meter for each person. KITCHEN
  42. 42. 42 Worktop heights Both when standing and sitting to work, it is important that the worktop should be as follows:  For manipulative tasks involving moderate degrees of both force and precision: between 50 and 100 mm below elbow height of the person concerned  For delicate tasks: between 50 and 1000 mm above elbow height  For heavy tasks, particularly those involving downward pressure on the work piece: between 100 and 300 mm below elbow height.
  43. 43. 43 FITTED UNITS IN KITCHEN  Built in units are available are available from 20-120 cm usually with a height of 85 cm.materials used in kitchen are wood, plywood, plastic.  Exposed wood surfaces are varnished or laminated.  Shelves are of wood or plastic coated chipboards. Metal shelves are best for pots and pans.
  44. 44. 44 DINING ROOM
  45. 45. 45
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  50. 50. 50 BEDROOMS
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  52. 52. 52 WARDROBES ERGONOMICS Derived from the Greek ergon (work) and nomos (laws) to denote the science of work, ergonomics is a systems-oriented discipline, which now applies to all aspects of human activity.
  53. 53. 53 One of the benefits of ergonomics chair and table is obtained by the human comfort of use. LIVING ROOM S
  54. 54. 54  The width in front of the chair or sofa for getting up and sitting down is 1050 across the arms (to allow for elbow movements).it is the depth needed for sitting down and getting up.  A depth of between 550 and 650 is required for sitting normally. A depth of between 800 and 850 is needed for putting legs up on a footstool. BED ROOM:
  55. 55. 55 BATHROOM ROOM & TOILET:
  57. 57. 57 LANDSCAPING With the exception of facilities specifically designed for the display or growth of plants (such as greenhouses or conservatories), plant materials must be able to tolerate the environmental conditions created for human comfort. However, with minor modifications to the physical conditions within a building, it is possible to find many plants from the tropical and subtropical regions of the world that will survive indoors in the temperature and humidity ranges also comfortable for human activity. The "hardscape" aspects of interior landscape design and construction, (such as paving materials, landscape furniture, pools and fountains) are not significantly different than those same elements in the exterior environment .
  58. 58. 58 PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS OF PLANTS: Light. Growing plants convert radiant energy (from daylight or electric light sources) into food . Plants use radiant energy of wavelengths in the 400- to 850-nanometer (nm) range .Light for plant growth is typically described in terms of intensity, duration, and quality .  Light can be provided either from daylight or electric light .  Daylight is preferable because it provides a greater spectrum of the radiant energy needed by most plants, and is generally provided more diffusely than electric light . Intensity. Intensity of light is a quantitative figure typically measured in lux (footcandles), or lumens per square meter (square foot) . A lumen is the specific quantity of light emitted by a light source without regard to the direction of its distribution . A lux (footcandle) is a quantitative measure referring to how much light is being received on a surface. Quality. Natural light, which contains the entire spectrum of visible light plus ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, is ideal for plant growth. Temperature, Humidity, and Air Quality Plant requirements for air typically refer to temperature, relative humidity, and air quality. FOUNTAINS A designer usually incorporates water into a space as a visual element.  The aesthetic qualities of water, however, reach far beyond the visual aspect due to the documented psychological effects of water as a metaphor and as a physical factor providing sound, and climatic modification.  The sound of water and the coolness associated with being near or touching water is equally a part of our emotional response to water in the environment.
  59. 59. 59 Visual:  Water can function as a focal point within a space or as a means of creating and maintaining a sense of continuity.  A water display can strongly temper the character of a space. A sense of calm and serenity is created by a quiet stream or pool, while excitement and drama can be achieved by swiftly moving, densely massed, or strongly vertical displays.  The level of formality will be influenced by the forms of the pools and displays, and the mood further defined or reinforced by appropriate lighting. Auditory. The intensity and frequency of the sound generated by a water display can be used to convey a sense of calm or excitement, and can also mask unpleasant or distracting ambient noise. Sensory Effects. Airborne spray and evaporation from water displays cause a cooling effect. Droplets and sprays from active, aerated displays are particularly effective. Still Water: The container defines the form assumed by the water. The finish of the underwater surfaces and the condition of the water at the surface influence the ultimate effect. A dark Moving Water:  There are two subcategories within this classification. Falling water refers to water moving solely under the influence of gravity, while spouting water refers to water discharged or displaced under pressure, countering or complementing gravitational movement.  This latter category includes waves and spouts (jets) of water. The wave effect, while a viable alternative visually and mechanically, has not been widely applied because of the excessive energy requirements and the considerable bulk of the activating mechanisms. Free-Failing Water: Free-falling water moves vertically without contacting any surfaces and is most often expressed as a full sheet .Decreasing the flow rate produces a rain like broken she PHYSCOLOGY
  60. 60. 60 COLOUR PHYSOCOLOGY Colours affect the proportion of places, darker or bright colours make things closer but white or pale colours draw them away Red  Red is the most powerful colour of the colour wheel.  Red is the colour of fire and passion, and it represents our desires and cravings in all areas.  Red can be seen as a stressful colour and has been shown to increase heart rate and blood pressure, so use it with caution.  Red is the hottest colour of the spectrum and can make anywhere seem warm and cosy, so is ideal for people who suffer from the cold.  Red is not a good choice where calmness and clear thinking are required, it’s energetic frequency is not conductive to areas where rest is needed, so it’s not a good choice for bedrooms or relaxation areas.  Red has been shown to increase appetite in most people – one of the reasons that many restaurants choose red patterns in their dining rooms. Using red in your kitchen to increase appetite is as simple as blending beige walls with red shutters or cabinet doors. GREEN  Green is the colour of nature and represents balance and harmony.  Green is a very healing, soothing colour which can be used to create a relaxing area in any part of the home .If you suffer from auto-immune problems, asthma or bronchitis, green can aid relief.  Green helps to treat hyperactivity in children, and restores calm Environment.
  61. 61. 61  Some shades of green can cause nausea, so it’s not the best choice for dining areas.  Green can offer a relaxed, homey atmosphere, with green furniture against white, or other neutral coloured walls.  Green accents or accent walls can offer a unique, organic sense of contrast. GREEN IN KITCHEN  Because so much of the foods that we enjoy are green, a green kitchen reminds us of where our food comes from.  It also has an aesthetic value, with green grapes, green apples, and other green foods that can help to bring out any green accents you’ve decided to add to your kitchen.  Green additions often bring out a subtle vibrancy in the earthy palettes of stone countertops, and tile. GREEN IN BATHROOM  Green is often associated with water, although with a warmer connotation.  This makes bolstering feelings of comfort even easier in an area of the home where comfort and relaxation is paramount.  Muted shades of green like sea moss, or clean paler shades like honeydew melon can bring a connection with the earth into focus, too.
  62. 62. 62 PURPLE  Purple is the colour of true greatness, and is associated with inspired leadership.  Purple is a positive inspirational colour and is a good choice for creative people particularly those that require solitude for inspiration, such as musical composers, poets, painters and sculptures.  The psychological effects of the colour purple will depend very much on how 'warm' or 'cool' the hue is: 1) Bluish purples can be serene and calming and have a 'mysterious' depth. 2) Reddish purples demand more attention and can dominate a room (and are always in danger of looking garish or cheap). YELLOW & ORANGE  Yellow is generally seen as a light, optimistic colour, and has a unique ability to raise the spirits and inject vitality into any area, as it is the colour of sunshine and happiness.  Yellow creates a warm, welcoming first impression so is a good choice in entrance halls.
  63. 63. 63  Yellow is a favourite for kitchens, as it set the mood for the rest of the day and helps creativity and conversation.  Orange is often associated with improved lung function as well as increased energy. As well as working well in any workout room, a mild orange can be very helpful to those recovering from illness or with lung problems. BLUE  Blue is an ideal colour for bedrooms or restrooms of any kind, also in any area where you want to calm people under stress.  Blue’s ability to encourage clear thought makes it well suited to kids study areas in the home  It should be avoided by any that suffers from depression or sadness and avoided by anyone that is troubled by the cold.  It is not a good colour for playrooms or an area that you want to create a motivating atmosphere
  64. 64. 64 BROWN Brown is known as a safe colour that tends to be a natural colour, the best in brown is that it can support any kind of design it involves, it could be in classic, modern, modern classic ….it can be in the shape of woods or any piece of furniture. WHITE  White is commonly associated with purity and innocence.  White lacks colours of any kind. Since it lacks colour of any kind, it is the most popular choice as a background colour, as all other colours will be seen in sharp contrast BLACK
  65. 65. 65  Well, while black represents widowing, death and evil powers to some people it also represents power, social prestige, formal occasions and elegance to others.  Black is mostly used in interiors as the “eyeliner “of the place …..u can use it in picture frames , elegant accessories , small corner furniture’s , cushions or even as the main sofa in the room but you should take care when using black colours in small rooms as it will make the room look smaller. GREEN SPACE EFFECT
  66. 66. 66 Bringing in plant life not only makes a space greener (both figurative and literally) but it has been proven to reduce stress and boost productivity. •Plants take a lot of toxins out of the air. Sometimes there’s a controversy over plants indoors. If they’re not well taken care of, the soils can get mold, and the mold can get airborne. •But that’s not the kind of plants I’m talking about. Bringing plants inside does take pollutants out of the air, but you have to do your due diligence and take care of the plants. Recorded Health Improvements after the Introduction of Interior Plants  AILMENT % REDUCTION  Fatigue 20%  Headache 30%  Sore/dry throats 30%  Coughs 40%  Dry facial skin 25% It was found that the score sum, as a mean of 12 symptoms, was 23% lower during the period when the participants had plants in their offices (mean score sum was 7.1 during the period without plants, vs. 5.6 during the period with plants . If the symptoms were clustered, a significant reduction was obtained in neuro- psychological symptoms and in mucous membrane symptoms, while skin symptoms seemed to be unaffected by the plant intervention FINISHES GREEN INTERIOR
  67. 67. 67 WALL FINISH PAINTS & COLOURS Colour is the dark sheep of green interiors, but it is a little known fact that the colour palette chosen for a room can affect its overall temperature. As with colours in every other situation, cooler shades reflect the sun and are perfect in spaces that receive a high amount of natural light. In contradiction to this, warmer colours should be used in rooms that are colder and have less natural light. In following this design technique, further reliance is taken off electrically run heating and cooling, thus greening up the space. Light colours finishes on ground and vertical surfaces reflect light thus contributing to higher levels of day light while reducing the contrast between bright window areas and the surrounding surface. What are VOC’s? Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are, most simply, chemical fumes. They’re emitted as gases from certain solids or liquids, and include a variety of chemicals, some of which may have short and long term adverse health effects. Low VOC paints are just less toxic. Most chemical paints release toxic solvents and petrochemicals into the air as they dry, and these nasties have been linked to many health conditions including cancer, sick building syndrome, breathing difficulties, dizziness, headaches, fatigue and blurred vision  Paint often contains VOCs—volatile organic compounds  Certainly a high VOC count is not what we want; we want to go for zero, low-VOC. Every time we paint we’re emitting these, which is especially unhealthy if we’re living in the home while we’re painting
  68. 68. 68  This make the space more environmentally friendly due to the low environmental harm production processes, but they can actually enable health benefits through the lack of harmful chemicals expelled. Ecolour’s water-based paint is self-priming, washable, scrub able, splatter free and it cleans up in water. Ecolour is the only paint manufacturer in the world to use a recycled ingredient and to be certified carbon neutral Natural organic paint  The paints are biodegradable and are harmless to humans, animals and plants.  The vegetable and mineral ingredients used here are from renewable sources.  They use plant-derived solvents and binders, rather than synthetic ones, so have much lower VOC levels than conventional paints. Water based paints
  69. 69. 69 These are low in VOC and are healthier. Dulux Enviro Wash System  Paint giant Dulux, a member of the Green Building Council of Australia, has its own ranges of low VOC and acrylic paints.  This water-based treatment system turns paint washout into clean water and solid waste, making for easier and safer disposal.  The system provides an environmentally responsible way of washing brushes and rollers, separating paint solids from water in one hour. ECO FRIENDLY WALLPAPER Natural grass cloths  A good eco wallpaper alternative. Typically grown overseas and handmade, grass cloth wallpaper is made from woven natural grasses. The appearance is warm with a textured weave ranging from fine to chunky.  This type of textured wallpaper is suitable for covering walls that have imperfections as the textured surface covers most minor defects.  Natural glass cloths are sustainable and renewable resources which are harvested either biyearly or yearly and typically backed with recycled paper. The following paragraphs look at each type of glass cloth. 1. Arrowroot wallpaper -A plant that is grown in Caribbean and Asian regions, produced with a fine weave.
  70. 70. 70 2. Bamboo wallpaper - Available as hand-woven wallpaper backed by paper or a hand-woven wall panel backed by fabric. 3. Bamboo and sea grass wallpaper - A combination of natural materials for a textured wallpaper effect. 4. Jute wallpaper - Available in a fine weave with the appearance of soft silk and a limited number of natural tones. 5. Sea grass wallpaper - A rugged textured natural weave. 6. Sisal wallpaper - This natural material is available in a very fine weave with a variety of colour ways and designs. The effect is a silk like wallpaper. 7. Hemp wallpaper - Hemp is a good alternative to conventional wallpaper as the plant is abundant and is easy to grow without chemical pesticides and fertilisers. 8. Sustainable wallpaper - Wood based wallpaper sourced from timber forests that have been sustainably managed e.g. Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certified.
  71. 71. 71 9. Vinyl / PVC free wallpaper - Wallpaper which does not contain synthetic vinyl / PVC. These types of wallpaper do not create toxic off gassing into your home. 10.Chlorine free wallpaper - Wallpaper which has not been treated with chlorine chemicals. 11.Glass fibre wallpaper - Fibres have a diameter more than 5 micrometres are non-irritant to the respiratory system. Fibres are only released during manufacture and trimming, which can cause some people a temporary minor skin irritation. 12.Bark skin wallpaper - A hand made textured wallpaper made from organic bark material. Gives the appearance of leather, parchment or stone. 13.Silk screened cotton wallpaper .Silk screen printing on cotton backing with water based, non-toxic inks and water based glazes. 14.Environmentally friendly wallpaper - Some manufacturers have an environmental policy in place during the manufacturing process which focuses on lower levels of embodied energy including energy, waste, recycling, packaging and distribution.
  72. 72. 72 WALL LININGS WALL LININGS SUCH AS PANELLING, TILES, WALLPAPER OR TAPESTRIES ALLOW US TO MODIFY THE WALLS THAT ARE ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND 1. Their ability to radiate cool or heat into or out of the room 2. Their ability to absorb or reflect light 3. Their smell and effect on indoor air quality 4. Their ability to breathe 5. Whether they create a hard or soft acoustic quality RIGID PANELLING  Timber has been mostly and widely used in wall panellings.the insulating quality of timber make panel warm and pleasant to touch. Wall panelling or boarding is best fixed to timber battens on the wall, packed out where necessary to create a flat plane.  Environmentally safe insulation material as Paper, shredded flax, sheep’s wool, cork and coconut fibre can be used.  A reflective surface of aluminium foil facing into the gap behind the panelling can improve thermal performance.  Aluminium foil is generally made from recycled aluminium and is therefore relatively benign. CORK AND LINOLEUM
  73. 73. 73  Cork is ideal for basements to counter the cold.  Good for children’s room where it softens the sound.  Linoleum is also available in a softer grade for walls and makes an attractive surface. Used for bathroom walls. PLASTERS  Wall plasters made of clay, lime and gypsum create smooth surface. Clay is most environmentally sound of any material- accounts of 70% of earth  Provided that clay plaster is applied to a thick (25mm) backing coat it helps to create good indoor air quality- it is vapour permeable and absorbs excessive humidity helping to prevent damp. PAPER, FABRIC AND VINYL WALL LININGS.
  74. 74. 74 Walls were papered for health reasons at earlier days- called sanitary papers because of oil based inks made it possible Papers are made of 3 principles: 1. The face material which can range from printed papers to grasses and silks 2. The backing material usually paper 3. The adhesives.  Safer papers are made with much as 60% of recycled material.  Most common now than wall paper are vinyl wall coverings, popular because of their durability and economy. TAPESTRIES AND HANGINGS  Fabric wall covering keep cold interiors warm. On stone walls over doorways or windows, a tapestry prevents cold radiation and offer warmth and also makes space glow with colours GRASS WALL (VERTICAL GARDENS)
  75. 75. 75  Green walls are found most often in urban environments where the plants reduce overall temperatures of the building.  "The primary cause of heat build-up in cities is insolation, the absorption of solar radiation by roads and buildings in the city and the storage of this heat in the building material and its subsequent re-radiation. Plant surfaces however, as a result of transpiration, do not rise more than 4–5 °C above the ambient and are sometimes cooler."  Living walls may also be a means for water reuse. The plants may purify slightly polluted water (such as grey water) by absorbing the dissolved nutrients. Bacteria mineralize the organic components to make them available to the plants.  Living walls are particularly suitable for cities, as they allow good use of available vertical surface areas. They are also suitable in arid areas, as the circulating water on a vertical wall is less likely to evaporate than in horizontal gardens.  The living wall could also function for urban agriculture, urban gardening, or for its beauty as art. It is sometimes built indoors to help alleviate sick building syndrome. FLOOR FINISH
  76. 76. 76 Sustainable flooring When we say sustainable flooring, we’re referring to flooring produced from sustainable materials that reduce demands on ecosystems and energy usage during the lifecycle of the product, including its harvest, production, use and disposal. Many flooring choices can be sustainable, but whether it is the right green choice for you also depends on a number of factors, including: • how you use the material • whether it can be recycled • its durability • how much cleaning it takes • its finish • whether it emits any toxic compounds, and • Whether its thermal mass helps heat or cools the home. STONE FLOORING Stone including marble and slate is beautiful and environmentally sound flooring material.it doesn’t effect on internal air quality and satisfies most environmental criteria.it is durable and can be recycled again and again. COMPOSITE AND ENGINEERED FLOORING Engineered timbers also look like solid timber. This includes: 1. Boards with a face of solid timber (2-6)mm thick glued to particle board backing 2. Boards with a very thin maximum 1 mm veneer of timber glued to a particle board backing 3. Particle boards printed with a photo of wood grain 4. Sheets that contain no timber but are ,made of plastic and printed with a photo to emulate timber
  77. 77. 77 These boards can be thin as 9 mm for lying over existing floors and cheaper than solid wood. Over lay floor is also available LINOLEUM FLOORING  Linoleum is a natural product made from linseed oil, cork dust, wood flour, tree resins, ground limestone and pigments. It's easy to clean, and is resistant to scratching (the marks can be buffed out), stains and chemicals.  It works well in wet areas like kitchens and bathrooms, and comes in a range of vibrant colours and patterns.  Linoleum is made from renewable raw materials, uses a closed loop manufacturing cycle where waste can be recycled at every stage in the process.  Produced by Forbo Flooring, it is made of 100 percent bio-based content, and its permanent, natural properties kill MRSA and Norovirus.  It is also naturally anti-static; R10 slip rated offers easy low cost cleaning and is Good Environmental Choice Award (GECA) CERTIFIED. HARDWOOD FLOORING  Hardwood flooring has long been a popular choice among homeowners.  It looks good, is easy to clean, hardwearing and durable, and when installed properly can last for decades, and add value to the home.
  78. 78. 78  Hardwood floors don’t harbour harmful chemicals, dirt or dust mites that can affect indoor air quality, and aggravate allergies. It can be recycled and also has low embodied energy.  With some new plantation hardwood timbers taking up to 100 years to grow, recycled wood flooring may be the best choice. Made from timber salvaged from old wharves, warehouses, shearing sheds and other old buildings it comes in a variety of lengths and widths and can be finished to look like new, or to retain the patina of age.  Choosing recycled timber also lets you create a floor with rare hardwoods that may be hard to find new. BAMBOO FLOORING Bamboo is strong as timber and hard wearing. From the point of view of internal air quality bamboo has advantage as other smooth surface provided that no unsafe coatings or adhesives are applied.
  79. 79. 79  Bamboo is that it’s sourced from sustainable sources: manufactured from the bamboo plant, it grows very easily, doesn’t require any pesticides or fertilisers in its production, and there are lots of bamboo plantations around the world.  It has high carbon absorption rates and releases oxygen into the atmosphere.  It’s generally cheaper than traditional hardwood flooring.  Stronger, harder and more durable than almost any other timber flooring, bamboo flooring also expands and contracts less than timber floors and is just as easy to install–by nailing or gluing it down. Bamboo is also available unfinished, and can be sanded and finished on site.  Bamboo flooring can be used in any area of the home, including wet areas. CORK FLOORING  It is extracted from bark of the cork oak.  Excellent flooring material has combination of flexibility, high insulation value and resistance to water is a product.  Available in tile form measures of 30x30 cm by 3mm thick but planks of 90x18cmx6mm .It is little warmer and softer.  Has better effect for indoor air quality and is good for health.  It is warm to walk and helps to soften the acoustic of the room ENVIRONMENTALLY SAFE CARPET FLOORING  Called as organic carpet made from natural plant and animal yarns is pesticide free and not bleached or chemically dyed.  Carpets from vegetable yarns such as jute, coir and sisal are available in a range of natural colours free from any dyes.
  80. 80. 80  A new environmentally safe floor cover is made from paper twine, woven with linen into carpet widths and mats.  Thinner then carpet it has textures not dissimilar to a very fine cane weave and is available in an attractive range of natural, earthy tones woven into checked and striped patterns.  Carpet made from recycled plastic drink bottles made of PET( POLYVETHELVENE TERAPTHALATE) that is soon in space  Before buying certified product of CIR (carpet and rug indoor air quality testing). PAPER TWINE MATTING MAKES A SOFT BUT DURABLE FLOORING THAT CAN BE USED ON OLD DAMP SURFACE RUBBER FLOORING  Rubber is generally considered to be one of the most low-impact and environmentally friendly building materials.  Good quality rubber flooring contains 75% of natural rubber derived from tress 25% of synthetic rubber, fillers and pigments  Latex sap, a renewable raw material produced by the Para rubber tree, is a key ingredient in natural rubber, and the finished product is known for its malleable, elastic, waterproof and durable qualities.
  81. 81. 81  Synthetic rubber is derived from petroleum with a number of known carcinogens and hazardous solvents used in its processing and production.  The best choice is recycled rubber. Recycled rubber products reduce demand for virgin raw materials, minimise the amount of waste going to landfill, and a lot of recycled rubber comes from car tires that would otherwise create significant disposal problems.  Rubber flooring can also be applied without adhesive, so there is added benefit from eliminating the impact of manufacturing of the adhesive as well as the improved air quality of the area where the adhesive would have been used. NEW RECYCLED FLOORING MATERIAL As like recycle rubber other flooring material in hand is as: Recycled glass is used with ceramic materials to make dense, stain- resistant tiles. RUGS  The best way to enjoy a safe floor and softness warmth of carpet without laying fitted carpet is rugs Flat weave rugs as kelims have no pile so they harbour less dust then those with thick pile.
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  84. 84. 84 CEILING FINISH FALSE CEILING Ceiling finishes are of paints, or designed with materials from wood, laminate, timber etc. Paints without VOC and mostly recyclable materials are used. Environmentally friendly materials help to use materials for making lights. CEILING FAN  The basic principle behind ceiling fans is that they push air around. In summer, a "chill factor" is created as air moves past our skin and evaporates the perspiration on its surface.
  85. 85. 85  Consumers keen to conserve energy need to weigh the airflow, measured in revolutions-per-minute (RPM) against the wattage generated to keep those blades circulating.  The material that blades are made from - typically timber, moulded plastic or a metal such as stainless steel - affects both airflow and energy consumption, as does the angle and design of the blade.  A good rule of thumb is to remember that ornate and overly decorative blades move less air and generally will be less efficient.  Decisions about which blade material to choose will depend on where you plan to put the fan. Powder-coated steel in a coastal location will corrode, whether indoors or outdoors - use timber, ABS plastic, marine grade stainless steel or aluminium instead.  In general, metal blades produce a higher airflow than timber blades, because they have a steep 22 degree pitch (compared to timber blades which usually have a 12 degree pitch).  But metal fans use more power than timber, because the steeper the pitch, the more energy it takes to move air. They can also make an audible "whirring" sound, though this is unlikely in quality models.  Metal blades are slim (approx. 1mm thick, compared to a 4 to 5mm timber blade) which means they can cut skin if it comes into contact with a moving fan,  Ceiling fans can also be used in winter, especially in large rooms with high ceilings.  By switching them into reverse mode the fans draws air from the middle of the room and circulates it back down the walls and across the floor, shifting warm air that has accumulated near the ceiling back down to floor level, warming you up from the feet, instead of dumping air directly back down onto you as a regular cycle does. GREEN LIGHTS Light emitting diodes (LED lights) and compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) are regarded as the most efficient types of lighting
  86. 86. 86 Household replaced just one conventional incandescent globe with an energy efficient compact fluorescent globe, the savings would count for more than 6 billion balloons of greenhouse gas each year. Light emitting diodes: Commonly known as LEDs, these are unlike any of the other lighting systems listed. They contain no glass tubes or heating filaments, instead using a small piece of semiconductor material (computer chips and transistors are semiconductors too) that emits light directly when a current is passed through it. The range of LEDs are gradually increasing which is good news as they are a highly efficient source of lighting as they contain no glass robust and do not pose a fire danger as they do not emit heat  With a longer life span of up to 50,000 hours, LED lights are being hailed as a greener lighting solution because of the many features they have over their filament burning, gas heating lighting compatriots.  In comparison to other bulbs and lighting tubes, LEDs are more durable and can withstand a relative amount of vibration and shock because they’re usually made of plastic.  This also allows LEDs to be more compact in size and conform to different shapes, making them perfect for tube and strip lights, down lights and other types of directional lighting.  LEDs only use about a third of the energy that an incandescent globe would use.  LED lights last about 10 times longer than regular incandescent lights and are four times more efficient. IKEA solar powered lights Going green doesn’t have to cost you the earth with this range of solar powered lighting solutions by IKEA
  87. 87. 87 Compact fluorescent lighting.  Compact fluorescent lights last far longer and have much lower running costs than their energy-guzzling incandescent counterparts.  In terms of efficiency, CFLs are four times more efficient and last up to 10 times longer than incandescent lights, using 50 to 80% less energy.  A life cycle analysis of CFLs published in The Environmental Engineer concluded that CFLs are the better choice for the environment (compared to incandescent lighting) because they use electricity much more efficiently. While they do release some mercury at the end of their life - a concern for some environmentalists - the analysis found that the production of incandescent lights contributes five times more mercury from burning coal for electricity. Fluorescent lights are 3 to 5 times more efficient than incandescent bulbs and can last 10 times longer. They also generate less heat—a plus during summer months. CFLs can now be used in most light fittings, including older style incandescent fittings, and provide energy efficient lighting that's also easy on the eyes. CFLs come in a variety of colours, shapes, sizes and functions SOME ENERGYCONSUMPTION GIVEN LIGHTS ARE: Incandescent lamps
  88. 88. 88  Incandescent lamps are the oldest common form of light bulb. Generally incandescent have an efficiency of between 2% and 7% (the rest of the energy-93% to 98%-is turned into heat!).  There are now many more efficient light bulbs available such as compact fluorescents and LEDs. Halogen lamps  Halogen down lights is a type of incandescent lamp, which work by heating a small piece of metal to white heat to produce light.  More than 90 per cent of the energy that goes into common halogen lights turns into heat; as a result, the lights use more electricity than needed making them very inefficient.  While halogen down lights are good for direct task lighting their popularity has exceeded their purpose as they are now being used to light entire rooms.  Halogen down lights also uses additional energy as they require the use of a transformer that is usually located in the ceiling above each light fitting.  LED down lights cost between $10 and $100 but last 50,000 hours. Also, mini compact fluorescent down light fittings could be used as an alternative to halogen down lights or compact fluorescent down lights and fittings. FURNITURE AND ACCESSORIES
  89. 89. 89 FURNITURE REDUCE, REPAIR, RECYCLE ARE 3R FOR A BETTER FURNITURE PIECE. TRADITIONAL BENIGN FURNITURE  These use natural materials in simple, economic, and efficient ways.eg- shaker furniture.  Sculptors are producing carved furniture from huge sections of wood, in which a whole item, legs included is carved from one trunk.  This method avoids glue and joints but does produce waste.  Furniture also made from natural materials as rushes, rattan, and bamboo. Which is fastest growing renewable resource and strong and durable. Used for making table tops and work surfaces. Another traditional safe material is made from wood based paper twine woven into a flexible fabric- sometimes incorporating wire for extra strength and stretched over bentwood or cane furniture. RATTAN IS MATERIAL AS HANDCRAFTED AND RENEWABLE RECYCLED FURNITURE AND WASTE MATERIAL  The recycling of waste to make new materials is the foundation of nature’s process.  Materials being reprocessed include plastic bottles, car tyres, waste roofing materials, glass and aluminium.  Agricultural waste as straw, rice, flax and safe glues can be used to make sheet materials to replace unsafe woodchips boards. Strong panels for furniture are made with light, honey comb cores in a variety of materials, including recycled aluminium.  Paper pulp is an ideal material for smaller items, such an s lamp shades and recycled paper in tube form is being used for legs for tables and desks.
  90. 90. 90  Example: table top or drawers can also be made from recycled thermoplastic material such as drinking bottle. This is strong. Practical and easy to clean in nature. NEW MATERIAL  Petro chemicals plastics have much advantage. They are cheap, solid, and durable, easily moulded and formed, and require no surface finishing.  One range of recycled plastic has been certified safe for use with food so is ideal for kitchen countertops.  Two new type of plastic with the same practical advantage are beginning to replace the petrochemical plastic: 1. One is made by recycling of thermoplastic waste such as plastic bottle 2. Other use is plant fibre suitable for processing into plastic substitutes. ALUMINIUM AND METAL MATERIAL  Metal components are used in furniture to provide strength and durability.  Today most aluminium is used from recycling process. Most steel furniture’s contains about 50% recycled material.
  91. 91. 91 AIR FILLED FURNITURE Safest and cleanest of all friendly furniture is that made of air. The furniture is ergonomically shaped and retains its form because it is made of separate air filled sections of plastic material. While the plastic is not benign it is 100% recyclable and environmental advantage of using so little material to create such a large are clear – a good example of less is best.
  92. 92. 92 MASS PRODUCED PANEL FURNITURE  When labour was cheap and demand could be satisfied by small scale workshops, furniture of every design was made by craftsmen using safe methods and local timber.  Using thin wood veneers, particles and waste chips, sheet materials such as plywood, particle board, chip board and medium density fibre board, were developed.  Desks, wardrobes, chests, kitchen cabinet are today assembled from a number of panels of this engineered board. Waste timber chippings and particles are bonded with adhesives. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) is a flame retardant that is in a lot of upholstery and that emits toxic emissions. So furniture’s of no PBDE should be used or furniture’s from environmental friendly products should be used. Blue print furniture designs and makes furniture using 100% recycled timber Simple stools and benches in natural wood or brightly painted would fit a treat in any home.
  93. 93. 93 NEW TO BED MATRESS Chemical-free, organic wool, soy-based foam and even green latex – the future of the humble bedroom mattress is eco-friendly indeed. Chemical-free: Why natural mattresses matter? As well as doing your bit for the environment, sleeping on a sustainable mattress could do wonders for your health, according to Raithe Handiman, founder of organic company Blessed Earth. From organic wool to natural latex and even soy-based foam and coconut fibre, there is plenty of choice if sleeping green is your dream.
  94. 94. 94 The options include having your mattress covered with hemp-blended organic cotton or filled with a mix of natural latex and wool ACCESSORIES (INTERIOR) Recycled artwork These are such as reused products, recycled materials and ecologically sustainable resources. Recycled cardboard, is an unusual take on nature and art, with 3D rhino, moose and deer trophies There is also some great wall art, such as these Chrysalis Butterflies made from a recycled saucer Environmentally responsible art using the traditional skills of indigenous artists and craftspeople. Silhouette of birds made from cut-outs from old op shop books.
  95. 95. 95 FABRICS  Fibres such as hemp, jute, sisal and ramie offer huge potential to create a wonderfully rich range of furnishing options as they are harmlessly biodegrade.  Organic fabrics are useful for people suffering chemical or other allergic reactions.  New man made fabrics are developed by sustainable, clean methods, including the use of recycled materials. LYEOCELL known as tencel and cupro new fibre developed in many years. Derives from natural wood pulp cellulose, without any toxic or polluting chemicals and materials are recyclable. Another type of environmentally fabric is made from recycled thermoplastic components. Recycled PET (polyethylene terephthalate) is used for making warm bed covers and also carpets. CURTAINS & BLINDS  Windows let a huge amount of heat in and out of a home. With good building design, glazing and shading you can reduce the impact of the windows but another positive impact on the comfort level of your home is the installation of curtains and blinds.  Window coverings help to reduce the demand for artificial lighting, heating and air conditioning and are probably the most significant non-structural contribution you can make towards home climate control.  Opaque blinds or curtains offer total sun blackout while those with a more open weave let in more light. Modern solar shades offer visual transparency while also cutting down on glare, heat and light.  Blinds and curtains also help to reduce heat gain and loss by trapping air in an insulating layer between the window pane and the covering.
  96. 96. 96  Also of considerable importance for effective insulation is the use of pelmets above the curtains.  On windows without pelmets, the air against the glass rapidly cools and sinks to the floor, producing a convection current that draws warm air from near the ceiling down across the glass, rapidly cooling it and wasting the heat it contains.  This airflow can be considerable and can waste a great deal of heat. A pelmet that meets the wall, positioned across the top of the curtains, will greatly reduce this airflow and the subsequent heat loss.
  97. 97. 97 GREEN BUILDING AIR QUALITY AIR VENT  A typical vent is a cut-out in the apex of a domed or cylindrical roof.  The Openings in the protective cap over the vent direct wind loss across it.  When Air flows over a curved surface, its velocity increases, resulting in lowering of the pressure at the apex of the curved roof. The hot air under the roof flows out through the vent.  Air vents are usually placed over living rooms, often with a pool of water directly under the vent, to cool the air which is moving up by evaporation.  The special form of domes restricts use to the top floor only. Acoustic concentration often occurs in this type of ceiling. WINDOW & DOOR TREATMENT  Windows play a major role in energy efficiency. Non-energy efficient windows can increase costs of heating and air conditioning by as much as 10 percent because of conduction and air leakage.  Heat can be lost through the glass, the frame, and through the spaces between the frame and the rough opening. Before buying windows, check the windows infiltration rating, R-value, and U-value.
  98. 98. 98  Also, consider low “E” glazing (low emissivity) and window construction for energy efficiency. Low “E” glazing is window glass that has had a thin, transparent, heat- reflective coating applied during manufacturing. Low “E” glazing allows light through the glazing but reduces ultraviolet light. With low “E” glazing, when the long- wave heat energy inside the house hits the glass, the coating on the glass acts as a mirror to keep the heat inside the home, which stays warmer.  An added benefit is the reduction of ultraviolet light transmitted through the windows, which fades interior furnishings, such as carpets, curtains, and furniture.  The energy efficiency of windows is measured in R-values and U-values. R- value is a measurement of resistance to heat flow, and U-value is a measurement of how easily a window conducts heat.  R-values and U-values are fairly standard in the window industry. The lower the U-value, the better; while the greater the R-value  The material used for the frame will affect the amount of heat loss due to conduction. Make sure window frames are made of a low conductive material such as wood, vinyl, or fiberglass.  If the frames are made of steel or aluminum, be sure they have a thermal break to reduce conduction through the frame.  While R-values and U-values are very important features of window glazing, air infiltration rates are also important. Air infiltration is measured in cubic feet per minute per square foot  The assigned Value indicates the amount of air leakage between the window sash and the frame. Lower numbers mean less infiltration and greater efficiency.  Operable windows, such as casement windows, tend to have lower air infiltration ratings than most sliding windows because of a tighter seal.  Generally, most sliding windows, vertical or horizontal, have a greater tendency for infiltration because positive compression and clamping is difficult.
  99. 99. 99  Windows should be placed for ventilation. Hot air that builds up in the house during the day automatically escapes to the outside through windows located high on the walls when the outside temperature cools. Tinted or toned glass is coloured glass that acts like sunglasses to reduce the amount of heat and light entering your home. Reflective glass has a coating that reflects heat and light away from the window. Double-glazed windows are window units with two panes of glass and a sealed air gap in between. These are far superior to single-glazed windows for insulating your home. Low-emissive (low-e) glazing is a glass coating that blocks radiant heat transfer (heat waves given off by hot objects). It acts like a 'heat mirror', reflecting heat back into a room in winter, while letting sunlight in from outside. Another important factor that affects your window performance is the type of window frame you use Green windows: What is WERS? ENERGY RATED WINDOW  WERS is a compulsory ratings system that gives all windows an energy rating  And feeds into the Nationwide House Energy Rating Scheme. Windows are rated with stars, enabling homeowners to compare different windows  “It gives us two things: the technical performance of the window system, and consumer data for star ratings for heating and cooling and percentage improvement for heating and cooling,”
  100. 100. 100 Energy efficient window materials  WERS calculates an insulation value, assessing what the difference in temperature indoors and outdoors will be.  For frames, the answer is simple. Aluminium, because it conducts heat and cold, is nowhere near as energy-efficient as wood and UPVC.  “Inside it might be 24 degrees and outside 10 degrees,” says Smith. “The glass temperature will be somewhere in between.  In most climates, windows with at least four heating or four cooling stars will ensure that heat losses and heat gains are minimised. This means windows must have a low U-value. What’s the U-value? WERS also calculates a U-value for windows. The U-value measures how well the window prevents heat from escaping The lower the U-value, the better the windows resistance to heat flow and the better its insulating value. These are windows of 'A' rated (with u-values down to 0.75 as a whole unit), but
  101. 101. 101 also provide high specification finishes with ranges designed for code levels 3 to 6 or passive house. They are all manufactured with timbers and specifically designed to reduce heat loss whilst maintaining the quality and style required. Benefits of these windows are:  Whole window U value ranges from 0.75-1.4 W/m²K  Glass U value ranges from 0.5-1.2 W/m²K  Highly durable, full factory finished surfaces with advanced micro porous paints and stains  Double and triple glazing options on windows and doors (triple glazing standard on Eco passive) with warm edge spacers  Full 100% FSC (Forest Steward Council) certified pure timber Suitable for domestic and commercial installation Different windows for different climates ‘Low-e’ stands for low emissivity. A low-e coating is a metal coating that suppresses heat transfer. A low-e coating, therefore, can help lower a window’s U- value. Below is our range of windows and their features Range Window Uw- value W/m²K Glazing Ug- value W/m²K Code for sustaina ble homes FSC 100 % Timb er Doub le Glazi ng Triple Glazin g Approx. fixed unit cost per m2 Approx. opening unit cost per m2
  102. 102. 102 Eco contract 0.9- 1.4 0.6- 1.1 3-5 ● ● ● £180 £260 Eco plus 0.8- 1.4 .5- 1 2 3-5 ● ● ● £305 £549 Eco passive 0.75 0.6 5-6 ● ● £201 £384 Basically, if your framing material is a good heat conductor, it will let the heat in during summer and let the heat escape during winter. Aluminium frames are very good conductors and dark-coloured frames in full sun can become hot to touch. Examples of frames with good insulating qualities include timber frames (though these require regular maintenance), aluminium frames with thermal breaks, 'combination' frames that have aluminium on the outside and timber on the inside, and PVC frames. WALL TREATMENT  The external finish of a surface determines the amount of heat absorbed or Reflected by it.  The heat storage capacity and heat conduction property of walls are key to meeting desired thermal comfort conditions.  The wall thickness, Material and finishes can be chosen based on the heating and cooling needs of the building. Appropriate thermal insulation and air cavities in walls reduce heat transmission into the building, which is the primary aim in a hot region.  For example, a smooth and light colour surface reflects more  Light and heat in comparison to a dark colour surface. Lighter colour surfaces  Have higher emissivity and should be ideally used for warm climate.  Advanced passive heating techniques are used by architects in building  Design to achieve thermal comfort conditions in cold climate. Passive solar heating systems can be broadly classified as: 1. Direct gain systems 2. Indirect gain systems
  103. 103. 103 Thermal Mass  The thermal mass added to a house enables the solar heating system to work properly.  Mass, in the form of a dense material, absorbs heat during the daytime to prevent overheating. It then stores the heat until the air temperature of the room drops when the sun goes down.  Then the heat is naturally released from the mass material, warming the interior throughout the cool night.  This same natural process occurs in the passive solar home, except that the heat is trapped by the walls or floors of the house and used to warm its occupants. (Insulation is closed across the windows at night to keep the heat inside.  A mass material's effectiveness is measured by its ability to absorb sunlight, conduct surface heat into its mass and hold the resulting heat.  Mass materials vary greatly in the amount of heat they retain. Frequently, older structures are not designed to support the weight of additional thermal mass. Lightweight, efficient mass is suggested for many installations. Absorption of Heat Material description heat Retained Brick -- glazed white 26% Brick -- common red 68% Marble white -- 44% Marble -- dark 66% Granite -- reddish 55% Slate -- blue/gray 87% Concrete 65% Steel red enamel finish 81% Slate -- dark gray 90% The percentage absorption varies according to material, color, and finish or texture. The best thermal mass materials would seem to have a dark-colored, rough, matte surface.  Of equal importance is the need to place furniture so that it shades the mass floor or wall as little as possible.  The general rule of thumb is to shade less than 30 percent. This will still allow maximum effectiveness for heat absorption and release.  The furniture also should be raised off the floor slightly so air can circulate. This means no wall-to-wall carpeting; no large sectional sofa; no skirted sofas that shade mass floors; no bookcases on mass walls; and no secretaries or armoires on mass walls.
  104. 104. 104 Green prefab walls Potential benefits of using hemp: • lightweight • environmentally friendly, can actually be carbon positive • excellent acoustic insulation • can be recycled and is also biodegradable Building materials typically considered to be 'green' include renewable plant materials like straw and mud brick, timber from forests certified to be sustainably managed, recycled materials and other products that are non-toxic, reusable and renewable  Concrete Concrete is an excellent material for creating thermal mass in a passive solar designed home. In temperate and cool climates thermal mass helps regulate a home's temperature and keep it warm in winter and cool in summer.  ICF Blocks These are a relatively new building system that started in Australia with thermacell blocks. Generally, these systems consist of a range of wall blocks and corner blocks that are assembled onto a solid foundation, such as concrete slab or footings, to make a complete wall.