GREEN BUILDING (GREEN INTERIOR)
WHAT IS GREEN BUILDING?
Green building design is a practical and climate conscious approach to building
design. These buildings were generally made of locally available materials like
wood, mud and stone and dealt with the vagaries of weather without using a large
amount of external energy to keep the inhabitants comfortable. A green building
uses minimum amount of energy, consumes less water, conserves natural
resources, generates less waste and creates space for healthy and comfortable
living and amount of external energy to keep the inhabitants comfortable.
During the 20th
century, the energy needs of a person taken as a global average
will increase by a factor of four. As life expectancies increase, populations
increase, material and wealth increases, all of these four things put a high
demand on the ecosystem of the earth.points to be seen:
1. MATERIALS: 50% of all resources (sand, gravel, clay, and iron ore, wood)
globally go into construction.
2. ENERGY: 45% is used to heat, light, and ventilate buildings and 5% to
3. WATER: 40% is globally used for sanitation and other use in
buildings.16% is consumed in consumption.
4. LAND: 60% prime agricultural land lost to farming is used for building
5. TIMBER: 70% of timber products end up in building construction.
Green building is defined by the Office of the Federal Environmental
Executive as “the practice of:
1) Increasing the efficiency with which buildings and their sites use energy,
water, and materials.
2) Reducing building impacts of human health and the environment,
through better siting, design, construction, operation, maintenance, and
removal throughout the complete life cycle.”
Being A GREEN BUILDING the envelope has to be built with some
requirement to fulfil its basis.
Selecting siding materials that do not require painting, such as vinyl or brick
instead of wood is required for a green building.
Consider a roof made of metal instead of traditional shingles.
Purchasing plant materials that do not require a lot of water or attention and
are appropriate for your climate.
Considering removing part or all of your lawn and replace it with low
maintenance plants or other ground cover, such as artificial grass or stone.
Avoiding real wood decks that might require continual
resealing. Swimming pools are also a source of continual maintenance
Recycled glass an analysis of the eco properties of this material used in
interior design and your home.
There is a divide in the industry whether concrete is green or not. Durability
versus extremely energy intensive manufacturing.
Clay plaster an alternative to gypsum plaster with lower levels of embodied
energy & excellent eco properties.
Limes plaster the natural more eco-friendly alternative to gypsum plaster
for your interior walls.
ENERGY CONSERVATION MATERIAL FOR BUILDING
Energy Conservation: Materials that require less energy during
construction e.g. precast slabs.
Materials that help reduce the cooling loads- e.g. –aerated concrete blocks.
Products that conserve energy–e. g. CFL lamps.
Fixtures & equipment’s that help conserve water e.g. Dual flush cisterns
CONVENTIONAL ECO FRIENDLY MATERIAL
1. Bamboo, Bamboo Based Particleboard & Ply Board, Bamboo Matting
2. Bricks suns dried
3. Clay roofing tiles
4. Gypsum Board, Tiles, Plaster, Blocks, gypsum plaster fibre jute/sisal and
glass fibre composites
5. Marble Mosaic Tiles
6. MDF Boards and Mouldings
7. Partial Boards
8. RCC Door Frames
9. Rubber Wood Finger Joint Board
WHAT IS GREEN INTERIOR?
Green interior design is all about sustainability. Green interior design
(sometimes called sustainable design) on the other hand is primarily ethical. Green
interior design is about what is good and what is bad for people’s health, for the
environment and for saving energy.
Green is life. Abundant in nature, green signifies growth, renewal, health, and
Green design includes energy conservation, but that's not what it's all about. It's
about having good air quality both indoors and outdoors, making the environments
in which we work, live, study and play healthier and more comfortable and
conserving all of our natural resources.
ORIENTATION OF SUSTAINABLE HOME
A home designed for energy efficiency will take advantage of the site,
sunlight, view, and natural breezes.
The floor plan and placement of windows are also considered when
designing an energy-efficient home.
In addition, an energy-efficient home will have adequate amounts of
insulation, an efficient heating system, and high-quality windows and doors.
It will also be sealed tightly against air leaks. The orientation of a well-
designed, energy-efficient home will take advantage of free energy from the
For energy efficiency, the house should be oriented so the long axis of the
house is in an east-to west direction so that the largest amount of wall
surface and windows face south to take advantage of the lower angle of
An appropriate home design places most-used rooms and outdoor activity
areas on the south to takes advantage of useful heat from winter sunlight
during the day
The north, east, and west sides of the home should have the minimum
amount of glass area necessary for light and ventilation. Garages, utility
rooms, and storage areas should be located to the north.
Because these rooms are used less frequently than the home’s living areas,
they do not need continual. These rooms can act as buffers against cold
Heat can be collected from sunlight by a variety of methods, including large
expanses of windows, a solarium, a sun space, or a thermal storage wall on
the south side of the house.
A solarium or sun space attached to the main structure of the house
increases the thermal resistance of the outside envelope in two ways:
(1) It protects the main living areas from extreme outside temperatures (similar to
the air-lock entry), and
(2) It reduces infiltration around doors and windows because the main wall of the
house is not directly exposed to the outside elements.
In a solarium or sun space, thermal mass materials such as brick, ceramic tile, and
concrete are used to absorb heat. They also retain heat so it can be radiated back
into the house at night.
A thermal storage wall is also referred to as a Trombe wall. Like the solarium and
sun space, the Trombe wall uses large expanses of windows to collect heat. The
Trombe wall should be constructed of a good heat-retaining material such as
concrete, brick, or stone. Heat is distributed to the living areas by convection,
conduction, and radiation.
In an energy-efficient home, roof overhangs must be wide enough to be effective.
A correctly designed overhang eliminates the need for deciduous trees on the
south, east, and west sides of the house and shade walls and windows from the
high and hot summer sun. If the overhang is designed correctly, it will allow the
lower angled winter sunlight to enter the house through the windows and also
block the summer sunlight from entering the windows.
“Five years ago, the cost of green building came
At a higher premium, but now a lot of green products are
Comparable [in price] with traditional products.” Lynn Rogien
Green design requires a designer to use recycled products, raw materials
And the product construction must meet environmental standards.
Green interior design also means less energy consumption by using led
lights and energy saver lights instead of the conventional lighting, as well as,
proper insulation of rooms against heat and cold to use less air conditioning
and possibly the use of solar power whenever necessary.
This eco consciousness has also led to discovery of some interesting green
products like recycled tire rubber and cork as flooring, counter tops made of
highly compressed paper (paper stone) or recycled crushed glass, seashells
and mirror compressed in a VOC free resin or engineered concrete.
Tile made from the powder of crushed porcelain toilets and tubs or recycled
There are even carpets on the market made from plastic recycled water and
coke bottles and it is highly stain resistant and comes in a rainbow of
GREEN INCLUDES ALL LANDSCAPING INCLUDING PLANTS:
Plants have a significant effect in reducing the heat of the room
temperature. Indoor air-conditioned, usage of plants with a sufficient
amount will be lower temperatures 3 ° C-5 ° C.
Interior design projects worldwide are adding green walls and many modern
spaces offer a ‘faux garden’ area for employees to relax inside, which leads
to the possibility of turning the latter into real gardens.
In re-engaging with our environments, we learn to respect them and not
reject them. With all the benefits of potting plants in interior spaces, moving
forward with implementing untamed wildlife inside might not seem like
such a strange concept.
GRASS WALL (VERTICAL GARDENS)
Green walls are found most often in urban environments where the plants
reduce overall temperatures of the building.
Plant surfaces however, as a result of transpiration, do not rise more than 4–
5 °C above the ambient and are sometimes cooler."
Living walls may also be a means for water reuse. The plants may purify
slightly polluted water (such as grey water) by absorbing the dissolved
They are also suitable in arid areas, as the circulating water on a vertical
wall is less likely to evaporate than in horizontal gardens.
The living wall could also function for urban agriculture, urban gardening,
or for its beauty as art. It is sometimes built indoors to help alleviate sick
The sustainable trend of “Green Roofing” is taking the mundane and
unattractive insulators to new green conscious levels. From necessity to
Glass wool, Rockwool and polyester are just some of the material insulators
on the market today. Visually displeasing, these insulators are boarded up in
walls and ceilings.
Making a huge impact on cities worldwide, Green Roofs offer sustainable
insulation for buildings and a visually pleasing design aspect, among many
other positive aspects of this new green building development.
A Green Roof is, in its most basic form, a vegetated rooftop. The application
of this process can be seen in green retrofits as well completely new
buildings in most major cities.
BENEFITS OF GREEN INTERIOR
In one human being needs 2.9 kg of oxygen (02) so that the plant helps speed up
the procurement of 02 in the room during the day.
Green Interiors enhance occupant’s well-being and productivity
Green Interiors reduce liability associated with poor indoor air quality
Green Interiors increase marketability
Green Interiors decrease churn costs
Green Interiors lower operating and maintenance costs
Green Interiors provide thermal comfort
Green Interiors provide access to daylight and views
Green Interiors minimize interior pollutants
Green Interiors improve controllability of lighting and temperature. The
benefits of incorporating greenery into the architecture of a building are
well-noted, from reducing stress levels of those working or living inside to
offsetting excess carbon and increasing the air quality of a space, balancing
the built with the natural should never be discouraged.
Adding plants and trees to a development is great green inspiration, but a
site that incorporates greenery and calls itself ‘green’ should not be given
more praise or recognition than a carbon zero development that uses various
green technologies but is not dripping in ivy.
WHAT IS LEED?
LEED stands for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design that was
developed by the US Green Building Council (USGBC) (The United States
Green Build Council)
Per the USGBC, they are "an internationally recognized green building
certification system, providing third-party verification that a building or
community was designed and built using strategies aimed at improving
performance across all the metrics that matter most: energy savings, water
efficiency, CO2 emissions reduction, improved indoor environmental
quality, and stewardship of resources and sensitivity to their impacts.
LEED Certification Level Points
"LEED rates the environmental quality of buildings by recognizing
performance in sustainable sites, water efficiency, energy & atmosphere,
materials & resources, indoor environmental quality, locations & linkages,
awareness & education, innovation in design, and regional priority.
A building is given points based on these criteria and if it receives enough
points, may be given a ranking of certified, silver, gold, or platinum
(platinum being best).
If a building you live or work in has a high ranking, you will know that it is
good for the environment and your health.
The building will more than likely end up costing you less to maintain than
one that uses building methods traditionally used in the past.
The building will also probably appraise for more because of its lower cost
There are three primary rating systems in India: GRIHA, IGBC and BEE.
GRIHA stands for "Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment" and has been
developed keeping in mind the various conditions and requirements specific to the
design and construction of green buildings in India.
IGBC stands for "Indian Green Building Council" and provides the LEED
(Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) ratings for green buildings
devised in the United States in India.
The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) launched a Star Rating Programme in
2009, for office buildings in order to accelerate the Energy Efficiency activities in
commercial buildings. The programme developed by the Bureau of Energy
Efficiency, BEE is based on actual performance of the building, in terms of
specific energy usage (in kWh/sq. m/year).
CHARACTERISTICS OF GREEN BUILDING:
Site Design and Planning
Site a building within close proximity of commuter rail or bus lines, to
reduce pollution and any land-development impacts associated with
increased automobile usage.
Establish building specifications that maintain the current level of storm-
water runoff, or decrease the amount of imperviousness already existing
Develop a site with a minimum density of 60,000 square feet per acre.
Channelling development to urban areas with existing infrastructure protects
green spaces and preserves natural habitats and resources.
Construction and Demolition Waste
Management Develop and implement a waste management plan that diverts
a substantial amount of construction, demolition, and land-clearing debris
from landfills to recycling or salvage facilities.
Reuse a percentage of salvage or refurbished materials from construction,
demolition, or land clearing as new building material. For more information
on the benefits of salvaging materials from existing sites, go to
Energy and Atmosphere Generate building electricity on site, from
renewable resources like geothermal, solar, or biogas sources.
Eliminate the use of CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) in new heating, ventilation,
air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC & R) systems. Eliminating the
use of CFCs reduces ozone depletion.
Contract with a green power provider to purchase building electricity
generated from renewable resources, such as solar, wind, geothermal,
biomass, or low impact hydro sources. Optimize energy performance.
Material and Product Selection
Utilize rapidly renewable materials, such as bamboo flooring, wool carpets,
strawboard, cotton ball insulation (made from denim scrap), genuine
linoleum flooring, or poplar oriented-strand board (OSB). Using rapid
Some building materials are :
1. Sustainable harvested wood
4. Sheep wool
6. Panels made from paper flakes
7. Baked earth
8. Rammed earth
15.Calcium sand stone
17.Non toxics low VOC glues and paints
19.Concrete( high and ultra-high)
Install water-efficient or low-flow equipment and appliances in kitchens and
bathrooms to reduce water consumption.
Use water-efficient irrigation, captured rain, or site-recycled water for onsite
Design the HVAC system and building envelope to provide for the most
optimal delivery and mixing of fresh air. Effective air exchange supports the
safety, comfort, and well-being of building occupants.
Reduce the number of indoor air contaminants by selecting paints and
coatings, adhesives, carpets, and composite woods that emit low VOCs
(volatile organic compounds) or none at all.
Examples of low VOC emitting products are carpets made of wool, carpets
made of recycled plastic bottles, and low VOC paint.
Establish segregated areas for chemical using operations (such as
copy/printing rooms and housekeeping); these areas should have separate
outside exhaust and no air recirculation.
Maximize day lighting and view opportunities. Day lighting and increased
view opportunities can save energy costs and enhance worker productivity.
WHAT IS USGBC?
The USGBC was created to promote the design and construction of
buildings that are environmentally responsible, profitable, and healthy places
to live and work.
They are focused on integrating building industry sectors and leading a
market transformation towards greener construction.
The organization consists of various trade associations, architects,
designers, and individuals all interested in the greening of the construction
A committee was formed to study other green building programs currently
in existence and after three years LEED 1.0 unveiled.
Individuals and companies have only been building green homes for the past
thirty years; still, within that time, the green movement has been constantly
The history of green building dates back much further than the 1970's. It
was in the midst of the industrial revolution that Henri Becquerel first
witnessed the transformation of solar energy into electrical energy, known as
Around this time, the late 1800's to early 1900's, a number of solar power
plants were built to utilize the sun's energy for steam power. Then, in the
1950's, solar energy was used on an extremely small-scale, making way for
the solar panel solution twenty years later.
During the energy crisis of the 1970's, green building moved from research
and development to reality. Builders and designers were looking for a way
to reduce the reliance of buildings and homes on fossil fuels.
Solar panels were used to make more environmentally friendly homes,
although only in small numbers due to high initial costs.
Since then, developers have been able to construct more efficient and less
expensive solar panels, making solar energy more of a reality.
Since its inception in 1998 the LEED (Leadership in Energy and
Environmental Design) accreditation program by the US Green Building
Council (USGBC) has been the basis for green interior design. LEED is
continually involving to come up with better ways of meeting its criteria.
These criteria identify 5 keys areas:
CO2 emissions reduction
Improved indoor air quality
AIMS & OBJECTIVE
My aim for choosing this topic of green building and green interior is to get
maximum knowledge regarding this topic and how these can be applied further in
Some reasons behind are:
Green interior design is important for business because in the long run
installing energy efficient devices saves money. This is the great incentive to
‘greening up’ buildings.
For town planners and construction companies working under new
guidelines to reduce CO2 emissions the ideas of LEED and green interior
design are of vital importance.
For anxious parents wishing to protect their children from harmful chemicals
these ideas have a profound relevance. And for environmentalists seeking to
protect nature from man’s reckless need for economic growth at all costs the
concepts of green interior design are like seeds of hope for the future.
LET’S SEE BELOW:
PEOPLE, PLANET, PROFIT is the triple bottom line by which green
interior design measures the success of its endeavours. Interiors that are
healthy for people to live in are essential.
The US Environmental Protection Agency calculates that people spend 90%
of their lives indoors and that pollutant levels are 2 to 5 times higher indoors
than outdoors (source: and other pollutants are making people sick in their
homes. Moreover, many interiors cause people to suffer from allergic
attacks because of dust mites.
By reducing energy consumption we can reduce your utility bills. For
example by installing a programmable thermostat in your home you can
save $180 a year.
By sealing and insulating HVAC ducts we can make your heating and
cooling 20% more efficient.
Not only electricity bills can be reduced with green interior design but
also water bills. For example a low flow shower head will reduce water flow
per minute from 5 gallons to 2.5 gallons without a reduction in spray
OBJECTIVES CAN BE NOTICED BY:
Reducing energy bills is a central tenet of green interior design. For most
homes, the main source of energy is electricity from the central power grid.
The vast majority of electricity in the world is made by burning non-
renewable fossil fuels.
The other problem is that burning fossil fuels produces greenhouse gases
that are causing climate change which is playing havoc with man’s attempts
to grow food, destroying animal habitats and endangering a wide range of
Opting to go ‘off the grid’ by installing solar panels and wind turbines is
one solution. Another is to only buy green energy made from alternative
For most homes neither of these options is viable. Instead the best we can do
is to reduce our energy consumption.
This can be done by using a programmable thermostat, by not leaving your
electrical products on stand-by, by properly insulating your house, by
replacing your incandescent light bulbs with compact fluorescent light bulbs,
by turning up your cooler in the summer and turning down your heater in the
winter, by washing your clothes in cold water, by buying appliances with the
Energy Star mark, and by doing a hundred other small things to save
'Low VOC', 'zero VOC' and 'VOC free' are new buzz phrases in the green
blogosphere that have yet to become fully mainstream. Most commonly the
appellations are given to paints, adhesives, and varnishes and paint...
Clean Indoor Air
For over 50 years industry has been polluting nature and slowly killing
people. It is only recently that governments have started to put in place laws
to protect people and the environment from dangerous chemicals.
From a green interior design point of view the main concern is to source
indoor flooring, furniture, paint and furnishings that are free of chemicals
that pollute and make people sick.
The main culprits are VOCs such as benzene, formaldehyde, methylene-
chloride, styrene, chlorofluorocarbons and acetone.
Green interior design is about hunting out products in a building containing
these toxic chemicals and replacing them with safe alternatives. VOCs cause
respiratory problems, pregnancy complications, cancer, reproductive
problems and allergies as well as ground water pollution and smog. Finding
furniture and flooring free of VOCs, and using VOC free paint is a key part
of green interior design.
This dissertation contains brief history of green and sustainability, a look at
common goals of design and of energy efficiency and green recyclable materials
which are elements of the design.
It also covers introduction with leed, griha etc. including material, finishes
Benefits of Green Development
1. Reduced capital costs
2. Lower operating and maintenance costs
3. Reduced risks and liabilities
1. Less impact on the natural environment
2. Healthy environments and improved productivity
1. Stronger social networks
2. Increased environmental awareness
• High efficiency water fixtures dramatically cut water consumption levels.
Additionally, grey water systems filter and reuse water (in toilets and for
landscaping) that otherwise flows into the sewer system.
• Fewer light fixtures and the use of motion sensors and timing devices decreases
• Increased use of daylight improves employee morale and reduces energy
• Healthier buildings mean less employee sick time and higher productivity, thus
lower operating costs.
• Structures designed to take advantage of passive heating and cooling minimizes
wear on HVAC systems and consistent indoor temperatures reduce HVAC
demands and energy consumption.
• Longer lasting equipment and more efficient systems result in lower maintenance
• Green flooring materials (such as renewable, recyclable cork) last for decades,
requiring little to no maintenance beyond cleaning.
• Light coloured roofs or green roofs reduce cooling energy needs in the summer
Green buildings reduce the impact on the natural environment.
• Reuse of land for an infill development project reduces the impact of additional
roads and sewers on the environment and promotes walking and transit use.
• Conscientious construction methods divert tons of waste materials from landfills
and minimize site disturbance.
• Informed choice of building materials reduces the demand on natural resources
and can improve the quality of the building.
• Storm water reuse reduces the demand for potable water and municipal
• Smart growth helps protect green and open spaces as well as reduce sprawl which
results in occupants not commuting as far, in turn reducing vehicle emissions.
• The use of renewable wood and recycled content materials is encouraged.
• Reduced energy consumption means fewer power plant emissions.
As in a growing number of developing countries, the Indian industry is
welcoming the presence of GREEN BUILDING practices throughout its
While green implementation was first seen in the architectural design and
construction stages, GREEN INTERIOR DESIGN is now trending as a
highly fashionable choice.
Today the upcoming phase is opting for green interiors which can be also
said as sustainability. Going green is seen as a ‘trendy’ option for Indian
clients, who appreciate the aesthetic and environmental impacts of eco-
friendly products and materials.
“With global warming becoming a harsh reality and natural resources
depleting, the world is bending towards eco-friendly and renewable
While double-glazing and other ESD features rate highly in terms of energy
savings, it is eco-friendly materials and products that are reaching new levels
of popularity in the country.
The residential market is handling environmentally responsible design
through simple retrofitting, with many clients opting to install organic and
sustainable timber, bamboo, grasses, wicker and jute. Such material both aid
in removing toxicity from interiors and keep product sourcing local.
Natural fabrics such as leather, cashmere and angora are also on the rise as
“Most of the organic products are hand-made,” explains the interior
designer. “And India being a thickly populated country, it is also labour
intensive. The number of small scale industries is numerous, thereby
decreasing the cost of production.”
India is seeing strong growth in replacement products, such as low voc
materials and paints in place of high toxicity products and eco-friendly
particleboard made of compressed industrial waste.
Small and at-home changes are having the greatest impact on the growth of
a green building sector in the country, with industry professionals who
understand this notion benefiting greatly from increased clientele.
SELECTION OF TOPIC
GREEN BUILDING (GREEN INTERIOR)
(Residence and landscaping)
SOLAR HEATING &
LIGHTINGSLANDSCAPING FINISHES (WALL, FLOOR, CEILING)
EXTERNAL ENVELOPE OF BUILDING
MR.ATAM KUMAR RESIDENCE
GREEN INTERIOR N85 HOUSE
GREEN TOILET GREEN KITCHEN
GREEN BUILDING (GREEN INTERIOR)
GREY WATER TREATMENT
Grey water is the waste water from our sinks, washing machines,
dishwashers, showers and baths. It doesn’t include, however, the waste
water from toilets, which is classed as black water, or sewage.
Grey water is easier to treat and recycle than black water, due to its lower
levels of contaminants.
It also has the potential to be recycled directly within the home and garden,
so you can use grey water to water the garden, clean the car, run the washing
machine and flush the toilet.
Grey water is generally the wastewater from a household that does not flow
out of a toilet (sewage/backwater).
Grey water accounts for about 60%-80% of the outflow produced in homes.
It contains little or no pathogens and 90% less nitrogen than wastewater
(toilet water). Because of this, it does not require the same treatment
Grey water reuse is currently utilized mostly on small residential scale, with
the outflow primarily going to landscaping irrigation.
Grey water pipe separation is a relatively easy low cost when planned into a
new smaller-scale residential construction.
Cost and space savings can even be gained by reducing the wastewater
treatment system, especially for septic systems
Reduces the amount of potable, fresh water used by households.
Reduces the flow of wastewater entering sewer or septic systems.
Minimizes the amount of harmful chemicals used by homeowners.
Supports plant growth without using expensive potable water.
Helps recharge groundwater when applied outdoors.
Raises public awareness of natural water cycles.
Saves money on water bills.
Grey Water Collection
In order to collect and distribute the grey water, a separate internal waste
water drainage system must be fitted.
The water is stored in a tank from where a distribution system takes it, by a
pump or gravity, to the toilets and/or garden tap.
A main fed back-up system will be necessary for times when supply of grey
water does not meet demand. Equally, an overflow system connected to the
sewer will be required when grey water exceeds demand
Grey water for the garden
Rainwater can – believe it or not – be used for any purpose, including drinking and
cooking. But the simplest place to start is in the garden.
The average home can reduce their water consumption by around 30% by re-using
grey water on their garden.”
A RESEARCH SHOWS THAT about 61% of the 180,000 litres of water that leaves
the average home as waste water is reusable grey water.
There are two types of grey water systems: diversion systems that push untreated
grey water through a sub-surface outdoor irrigation system, and treatment systems
that treat grey water so you can use it above surface for irrigation, toilets and
RAIN WATER HARVESTING
Water is an increasingly scarce resource and we are using 50% of our clean water
to flush toilets, wash clothes, cars and to water gardens.
Rainwater harvesting simply collects rainwater and substitutes it for mains water in
1. Reduced mains water consumption (saving up to 50% for domestic and
up to 80% for commercial).
2. Lower energy usage to pump rainwater than to process potable water.
3. Reduced risk of flooding as water is retained.
4. Continued water supply during hose pipe bans (subject to design).
5. Our systems are suitable as part of SUDS (sustainable urban drainage
Rainwater harvesting involves collection and storage of rainwater for future
Rainwater can also be discharged into the ground without loss through
evaporation or seepage.
Elements of a typical water harvesting system:
Quality of the harvested water can be assured by:
1. Filtering at the origin of rooftop drains.
2. Providing a chamber for impurities to settle down.
3. Providing a filter bed.
4. Water can be recharged into the ground through recharge wells, percolation
pits or recharge trenches.
Rainwater can be stored in tanks.
Rainwater can be recharged into the ground.
Rain gardens capture the water, allowing it to seep into the soil slowly. They
can include ponds or water features and can double as a home for frogs.
Rain gardens are designed to capture the flow of storm water coming from
paved areas, overflow pipes of rainwater tanks or direct from downpipes
from the roof of the house.
Rocks or pebbles should be used as mulch, as these don't float when the
water flows and end up clogging drains, but like timber mulch, they protect
the soil from evaporation and suppress weeds.
The kitchen scraps and leaves and dead flowers are put in the hole in the garden.
When it is full it is turned covered and it turns into good earth .few years later
when it is dug and spread the earth on the garden.
A composter is usually a bin that holds plant matter or specific plant matters like
egg shells. Microorganisms work out. This heat up the pile sometimes to 140
degree. After the 2 weeks or 2 years dark soil are left over that can be used for
things like soil amendment, ground cover etc.
The four key ingredients that create compost are:
Organic materials: leaves, grass, fruit and vegetable scraps, etc.
Soil: you can buy soil, but the potting soil sold in stores is often sterized;
better to get a shovelful or two of soil from a corner of your yard, or get
some (with permission) from a neighbour or friend; this way you may get
some worms with your soil worms are GOOD
Air: compost needs oxygen to "operate" properly; make sure your
composter has holes in it, and that you mix or turn the compost material
Water: compost material shouldn't be soggy, but it also shouldn't be bone-
dry; it should feel slightly moist to the hand
o The following materials SHOULD NOT BE COMPOSTED:
Human waste or pet litter - They carry diseases and parasites, as well as
cause an unpleasant odour.
Diseased garden plants - They can infect the compost pile and influence
the finished product.
Invasive weeds - Spores and seeds of invasive weeds (buttercups, morning
glory, and quack grass) can survive the decomposition process and spread to
your desired plants when you use the finished compost.
Charcoal ashes - They are toxic to the soil microorganisms.
Pesticide-treated plant material - These are harmful to the compost food
web organisms, and pesticides may survive into the finished compost
ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENHANCEMENT
Plants provide a physical surrounding, that is more comfortable to live and work
in, by purifying the air, moderating temperatures, removing pollutants from the
air and increasing relative humidity.
Landscaping is an important element in altering the microclimate of a place.
Proper landscaping reduces direct sun from striking and heating up of
Landscaping creates different airflow patterns and can be used to direct or
divert the wind advantageously by causing a pressure difference.
Additionally, the shade created by trees and the effect of grass and Shrubs
reduce air temperatures adjoining the building and provide evaporative
cooling. Properly designed roof gardens help to reduce heat loads in a
A study shows that the ambient air under a tree adjacent to the wall is about
2 °C to 2.5 °C lower than that for unshaved areas, which Reduces heat gain
1. Winter winds, generally from the north and west, can be controlled by
creating wind breaks using evergreen trees, shrubs, vines, fences, or earth
2. These wind breaks can be placed or the north and west sides of the home or
along the perimeters of the lot.
3. Evergreen trees or medium to tall evergreen shrubs should be planted on the
north side of the house to block the north winter winds.
4. These plants do not lose their foliage during the winter.
5. Earth berms and fences can channel winds away from the house and provide
6. Shrubs and trees next to the house can also provide protection by creating an
insulating space next to the walls and by reducing infiltration through the
windows and walls.
7. Proper choices and placement of trees are important in controlling sunlight
coming into the house. Shade trees should be selected by considering their
expected height at maturity.
8. If trees are not properly placed, they won’t be very effective. Trees that are
planted too close or too far from the home will not provide protection from
9. Heat from summer sunlight can be reduced by planting deciduous trees and
shrubs along the east, west, and south sides of the house. If deciduous trees
are tall enough, they will not only shade the walls but also the roof.
10.The east and west sides of the home should have shorter deciduous trees or
medium to all shrubs to create shade from the hot morning and afternoon
sunlight. Because their leaves drop in the late fall and winter, deciduous
trees allow sunlight onto south walls and windows.
11.However, if deciduous trees are planted too close to the house and in front of
windows, some of the heat gain through the windows in the winter can be
blocked by the bare branches.
12.Medium to tall deciduous shrubs along the east, west, and south walls are
not only effective in shading walls and reducing temperatures in summer but
are also effective in screening hot summer winds and channelling cooling
winter breezes toward or away from walls, windows, and outdoor spaces.
13.The concept of xeriscaping (dry landscaping) is useful in conserving water
and providing sun and wind control. Many homes have large expanses of
entrance planting or front lawns that are often not used as activity areas.
14. Seldom-used areas can be converted to drought-resistant ground cover
requiring less frequent watering or to native species requiring no water.
IVY PLANTS AND PEACE LILY ARE HIGHY EFFECTIVE AT REMOVING
TOXINS FROM INDOOR AIR
A houseplant is a plant that is grown indoors in places such as residences
Houseplants are commonly grown for decorative purposes and health
reasons Such as indoor air purification.
The indoor landscaping for plants (plants, water features etc.); indoors is to
be in known so as to enhance the aesthetics as well as reap maximum
benefit from these natural resources resulting into a functional eco-friendly
In view of global warming & excessive use of unfriendly synthetic materials
indoors that are leading to health hazards in the occupants, it is essential to
bring the outdoors inside to balance this situation & also reduce the load on
natural resources as well as preserving them. E.g. Indoor plants are an
excellent source of oxygen & also cool the surroundings thereby reducing
the load on mechanical air-conditioning systems.
Water features also do their bit in controlling the temperature as well as
having a positive psychological effect on the minds of the occupants.
Indoor landscaping is not limited to container plants but has now moved to
full-fledged landscaped gardens with plants, pools, streams keeping in view
the provision for natural light, water supply & drainage, nutrition for plants,
maintenance & cleaning
Some types of interiorscaping are:
Green wall system
It contributes to indoor air quality and providing oxygen and humidity.
These plants can be used in interior in hot and sunny and cold and humid climate
as in the space creating an environmental effect for the space
• MONEY PLANT
• ELEPHANT EARS
• HIBISCUS (NO FLOWERING)
• PLUMERIA (NO FLOWERING)
• SPIDER PLANT
There are three basics category of water garden plants:
SOME INDOOR FLOWERING BULBS:
Roof garden is a garden on roof of a building.
Plants have ability to reduce the overall heat absorption of the building
which then reduces energy consumption.
Courtyard is a small space in between a space of residence that is exposed to
Due to incident solar radiation in a courtyard, the air gets warmer and rises.
Cool air from the ground level flows through the louvered openings of
rooms surrounding a courtyard, thus producing air flow.
At night, the warm roof surfaces get cooled by convection and radiation. If
this heat exchange reduces roof surfaces temperature to WBT of air,
condensation of atmospheric moisture occurs on the roof and the gain due to
condensation limits further cooling.
If the roof surfaces are sloped towards the internal courtyard, the cooled Air
sinks into the court and enters the living space through low-level openings,
Gets warmed up, and leaves through higher-level openings. However, care
should be taken that the courtyard does not receive intense
Solar radiation, which would lead to conduction and radiation heat gains into
the building. Intensive solar radiation in the courtyard also produces
These are located at window hanging refreshing the space. Wood, brick, metal,
fibre glass etc. can be used for the container.
Contained in a box, can be movable and various plants can be planted.
Plants could hold the secret to a simple, easy, cheap and fail-safe way to improve
your home’s health.
Fountains add a special effect on the space. Together with the fountains using
natural resource water lights are added in order to create a natural effect.
These lights can be LED.
These are some indoor wall table top fountains.
Fountains can be from outdoor in a courtyard or in interior from placing in table or
a corner space according to the requirement.
TYPES OF POND
Basically, there are two types of pond — a formal pond with a hard
landscaped edge (brick, stone or tile), and an informal pond designed to
blend in with nature.
Both types can be built using either a preformed rigid liner, or a flexible
plastic liner. Where the formal pond unit sits above ground level, it is
generally easier use a long-lasting preformed rigid liner of fiberglass or
A pond is going to be there for a long time, so take into account all the
constructional, aesthetic and horticultural considerations.
Water is a very good modifier of microclimate. It takes up a large amount of heat
in evaporation and causes significant cooling especially in a hot and dry Climate.
On the other hand, in humid climates, water should be avoided as it Adds to
Bio pools are natural swimming pools. Rather than relying on chemicals to
keep them clean, they use ecological systems (plants) and bio-technology.
The classic bio pool works by having two zones: a central swimming area
and a shallower surrounding area with plants specially chosen to purify the
Some bio pools have separate swimming and purifying areas, while the
latest concept makes it possible to have no plants but use natural bio filters
installed inside or outside the pool.
A biological filter keeps the pools clean. This is a water garden where
micro-organisms, microbes and water plants continually clean the water.
Plant roots absorb nutrients from the water that micro-organisms release
during the decomposition of germs and other natural substances.
Anthropometrics is the comparative study of human body measurements and
properties. Anthropometrics literally means man (anthro) measurements
It enables us to properly size items, including system interfaces, to "fit" the
It is the measurement of the size and proportions of the human body, as well
as parameters such as reach and visual range capabilities.
Accurate data on height, weight, limb, and body segment sizes are needed to
design items ranging from clothing, furniture, automobiles, buses, and
subway cars to space shuttles and space stations.
Living room should be designed with proper spacing in mind. Chairs
should not be too close to each other; always allow for "personal space"
for each user. Remember to allot an area of at least 1 square meter for
Both when standing and sitting to work, it is important that the worktop should be
For manipulative tasks involving moderate degrees of both force and precision:
between 50 and 100 mm below elbow height of the person concerned
For delicate tasks: between 50 and 1000 mm above elbow height
For heavy tasks, particularly those involving downward pressure on the work
piece: between 100 and 300 mm below elbow height.
FITTED UNITS IN KITCHEN
Built in units are available are available from 20-120 cm usually with a
height of 85 cm.materials used in kitchen are wood, plywood, plastic.
Exposed wood surfaces are varnished or laminated.
Shelves are of wood or plastic coated chipboards. Metal shelves are best for
pots and pans.
Derived from the Greek ergon (work) and nomos (laws) to denote the science of
work, ergonomics is a systems-oriented discipline, which now applies to all aspects
of human activity.
One of the benefits of ergonomics chair and table is obtained by the human
comfort of use.
The width in front of the chair or sofa for getting up and sitting down is
1050 across the arms (to allow for elbow movements).it is the depth
needed for sitting down and getting up.
A depth of between 550 and 650 is required for sitting normally. A
depth of between 800 and 850 is needed for putting legs up on a
With the exception of facilities specifically designed for the display or growth of
plants (such as greenhouses or conservatories), plant materials must be able to
tolerate the environmental conditions created for human comfort. However, with
minor modifications to the physical conditions within a building, it is possible to
find many plants from the tropical and subtropical regions of the world that will
survive indoors in the temperature and humidity ranges also comfortable for
The "hardscape" aspects of interior landscape design and construction, (such as
paving materials, landscape furniture, pools and fountains) are not significantly
different than those same elements in the exterior environment .
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS OF PLANTS:
Growing plants convert radiant energy (from daylight or electric light sources) into
food . Plants use radiant energy of wavelengths in the 400- to 850-nanometer (nm)
range .Light for plant growth is typically described in terms of intensity, duration,
and quality .
Light can be provided either from daylight or electric light .
Daylight is preferable because it provides a greater spectrum of the radiant
energy needed by most plants, and is generally provided more diffusely than
electric light .
Intensity of light is a quantitative figure typically measured in lux (footcandles), or
lumens per square meter (square foot) . A lumen is the specific quantity of light
emitted by a light source without regard to the direction of its distribution . A lux
(footcandle) is a quantitative measure referring to how much light is being received
on a surface.
Natural light, which contains the entire spectrum of visible light plus ultraviolet
and infrared wavelengths, is ideal for plant growth.
Temperature, Humidity, and Air Quality
Plant requirements for air typically refer to temperature, relative humidity, and air
A designer usually incorporates water into a space as a visual element.
The aesthetic qualities of water, however, reach far beyond the visual aspect
due to the documented psychological effects of water as a metaphor and as a
physical factor providing sound, and climatic modification.
The sound of water and the coolness associated with being near or touching
water is equally a part of our emotional response to water in the
Water can function as a focal point within a space or as a means of creating
and maintaining a sense of continuity.
A water display can strongly temper the character of a space. A sense of
calm and serenity is created by a quiet stream or pool, while excitement and
drama can be achieved by swiftly moving, densely massed, or strongly
The level of formality will be influenced by the forms of the pools and
displays, and the mood further defined or reinforced by appropriate lighting.
The intensity and frequency of the sound generated by a water display can be used
to convey a sense of calm or excitement, and can also mask unpleasant or
distracting ambient noise.
Airborne spray and evaporation from water displays cause a cooling effect.
Droplets and sprays from active, aerated displays are particularly effective.
Still Water: The container defines the form assumed by the water. The finish of
the underwater surfaces and the condition of the water at the surface influence the
ultimate effect. A dark
There are two subcategories within this classification. Falling water refers
to water moving solely under the influence of gravity, while spouting water
refers to water discharged or displaced under pressure, countering or
complementing gravitational movement.
This latter category includes waves and spouts (jets) of water. The wave
effect, while a viable alternative visually and mechanically, has not been
widely applied because of the excessive energy requirements and the
considerable bulk of the activating mechanisms.
Free-falling water moves vertically without contacting any surfaces and is most
often expressed as a full sheet .Decreasing the flow rate produces a rain like broken
Colours affect the proportion of places, darker or bright colours make things
closer but white or pale colours draw them away
Red is the most powerful colour of the colour wheel.
Red is the colour of fire and passion, and it represents our desires and
cravings in all areas.
Red can be seen as a stressful colour and has been shown to increase heart
rate and blood pressure, so use it with caution.
Red is the hottest colour of the spectrum and can make anywhere seem
warm and cosy, so is ideal for people who suffer from the cold.
Red is not a good choice where calmness and clear thinking are required, it’s
energetic frequency is not conductive to areas where rest is needed, so it’s
not a good choice for bedrooms or relaxation areas.
Red has been shown to increase appetite in most people – one of the reasons
that many restaurants choose red patterns in their dining rooms. Using red in
your kitchen to increase appetite is as simple as blending beige walls with
red shutters or cabinet doors.
Green is the colour of nature and represents balance and harmony.
Green is a very healing, soothing colour which can be used to create a
relaxing area in any part of the home .If you suffer from auto-immune
problems, asthma or bronchitis, green can aid relief.
Green helps to treat hyperactivity in children, and restores calm
Some shades of green can cause nausea, so it’s not the best choice for dining
Green can offer a relaxed, homey atmosphere, with green furniture against
white, or other neutral coloured walls.
Green accents or accent walls can offer a unique, organic sense of contrast.
GREEN IN KITCHEN
Because so much of the foods that we enjoy are green, a green kitchen
reminds us of where our food comes from.
It also has an aesthetic value, with green grapes, green apples, and other
green foods that can help to bring out any green accents you’ve decided to
add to your kitchen.
Green additions often bring out a subtle vibrancy in the earthy palettes of
stone countertops, and tile.
GREEN IN BATHROOM
Green is often associated with water, although with a warmer connotation.
This makes bolstering feelings of comfort even easier in an area of the
home where comfort and relaxation is paramount.
Muted shades of green like sea moss, or clean paler shades like honeydew
melon can bring a connection with the earth into focus, too.
Purple is the colour of true greatness, and is associated with inspired
Purple is a positive inspirational colour and is a good choice for creative
people particularly those that require solitude for inspiration, such as
musical composers, poets, painters and sculptures.
The psychological effects of the colour purple will depend very much on
how 'warm' or 'cool' the hue is:
1) Bluish purples can be serene and calming and have a 'mysterious' depth.
2) Reddish purples demand more attention and can dominate a room (and
are always in danger of looking garish or cheap).
YELLOW & ORANGE
Yellow is generally seen as a light, optimistic colour, and has a unique
ability to raise the spirits and inject vitality into any area, as it is the colour
of sunshine and happiness.
Yellow creates a warm, welcoming first impression so is a good choice in
Yellow is a favourite for kitchens, as it set the mood for the rest of the day
and helps creativity and conversation.
Orange is often associated with improved lung function as well as increased
energy. As well as working well in any workout room, a mild orange can be
very helpful to those recovering from illness or with lung problems.
Blue is an ideal colour for bedrooms or restrooms of any kind, also in any
area where you want to calm people under stress.
Blue’s ability to encourage clear thought makes it well suited to kids study
areas in the home
It should be avoided by any that suffers from depression or sadness and
avoided by anyone that is troubled by the cold.
It is not a good colour for playrooms or an area that you want to create a
Brown is known as a safe colour that tends to be a natural colour, the best in brown
is that it can support any kind of design it involves, it could be in classic, modern,
modern classic ….it can be in the shape of woods or any piece of furniture.
White is commonly associated with purity and innocence.
White lacks colours of any kind. Since it lacks colour of any kind, it is the
most popular choice as a background colour, as all other colours will be seen
in sharp contrast
Well, while black represents widowing, death and evil powers to some
people it also represents power, social prestige, formal occasions and
elegance to others.
Black is mostly used in interiors as the “eyeliner “of the place …..u can use
it in picture frames , elegant accessories , small corner furniture’s , cushions
or even as the main sofa in the room but you should take care when using
black colours in small rooms as it will make the room look smaller.
GREEN SPACE EFFECT
Bringing in plant life not only makes a space greener (both figurative and
literally) but it has been proven to reduce stress and boost productivity.
•Plants take a lot of toxins out of the air. Sometimes there’s a controversy over
plants indoors. If they’re not well taken care of, the soils can get mold, and the
mold can get airborne.
•But that’s not the kind of plants I’m talking about. Bringing plants inside does
take pollutants out of the air, but you have to do your due diligence and take care
of the plants.
Recorded Health Improvements after the Introduction of Interior Plants
AILMENT % REDUCTION
Sore/dry throats 30%
Dry facial skin 25%
It was found that the score sum, as a mean of 12 symptoms, was 23% lower during
the period when the participants had plants in their offices (mean score sum was
7.1 during the period without plants, vs. 5.6 during the period with plants . If the
symptoms were clustered, a significant reduction was obtained in neuro-
psychological symptoms and in mucous membrane symptoms, while skin
symptoms seemed to be unaffected by the plant intervention
PAINTS & COLOURS
Colour is the dark sheep of green interiors, but it is a little known fact that the
colour palette chosen for a room can affect its overall temperature.
As with colours in every other situation, cooler shades reflect the sun and are
perfect in spaces that receive a high amount of natural light. In contradiction to
this, warmer colours should be used in rooms that are colder and have less natural
light. In following this design technique, further reliance is taken off electrically
run heating and cooling, thus greening up the space.
Light colours finishes on ground and vertical surfaces reflect light thus
contributing to higher levels of day light while reducing the contrast between
bright window areas and the surrounding surface.
What are VOC’s?
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are, most simply, chemical fumes. They’re
emitted as gases from certain solids or liquids, and include a variety of chemicals,
some of which may have short and long term adverse health effects.
Low VOC paints are just less toxic. Most chemical paints release toxic solvents
and petrochemicals into the air as they dry, and these nasties have been linked to
many health conditions including cancer, sick building syndrome, breathing
difficulties, dizziness, headaches, fatigue and blurred vision
Paint often contains VOCs—volatile organic compounds
Certainly a high VOC count is not what we want; we want to go for zero,
low-VOC. Every time we paint we’re emitting these, which is especially
unhealthy if we’re living in the home while we’re painting
This make the space more environmentally friendly due to the low
environmental harm production processes, but they can actually enable
health benefits through the lack of harmful chemicals expelled.
Ecolour’s water-based paint is self-priming, washable, scrub able, splatter free and
it cleans up in water.
Ecolour is the only paint manufacturer in the world to use a recycled ingredient
and to be certified carbon neutral
Natural organic paint
The paints are biodegradable and are harmless to humans, animals and
The vegetable and mineral ingredients used here are from renewable
They use plant-derived solvents and binders, rather than synthetic ones, so
have much lower VOC levels than conventional paints.
Water based paints
These are low in VOC and are healthier.
Dulux Enviro Wash System
Paint giant Dulux, a member of the Green Building Council of Australia, has
its own ranges of low VOC and acrylic paints.
This water-based treatment system turns paint washout into clean water and
solid waste, making for easier and safer disposal.
The system provides an environmentally responsible way of washing
brushes and rollers, separating paint solids from water in one hour.
ECO FRIENDLY WALLPAPER
Natural grass cloths
A good eco wallpaper alternative. Typically grown overseas and handmade,
grass cloth wallpaper is made from woven natural grasses. The appearance is
warm with a textured weave ranging from fine to chunky.
This type of textured wallpaper is suitable for covering walls that have
imperfections as the textured surface covers most minor defects.
Natural glass cloths are sustainable and renewable resources which are
harvested either biyearly or yearly and typically backed with recycled paper.
The following paragraphs look at each type of glass cloth.
1. Arrowroot wallpaper -A plant that is grown in Caribbean and Asian
regions, produced with a fine weave.
2. Bamboo wallpaper - Available as hand-woven wallpaper backed by paper
or a hand-woven wall panel backed by fabric.
3. Bamboo and sea grass wallpaper - A combination of natural materials for
a textured wallpaper effect.
4. Jute wallpaper - Available in a fine weave with the appearance of soft silk
and a limited number of natural tones.
5. Sea grass wallpaper - A rugged textured natural weave.
6. Sisal wallpaper - This natural material is available in a very fine weave
with a variety of colour ways and designs. The effect is a silk like wallpaper.
7. Hemp wallpaper - Hemp is a good alternative to conventional wallpaper as
the plant is abundant and is easy to grow without chemical pesticides and
8. Sustainable wallpaper - Wood based wallpaper sourced from timber forests
that have been sustainably managed e.g. Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
9. Vinyl / PVC free wallpaper - Wallpaper which does not contain synthetic
vinyl / PVC. These types of wallpaper do not create toxic off gassing into
10.Chlorine free wallpaper - Wallpaper which has not been treated with
11.Glass fibre wallpaper - Fibres have a diameter more than 5 micrometres are
non-irritant to the respiratory system. Fibres are only released during
manufacture and trimming, which can cause some people a temporary minor
12.Bark skin wallpaper - A hand made textured wallpaper made from organic
bark material. Gives the appearance of leather, parchment or stone.
13.Silk screened cotton wallpaper .Silk screen printing on cotton backing
with water based, non-toxic inks and water based glazes.
14.Environmentally friendly wallpaper - Some manufacturers have an
environmental policy in place during the manufacturing process which
focuses on lower levels of embodied energy including energy, waste,
recycling, packaging and distribution.
WALL LININGS SUCH AS PANELLING, TILES, WALLPAPER OR
TAPESTRIES ALLOW US TO MODIFY THE WALLS THAT ARE
1. Their ability to radiate cool or heat into or out of the room
2. Their ability to absorb or reflect light
3. Their smell and effect on indoor air quality
4. Their ability to breathe
5. Whether they create a hard or soft acoustic quality
Timber has been mostly and widely used in wall panellings.the insulating
quality of timber make panel warm and pleasant to touch. Wall panelling or
boarding is best fixed to timber battens on the wall, packed out where
necessary to create a flat plane.
Environmentally safe insulation material as Paper, shredded flax, sheep’s
wool, cork and coconut fibre can be used.
A reflective surface of aluminium foil facing into the gap behind the
panelling can improve thermal performance.
Aluminium foil is generally made from recycled aluminium and is therefore
CORK AND LINOLEUM
Cork is ideal for basements to counter the cold.
Good for children’s room where it softens the sound.
Linoleum is also available in a softer grade for walls and makes an attractive
surface. Used for bathroom walls.
Wall plasters made of clay, lime and gypsum create smooth surface. Clay is
most environmentally sound of any material- accounts of 70% of earth
Provided that clay plaster is applied to a thick (25mm) backing coat it helps
to create good indoor air quality- it is vapour permeable and absorbs
excessive humidity helping to prevent damp.
PAPER, FABRIC AND VINYL WALL LININGS.
Walls were papered for health reasons at earlier days- called sanitary papers
because of oil based inks made it possible
Papers are made of 3 principles:
1. The face material which can range from printed papers to grasses and silks
2. The backing material usually paper
3. The adhesives.
Safer papers are made with much as 60% of recycled material.
Most common now than wall paper are vinyl wall coverings, popular
because of their durability and economy.
TAPESTRIES AND HANGINGS
Fabric wall covering keep cold interiors warm. On stone walls over
doorways or windows, a tapestry prevents cold radiation and offer warmth
and also makes space glow with colours
GRASS WALL (VERTICAL GARDENS)
Green walls are found most often in urban environments where the plants
reduce overall temperatures of the building.
"The primary cause of heat build-up in cities is insolation, the absorption of
solar radiation by roads and buildings in the city and the storage of this heat
in the building material and its subsequent re-radiation. Plant surfaces
however, as a result of transpiration, do not rise more than 4–5 °C above the
ambient and are sometimes cooler."
Living walls may also be a means for water reuse. The plants may purify
slightly polluted water (such as grey water) by absorbing the dissolved
nutrients. Bacteria mineralize the organic components to make them
available to the plants.
Living walls are particularly suitable for cities, as they allow good use of
available vertical surface areas. They are also suitable in arid areas, as the
circulating water on a vertical wall is less likely to evaporate than in
The living wall could also function for urban agriculture, urban gardening,
or for its beauty as art. It is sometimes built indoors to help alleviate sick
When we say sustainable flooring, we’re referring to flooring produced from
sustainable materials that reduce demands on ecosystems and energy usage during
the lifecycle of the product, including its harvest, production, use and disposal.
Many flooring choices can be sustainable, but whether it is the right green choice
for you also depends on a number of factors, including:
• how you use the material
• whether it can be recycled
• its durability
• how much cleaning it takes
• its finish
• whether it emits any toxic compounds, and
• Whether its thermal mass helps heat or cools the home.
Stone including marble and slate is beautiful and environmentally sound flooring
material.it doesn’t effect on internal air quality and satisfies most environmental
criteria.it is durable and can be recycled again and again.
COMPOSITE AND ENGINEERED FLOORING
Engineered timbers also look like solid timber. This includes:
1. Boards with a face of solid timber (2-6)mm thick glued to particle board
2. Boards with a very thin maximum 1 mm veneer of timber glued to a particle
3. Particle boards printed with a photo of wood grain
4. Sheets that contain no timber but are ,made of plastic and printed with a
photo to emulate timber
These boards can be thin as 9 mm for lying over existing floors and cheaper than
solid wood. Over lay floor is also available
Linoleum is a natural product made from linseed oil, cork dust, wood flour,
tree resins, ground limestone and pigments. It's easy to clean, and is resistant
to scratching (the marks can be buffed out), stains and chemicals.
It works well in wet areas like kitchens and bathrooms, and comes in a range
of vibrant colours and patterns.
Linoleum is made from renewable raw materials, uses a closed loop
manufacturing cycle where waste can be recycled at every stage in the
Produced by Forbo Flooring, it is made of 100 percent bio-based content,
and its permanent, natural properties kill MRSA and Norovirus.
It is also naturally anti-static; R10 slip rated offers easy low cost cleaning
and is Good Environmental Choice Award (GECA) CERTIFIED.
Hardwood flooring has long been a popular choice among homeowners.
It looks good, is easy to clean, hardwearing and durable, and when installed
properly can last for decades, and add value to the home.
Hardwood floors don’t harbour harmful chemicals, dirt or dust mites that
can affect indoor air quality, and aggravate allergies. It can be recycled and
also has low embodied energy.
With some new plantation hardwood timbers taking up to 100 years to grow,
recycled wood flooring may be the best choice. Made from timber salvaged
from old wharves, warehouses, shearing sheds and other old buildings it
comes in a variety of lengths and widths and can be finished to look like
new, or to retain the patina of age.
Choosing recycled timber also lets you create a floor with rare hardwoods
that may be hard to find new.
Bamboo is strong as timber and hard wearing. From the point of view of
internal air quality bamboo has advantage as other smooth surface provided
that no unsafe coatings or adhesives are applied.
Bamboo is that it’s sourced from sustainable sources: manufactured from the
bamboo plant, it grows very easily, doesn’t require any pesticides or
fertilisers in its production, and there are lots of bamboo plantations around
It has high carbon absorption rates and releases oxygen into the atmosphere.
It’s generally cheaper than traditional hardwood flooring.
Stronger, harder and more durable than almost any other timber flooring,
bamboo flooring also expands and contracts less than timber floors and is
just as easy to install–by nailing or gluing it down. Bamboo is also available
unfinished, and can be sanded and finished on site.
Bamboo flooring can be used in any area of the home, including wet areas.
It is extracted from bark of the cork oak.
Excellent flooring material has combination of flexibility, high insulation
value and resistance to water is a product.
Available in tile form measures of 30x30 cm by 3mm thick but planks of
90x18cmx6mm .It is little warmer and softer.
Has better effect for indoor air quality and is good for health.
It is warm to walk and helps to soften the acoustic of the room
ENVIRONMENTALLY SAFE CARPET FLOORING
Called as organic carpet made from natural plant and animal yarns is
pesticide free and not bleached or chemically dyed.
Carpets from vegetable yarns such as jute, coir and sisal are available in a
range of natural colours free from any dyes.
A new environmentally safe floor cover is made from paper twine, woven
with linen into carpet widths and mats.
Thinner then carpet it has textures not dissimilar to a very fine cane weave
and is available in an attractive range of natural, earthy tones woven into
checked and striped patterns.
Carpet made from recycled plastic drink bottles made of PET(
POLYVETHELVENE TERAPTHALATE) that is soon in space
Before buying certified product of CIR (carpet and rug indoor air quality
PAPER TWINE MATTING MAKES A SOFT BUT DURABLE FLOORING
THAT CAN BE USED ON OLD DAMP SURFACE
Rubber is generally considered to be one of the most low-impact and
environmentally friendly building materials.
Good quality rubber flooring contains 75% of natural rubber derived from
tress 25% of synthetic rubber, fillers and pigments
Latex sap, a renewable raw material produced by the Para rubber tree, is a
key ingredient in natural rubber, and the finished product is known for its
malleable, elastic, waterproof and durable qualities.
Synthetic rubber is derived from petroleum with a number of known
carcinogens and hazardous solvents used in its processing and production.
The best choice is recycled rubber. Recycled rubber products reduce demand
for virgin raw materials, minimise the amount of waste going to landfill, and
a lot of recycled rubber comes from car tires that would otherwise create
significant disposal problems.
Rubber flooring can also be applied without adhesive, so there is added
benefit from eliminating the impact of manufacturing of the adhesive as well
as the improved air quality of the area where the adhesive would have been
NEW RECYCLED FLOORING MATERIAL
As like recycle rubber other flooring material in hand is as:
Recycled glass is used with ceramic materials to make dense, stain-
The best way to enjoy a safe floor and softness warmth of carpet without
laying fitted carpet is rugs
Flat weave rugs as kelims have no pile so they harbour less dust then those
with thick pile.
Ceiling finishes are of paints, or designed with materials from wood, laminate,
timber etc. Paints without VOC and mostly recyclable materials are used.
Environmentally friendly materials help to use materials for making lights.
The basic principle behind ceiling fans is that they push air around. In
summer, a "chill factor" is created as air moves past our skin and evaporates
the perspiration on its surface.
Consumers keen to conserve energy need to weigh the airflow, measured in
revolutions-per-minute (RPM) against the wattage generated to keep those
The material that blades are made from - typically timber, moulded plastic
or a metal such as stainless steel - affects both airflow and energy
consumption, as does the angle and design of the blade.
A good rule of thumb is to remember that ornate and overly decorative
blades move less air and generally will be less efficient.
Decisions about which blade material to choose will depend on where you
plan to put the fan. Powder-coated steel in a coastal location will corrode,
whether indoors or outdoors - use timber, ABS plastic, marine grade
stainless steel or aluminium instead.
In general, metal blades produce a higher airflow than timber blades,
because they have a steep 22 degree pitch (compared to timber blades which
usually have a 12 degree pitch).
But metal fans use more power than timber, because the steeper the pitch,
the more energy it takes to move air. They can also make an audible
"whirring" sound, though this is unlikely in quality models.
Metal blades are slim (approx. 1mm thick, compared to a 4 to 5mm timber
blade) which means they can cut skin if it comes into contact with a moving
Ceiling fans can also be used in winter, especially in large rooms with high
By switching them into reverse mode the fans draws air from the middle of
the room and circulates it back down the walls and across the floor, shifting
warm air that has accumulated near the ceiling back down to floor level,
warming you up from the feet, instead of dumping air directly back down
onto you as a regular cycle does.
Light emitting diodes (LED lights) and compact fluorescent
lights (CFLs) are regarded as the most efficient types of
Household replaced just one conventional incandescent globe with an
energy efficient compact fluorescent globe, the savings would count for
more than 6 billion balloons of greenhouse gas each year.
Light emitting diodes: Commonly known as LEDs, these are unlike any of the
other lighting systems listed. They contain no glass tubes or heating filaments,
instead using a small piece of semiconductor material (computer chips and
transistors are semiconductors too) that emits light directly when a current is
passed through it.
The range of LEDs are gradually increasing which is good news as they are a
highly efficient source of lighting as they contain no glass robust and do not pose a
fire danger as they do not emit heat
With a longer life span of up to 50,000 hours, LED lights are being hailed as
a greener lighting solution because of the many features they have over their
filament burning, gas heating lighting compatriots.
In comparison to other bulbs and lighting tubes, LEDs are more durable and
can withstand a relative amount of vibration and shock because they’re
usually made of plastic.
This also allows LEDs to be more compact in size and conform to different
shapes, making them perfect for tube and strip lights, down lights and other
types of directional lighting.
LEDs only use about a third of the energy that an incandescent globe would
LED lights last about 10 times longer than regular incandescent lights and
are four times more efficient.
IKEA solar powered lights
Going green doesn’t have to cost you the earth with this range of solar
powered lighting solutions by IKEA
Compact fluorescent lighting.
Compact fluorescent lights last far longer and have much lower running
costs than their energy-guzzling incandescent counterparts.
In terms of efficiency, CFLs are four times more efficient and last up to 10
times longer than incandescent lights, using 50 to 80% less energy.
A life cycle analysis of CFLs published in The Environmental Engineer
concluded that CFLs are the better choice for the environment (compared to
incandescent lighting) because they use electricity much more efficiently.
While they do release some mercury at the end of their life - a concern for
some environmentalists - the analysis found that the production of
incandescent lights contributes five times more mercury from burning coal
Fluorescent lights are 3 to 5 times more efficient than incandescent bulbs and
can last 10 times longer. They also generate less heat—a plus during summer
CFLs can now be used in most light fittings, including older style incandescent
fittings, and provide energy efficient lighting that's also easy on the eyes.
CFLs come in a variety of colours, shapes, sizes and functions
SOME ENERGYCONSUMPTION GIVEN LIGHTS ARE:
Incandescent lamps are the oldest common form of light bulb. Generally
incandescent have an efficiency of between 2% and 7% (the rest of the
energy-93% to 98%-is turned into heat!).
There are now many more efficient light bulbs available such as compact
fluorescents and LEDs.
Halogen down lights is a type of incandescent lamp, which work by heating
a small piece of metal to white heat to produce light.
More than 90 per cent of the energy that goes into common halogen lights
turns into heat; as a result, the lights use more electricity than needed
making them very inefficient.
While halogen down lights are good for direct task lighting their popularity
has exceeded their purpose as they are now being used to light entire rooms.
Halogen down lights also uses additional energy as they require the use of a
transformer that is usually located in the ceiling above each light fitting.
LED down lights cost between $10 and $100 but last 50,000 hours. Also,
mini compact fluorescent down light fittings could be used as an alternative
to halogen down lights or compact fluorescent down lights and fittings.
FURNITURE AND ACCESSORIES
REDUCE, REPAIR, RECYCLE ARE 3R FOR A BETTER FURNITURE
TRADITIONAL BENIGN FURNITURE
These use natural materials in simple, economic, and efficient ways.eg-
Sculptors are producing carved furniture from huge sections of wood, in
which a whole item, legs included is carved from one trunk.
This method avoids glue and joints but does produce waste.
Furniture also made from natural materials as rushes, rattan, and bamboo.
Which is fastest growing renewable resource and strong and durable.
Used for making table tops and work surfaces. Another traditional safe
material is made from wood based paper twine woven into a flexible fabric-
sometimes incorporating wire for extra strength and stretched over
bentwood or cane furniture.
RATTAN IS MATERIAL AS HANDCRAFTED AND RENEWABLE
RECYCLED FURNITURE AND WASTE MATERIAL
The recycling of waste to make new materials is the foundation of nature’s
Materials being reprocessed include plastic bottles, car tyres, waste roofing
materials, glass and aluminium.
Agricultural waste as straw, rice, flax and safe glues can be used to make
sheet materials to replace unsafe woodchips boards. Strong panels for
furniture are made with light, honey comb cores in a variety of materials,
including recycled aluminium.
Paper pulp is an ideal material for smaller items, such an s lamp shades and
recycled paper in tube form is being used for legs for tables and desks.
Example: table top or drawers can also be made from recycled thermoplastic
material such as drinking bottle. This is strong. Practical and easy to clean in
Petro chemicals plastics have much advantage. They are cheap, solid, and
durable, easily moulded and formed, and require no surface finishing.
One range of recycled plastic has been certified safe for use with food so is
ideal for kitchen countertops.
Two new type of plastic with the same practical advantage are beginning to
replace the petrochemical plastic:
1. One is made by recycling of thermoplastic waste such as plastic bottle
2. Other use is plant fibre suitable for processing into plastic substitutes.
ALUMINIUM AND METAL MATERIAL
Metal components are used in furniture to provide strength and
Today most aluminium is used from recycling process. Most steel
furniture’s contains about 50% recycled material.
AIR FILLED FURNITURE
Safest and cleanest of all friendly furniture is that made of air. The furniture is
ergonomically shaped and retains its form because it is made of separate air filled
sections of plastic material.
While the plastic is not benign it is 100% recyclable and environmental advantage
of using so little material to create such a large are clear – a good example of less is
MASS PRODUCED PANEL FURNITURE
When labour was cheap and demand could be satisfied by small scale
workshops, furniture of every design was made by craftsmen using safe
methods and local timber.
Using thin wood veneers, particles and waste chips, sheet materials such
as plywood, particle board, chip board and medium density fibre board,
Desks, wardrobes, chests, kitchen cabinet are today assembled from a
number of panels of this engineered board. Waste timber chippings and
particles are bonded with adhesives.
Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) is a flame retardant that is in a lot of
upholstery and that emits toxic emissions.
So furniture’s of no PBDE should be used or furniture’s from environmental
friendly products should be used.
Blue print furniture designs and makes furniture using 100% recycled
Simple stools and benches in natural wood or brightly painted would fit a treat in
NEW TO BED MATRESS
Chemical-free, organic wool, soy-based foam and even green latex – the future of
the humble bedroom mattress is eco-friendly indeed.
Chemical-free: Why natural mattresses matter?
As well as doing your bit for the environment, sleeping on a sustainable mattress
could do wonders for your health, according to Raithe Handiman, founder of
organic company Blessed Earth.
From organic wool to natural latex and even soy-based foam and coconut fibre,
there is plenty of choice if sleeping green is your dream.
The options include having your mattress covered with hemp-blended organic
cotton or filled with a mix of natural latex and wool
These are such as reused products, recycled materials and ecologically sustainable
Recycled cardboard, is an unusual take on nature and art, with 3D rhino, moose
and deer trophies
There is also some great wall art, such as these Chrysalis Butterflies made from a
Environmentally responsible art using the traditional skills of indigenous artists
Silhouette of birds made from cut-outs from old op shop books.
Fibres such as hemp, jute, sisal and ramie offer huge potential to create a
wonderfully rich range of furnishing options as they are harmlessly
Organic fabrics are useful for people suffering chemical or other allergic
New man made fabrics are developed by sustainable, clean methods,
including the use of recycled materials.
LYEOCELL known as tencel and cupro new fibre developed in many years.
Derives from natural wood pulp cellulose, without any toxic or polluting
chemicals and materials are recyclable.
Another type of environmentally fabric is made from recycled thermoplastic
components. Recycled PET (polyethylene terephthalate) is used for making
warm bed covers and also carpets.
CURTAINS & BLINDS
Windows let a huge amount of heat in and out of a home. With good
building design, glazing and shading you can reduce the impact of the
windows but another positive impact on the comfort level of your home is
the installation of curtains and blinds.
Window coverings help to reduce the demand for artificial lighting, heating
and air conditioning and are probably the most significant non-structural
contribution you can make towards home climate control.
Opaque blinds or curtains offer total sun blackout while those with a more
open weave let in more light. Modern solar shades offer visual transparency
while also cutting down on glare, heat and light.
Blinds and curtains also help to reduce heat gain and loss by trapping air in
an insulating layer between the window pane and the covering.
Also of considerable importance for effective insulation is the use of pelmets
above the curtains.
On windows without pelmets, the air against the glass rapidly cools and
sinks to the floor, producing a convection current that draws warm air from
near the ceiling down across the glass, rapidly cooling it and wasting the
heat it contains.
This airflow can be considerable and can waste a great deal of heat. A
pelmet that meets the wall, positioned across the top of the curtains, will
greatly reduce this airflow and the subsequent heat loss.
A typical vent is a cut-out in the apex of a domed or cylindrical roof.
The Openings in the protective cap over the vent direct wind loss across it.
When Air flows over a curved surface, its velocity increases, resulting in
lowering of the pressure at the apex of the curved roof. The hot air under the
roof flows out through the vent.
Air vents are usually placed over living rooms, often with a pool of water
directly under the vent, to cool the air which is moving up by evaporation.
The special form of domes restricts use to the top floor only. Acoustic
concentration often occurs in this type of ceiling.
WINDOW & DOOR TREATMENT
Windows play a major role in energy efficiency. Non-energy efficient
windows can increase costs of heating and air conditioning by as much as 10
percent because of conduction and air leakage.
Heat can be lost through the glass, the frame, and through the spaces
between the frame and the rough opening. Before buying windows, check
the windows infiltration rating, R-value, and U-value.
Also, consider low “E” glazing (low
emissivity) and window construction for
energy efficiency. Low “E” glazing is window
glass that has had a thin, transparent, heat-
reflective coating applied during
manufacturing. Low “E” glazing allows light
through the glazing but reduces ultraviolet
light. With low “E” glazing, when the long-
wave heat energy inside the house hits the
glass, the coating on the glass acts as a mirror
to keep the heat inside the home, which stays
An added benefit is the reduction of
ultraviolet light transmitted through the
windows, which fades interior furnishings, such as carpets, curtains, and
The energy efficiency of windows is measured in R-values and U-values. R-
value is a measurement of resistance to heat flow, and U-value is a
measurement of how easily a window conducts heat.
R-values and U-values are fairly standard in
the window industry. The lower the U-value,
the better; while the greater the R-value
The material used for the frame will affect
the amount of heat loss due to conduction.
Make sure window frames are made of a low
conductive material such as wood, vinyl, or
If the frames are made of steel or aluminum,
be sure they have a thermal break to reduce
conduction through the frame.
While R-values and U-values are very
important features of window glazing, air
infiltration rates are also important. Air
infiltration is measured in cubic feet per minute per square foot
The assigned Value indicates the amount of air leakage between the
window sash and the frame. Lower numbers mean less infiltration and
Operable windows, such as casement windows, tend to have lower air
infiltration ratings than most sliding windows because of a tighter seal.
Generally, most sliding windows, vertical or horizontal, have a greater
tendency for infiltration because positive compression and clamping is
Windows should be placed for ventilation. Hot air that builds up in the house
during the day automatically escapes to the outside through windows located
high on the walls when the outside temperature cools.
Tinted or toned glass is coloured glass that acts like sunglasses to reduce the
amount of heat and light entering your home.
Reflective glass has a coating that reflects heat and light away from the
window. Double-glazed windows are window units with two panes of glass
and a sealed air gap in between. These are far superior to single-glazed
windows for insulating your home.
Low-emissive (low-e) glazing is a glass coating that blocks radiant heat
transfer (heat waves given off by hot objects). It acts like a 'heat mirror',
reflecting heat back into a room in winter, while letting sunlight in from
Another important factor that affects your window performance is the type of
window frame you use
Green windows: What is WERS?
ENERGY RATED WINDOW
WERS is a compulsory ratings system that gives all windows an energy rating
And feeds into the Nationwide House Energy Rating Scheme. Windows are
rated with stars, enabling homeowners to compare different windows
“It gives us two things: the technical performance of the window
system, and consumer data for star ratings for heating and cooling
and percentage improvement for heating and cooling,”
Energy efficient window materials
WERS calculates an insulation value, assessing what the difference in
temperature indoors and outdoors will be.
For frames, the answer is simple. Aluminium, because it conducts heat and
cold, is nowhere near as energy-efficient as wood and UPVC.
“Inside it might be 24 degrees and outside 10 degrees,” says Smith. “The
glass temperature will be somewhere in between.
In most climates, windows with at least four heating or four cooling stars will
ensure that heat losses and heat gains are minimised. This means windows
must have a low U-value.
What’s the U-value?
WERS also calculates a U-value for windows. The U-value measures how well the
window prevents heat from escaping
The lower the U-value, the better the windows resistance to heat flow and the better
its insulating value.
These are windows of 'A' rated (with u-values down to 0.75 as a whole unit), but
also provide high specification finishes with ranges designed for code levels 3 to 6
or passive house.
They are all manufactured with timbers and specifically designed to reduce heat
loss whilst maintaining the quality and style required.
Benefits of these windows are:
Whole window U value ranges from 0.75-1.4 W/m²K
Glass U value ranges from 0.5-1.2 W/m²K
Highly durable, full factory finished surfaces with advanced micro
porous paints and stains
Double and triple glazing options on windows and doors (triple glazing
standard on Eco passive) with warm edge spacers
Full 100% FSC (Forest Steward Council) certified pure timber
Suitable for domestic and commercial installation
Different windows for different climates
‘Low-e’ stands for low emissivity. A low-e coating is a metal coating that
suppresses heat transfer. A low-e coating, therefore, can help lower a window’s U-
Below is our range of windows and their features
0.9- 1.4 0.6- 1.1 3-5 ● ● ●
Eco plus 0.8- 1.4 .5-
3-5 ● ● ●
0.75 0.6 5-6 ●
● £201 £384
Basically, if your framing material is a good heat conductor, it will let the
heat in during summer and let the heat escape during winter. Aluminium
frames are very good conductors and dark-coloured frames in full sun can
become hot to touch. Examples of frames with good insulating qualities
include timber frames (though these require regular maintenance), aluminium
frames with thermal breaks, 'combination' frames that have aluminium on the
outside and timber on the inside, and PVC frames.
The external finish of a surface determines the amount of heat absorbed or
Reflected by it.
The heat storage capacity and heat conduction property of walls are key to
meeting desired thermal comfort conditions.
The wall thickness, Material and finishes can be chosen based on the heating
and cooling needs of the building. Appropriate thermal insulation and air
cavities in walls reduce heat transmission into the building, which is the
primary aim in a hot region.
For example, a smooth and light colour surface reflects more
Light and heat in comparison to a dark colour surface. Lighter colour surfaces
Have higher emissivity and should be ideally used for warm climate.
Advanced passive heating techniques are used by architects in building
Design to achieve thermal comfort conditions in cold climate.
Passive solar heating systems can be broadly classified as:
1. Direct gain systems
2. Indirect gain systems
The thermal mass added to a house enables the solar heating system to work
Mass, in the form of a dense material, absorbs heat during the daytime to
prevent overheating. It then stores the heat until the air temperature of the
room drops when the sun goes down.
Then the heat is naturally released from the mass material, warming the
interior throughout the cool night.
This same natural process occurs in the passive solar home, except that the
heat is trapped by the walls or floors of the house and used to warm its
occupants. (Insulation is closed across the windows at night to keep the heat
A mass material's effectiveness is measured by its ability to absorb sunlight,
conduct surface heat into its mass and hold the resulting heat.
Mass materials vary greatly in the amount of heat they retain. Frequently,
older structures are not designed to support the weight of additional thermal
mass. Lightweight, efficient mass is suggested for many installations.
Absorption of Heat
Material description heat Retained
Brick -- glazed white 26%
Brick -- common red 68%
Marble white -- 44%
Marble -- dark 66%
Granite -- reddish 55%
Slate -- blue/gray 87%
Steel red enamel finish 81%
Slate -- dark gray 90%
The percentage absorption varies according to material, color, and finish or texture.
The best thermal mass materials would seem to have a dark-colored, rough, matte
Of equal importance is the need to place furniture so that it shades the mass
floor or wall as little as possible.
The general rule of thumb is to shade less than 30 percent. This will still
allow maximum effectiveness for heat absorption and release.
The furniture also should be raised off the floor slightly so air can circulate.
This means no wall-to-wall carpeting; no large sectional sofa; no skirted sofas
that shade mass floors; no bookcases on mass walls; and no secretaries or
armoires on mass walls.
Green prefab walls
Potential benefits of using hemp:
• environmentally friendly, can actually be carbon positive
• excellent acoustic insulation
• can be recycled and is also biodegradable
Building materials typically considered to be 'green' include renewable plant
materials like straw and mud brick, timber from forests certified to be sustainably
managed, recycled materials and other products that are non-toxic, reusable and
Concrete is an excellent material for creating thermal mass in a passive solar
designed home. In temperate and cool climates thermal mass helps regulate a home's
temperature and keep it warm in winter and cool in summer.
These are a relatively new building system that started in Australia with thermacell
blocks. Generally, these systems consist of a range of wall blocks and corner blocks
that are assembled onto a solid foundation, such as concrete slab or footings, to
make a complete wall.
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