2. 1. Syntax as a part of grammar.
2. Basic syntactic notions:
• syntactic unit;
• syntactic form;
• syntactic meaning;
• syntactic function;
• syntactic relations;
• syntactic position;
• syntactic valency.
3. 3. Phrases (word-combinations), word groups, syntactic constructions
(complexes), clauses, sentences, supra-syntactic units, texts as units of
4. Syntagmatic relations in syntax. Syntactic relations and syntactic
connections. Kinds, forms, and means of syntactic relations and syntactic
4. 1. Syntax as a part of grammar
Syntax is a part of grammar
which deals with the
structure classification and
combinability of sentences.
5. Phrase like a word has the
function which is called
nominative, but the function
of the phrase is
13. Morphological forms of the
nominative and objective cases of
personal pronouns express
simultaneously syntactic forms:
the nominative case - the form of
the subject of the sentence
objective case – the object of the
14. Syntactic meaning
is based on the syntactico-
distributional classification of
words worked out by American
linguists Bloomfield, Harris and
15. According to this theory
the main syntactic meanings
are those of
the noun (N)
the adjective (A)
the verb (V)
the adverb (D)
24. There are four main types of
1. Predicative syntagma:
subject + predicate;
2. Objective syntagma: verb + object;
3. Attributive syntagma: attribute + noun;
4. Adverbial syntagma:
verb, adjective or adverb +
25. Syntactic position
is the position of a word in
There are two kinds of
26. E.g. The concerned doctor
rang for an ambulance.
The doctor concerned is on
27. Syntactic valency
is the combinability of the word
within a phrase with other
words – the head (headword),
nucleus and adjuncts.
28. There are different types:
1. According to the direction -
left-hand and right-hand
e.g. John must go.
left-hand 2 valency verb right-hand
29. 2. According to the nature –
obligatory and optional
Obligatory must necessarily be
realized for the sake of
grammatical and semantic
completeness of the word group.
The predicate of a sentence
(transitive verb) may or may not
open valencies for a complement
(object) or adverbial modifier:
He’s reading a book to himself.
31. A phrase is a combination of
two or more words which is a
grammatical unit, i.e. there’re
definite syntagmatic and
semantic relations between
them but it’s not supposed to be
some analytical form.
32. If a phrase is taken
separately outside the
sentence, it’s called a word
group or a word combination.
33. If either semantic or
syntactic ties between the
words of the phrase are
missing, this word group
cannot be called a phrase.
E.g. She took it bad.
34. There is a specific kind of
phrase called a syntactic
Syntactic construction is
supposed to have some kind of
35. E.g. We saw them played football.
I had my TV repaired yesterday.
36. A phrase can undergo
grammatical changes without
destroying its identity:
write letters, wrote letters,
have written letters.
37. A sentence may be defined as the
minimal syntactic unit used in
communicative speech acts, built up
according to some structural and
intonational patterns and possessing
some characteristic properties such as
predicativity, modality, temporality,
39. Structurally the sentences fall under
the following groups:
1. Simple sentences are
those having only one
(2 subjects (homogeneous
parts) + 1 predicate);
40. 2. Composite sentences which are
further subdivided into compound
(those containing 2 or more
and complex (those consisting of at
least 2 clauses, one of which is
independent (main clause) and the
other is dependent (subordinate));
41. E.g. If you do that again, I’ll
blow the whistle on you.
You do that again and I blow …
42. There are two types of syntactic
1. Coordinate relation
2. Subordinate relation