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international relation

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international relation

  1. 1. International Relations Week 3 [read Baylis et. al. (2008) chapter 5] Brendon Tagg [email_address]
  2. 2. REALISM <ul><li>3 key principles: Statism, Survival, Self-help </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Statism </li></ul><ul><li>-The state is the main actor </li></ul><ul><li>-Sovereignty </li></ul><ul><li>-Hobbes: we trade some freedom for security </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Between states- anarchy </li></ul><ul><li>-zero-sum terms </li></ul><ul><li>-universal agreement difficult </li></ul><ul><li>-‘non-intervention’ - except for great powers </li></ul><ul><li>Morganthau - power is “control over the minds </li></ul><ul><li>and actions of other[s]” (Baylis et al 2008: 100) </li></ul><ul><li>-is both relational and relative </li></ul>
  4. 4. (2) Survival <ul><li>Is power is an end in itself? Or security? </li></ul><ul><li>Defensive realists (Waltz) </li></ul><ul><li>Offensive realists (Mearsheimer) </li></ul><ul><li>Implications </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Machiavelli’s The Prince </li></ul><ul><li>- leaders’ heavy burden </li></ul><ul><li>- the ‘greater good’ </li></ul><ul><li>-“dual moral standard” </li></ul><ul><li>- strongly challenged by liberal theorists </li></ul>
  6. 6. (3) Self-help <ul><li>international system </li></ul><ul><li>- no higher authority </li></ul><ul><li>the security dilemma </li></ul><ul><li>- preparations principally defensive or offensive? </li></ul><ul><li>- security-enhancing developments may ‘backfire’ </li></ul>
  7. 7. Three realisms: Classical <ul><li>Thucydides: leaders, states self-serving egotists </li></ul><ul><li>Machiavelli - security of community principal </li></ul><ul><li>-obligations, treaties may be disregarded </li></ul><ul><li>-imperial expansion can be legitimate </li></ul><ul><li>By mid20thC less extreme </li></ul><ul><li>- wise leadership can mitigate anarchy </li></ul><ul><li>- power and self-interest can be self-defeating </li></ul>
  8. 8. Three realisms: Structural <ul><li>International system is struggle for power </li></ul><ul><li>- but not a result of human nature </li></ul><ul><li>lack of overarching authority </li></ul><ul><li>relative distribution of power (in particular) </li></ul><ul><li>“ because power is a possibly useful means, sensible statesmen [ sic ] try to have an appropriate amount of it” (Waltz in Baylis et al 2008: 98) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Structural vs. Classical <ul><li>balance of power naturally develop? </li></ul><ul><li>Waltz: individual gains vs. common good </li></ul>
  10. 10. Three realisms: Contemporary <ul><li>domestic and individual factors </li></ul><ul><li>neo-classical realists place “domestic politics as an intervening variable between the distribution of power and foreign policy behaviour” (Walt in Baylis et al 2008: 99) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Criticisms of realism <ul><li>What does it mean to say ‘states seek power’? </li></ul><ul><li>Is power a means or an end in itself? </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to calculate </li></ul><ul><li>Is state power the only power? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Criticisms of realism <ul><li>new developments? </li></ul><ul><li>globalisation </li></ul><ul><li>response often called structural realism or neo-realism </li></ul><ul><li>- internal wars happen for similar reasons to interstate wars </li></ul>

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