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Unit 4. The Environment
The sources of pollution in the pictures.
The composition of smoke depends on what is being burned, but it always contains a percentage of pollutants such as carbon dioxide (C02), nitrogen
oxides and sulphur oxides.
Toxic waste is waste material, often in chemical form. Toxic waste can pollute the natural environment and contaminate groundwater.
A landfill (also known as a dump) is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial. Landfills cause contamination of groundwater as well as soil
An oil spill is the release of oil into the ocean or coastal areas; it can be both intentional and unintentional.
Exhaust fumes contain toxic substances such as carbon dioxide (C02), hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and partly unburnt fuel.
Litter consists of any personal property (food wrappers, empty bottles, paper, etc.) that has been scattered and / or left in a public place (usually
1. smoke: air pollution
2. toxic waste: land and water pollution
3. landfill: land and water pollution
4. oil spill: water pollution
5. exhaust fumes: air pollution
6. litter: land and water pollution
1. smoke, toxic waste, landfill, oil spill
2. toxic waste, litter, landfill
3. smoke, exhaust fumes
4. toxic waste, smoke, exhaust fumes
1. e 3. b 5. b 7. a
2. c 4. a 6. b 8. b
Sentences asking for directions: 1, 3, 4, 6
Sentences giving directions: 2, 5, 7, 8
Can you tell me where the nearest bus stop is?
Go straight down this street and turn right at the corner.
The bus stop is about 100 metres from here.
gimmick: an unusual action or idea designed to get attention
The word gimmick comes after a, so it is a noun. We can guess from the context that it is a kind of idea or trick used to sell something.
compulsory: obligatory; required by law or an authority
The word compulsory has the adjective suffix -y. We can guess that if the ship is environmentally friendly, then people will have to recycle.
seeds: the small hard part of a plant from which a new plant grows
The word seeds comes after the quantifier a few, so it is a plural noun. We understand from the context that seeds are what a tree grows from.
plastering: applying plaster (mixture of lime, sand and water) to the walls and ceilings of a building The word plastering is part of the future
verb form will be packing ... and plastering. We can guess that it is a kind of work that is done to walls in order to prevent rain from getting in.
1. McDonald's plans to turn its used cooking oil into biodiesel (lines 5-6). In addition, they are going to buy soya products only from companies that do
not damage the rainforests (lines 11-12).
2. Biodiesel creates fewer greenhouse gases, so it's less harmful to the environment (lines 7-9).
3. There is a need for alternative places to live because of overcrowding (lines 16-17).
4. The Freedom Ship is similar to a city because it will have schools, shops, banks, restaurants, a hospital and a library (line 25).
5. The Fab Tree Hab is unusual because it is not made of regular building materials. Instead, it is planted and grown rather than constructed (lines 31-
6. Water will be recycled using rainwater collected on the roof of the Fab Tree Hab (lines 38-40).
1. Fast Food Cleans Up
2. The Freedom Ship: A Floating City
3. Fast Food Cleans Up
Constantly is the only adverb of time on line 2, and it is a synonym for all the time.
The nouns on line 14 are attitude and customers. The way you think and feel about something is a definition of the word attitude.
The nouns on line Ware experts, overcrowding and inhabitants. Inhabitants are the people that live in a place, in other words, the population.
In progress is an adjectival phrase meaning happening now or underway (line 20).
The nouns on line 33 are tree and mixture. Mixture is a synonym for combination
Future Simple / be going to
1. I'll study environmental science (Future Simple). You won't be sorry (Future Simple).
Are you going to stop littering first? (be going to)
2. 1. Are you going to stop littering first?
2. You won't be sorry.
3. I'll study environmental science.
1. I'll answer it (decision at the time of speaking).
2. Mr Smith is going to be in London next week (future plans).
3. The train is going to leave in a few minutes (prediction when something is obvious).
4. It is going to rain today (prediction when something is obvious).
5. It will be fun (prediction)
1. are ... doing
2. isn't coming
3. will ... get
4. 'II get
5. am travelling
6. Are ... going to stay / Are you staying
1. will be installing (Future Continuous)
will have increased (Future Perfect Simple)
1. will have increased (Future Perfect Simple)
2. will be installing (Future Continuous)
1. will be visiting
2. will have arrived
3. will have got
4. will be living
5. will have finished
1. will be working
2. will have finished
3. will be arriving
4. will have changed
5. won't be watching
6. will have lived
1. will have produced
2. will save
3. will... begin
4. are going to start
5. will cost
6. will be making
VOCABULARY The Environment
1. False. The use of alternative energy will protect the environment.
3. False. It is important to protect the environment.
6. False. People save water when they have a shower instead of a bath.
8. False. It is possible to recycle plastic bottles.
3. ecological disaster
1. air pollution
2. global warming
WRITING A Description of a Place
In the body of the description (paragraphs 2 and 3).
Paragraph 1 exciting cities
amazing variety of entertainment
tiring but fun day
noisy fast-food place
Paragraph 3 large pond blue lakes
in the park's wide, open spaces
Paragraph 4 big city
New York is polluted dangerous levels
New York is fantastic
Make sure students understand the meaning of all of these descriptive adjectives.
1. crowded / narrow - well-known / local
3. ancient / well-known - fascinating / amazing
4. trendy / amazing
5. relaxing / fascinating - beautiful / sandy
6. luxurious / amazing / remarkable
fascinating scenery local parks
2. travel agent
8. scored a goal
2. keep fit
7. environmentally friendly
9. global warming
1. will be watching
2. will help
3. Have you seen
4. will have finished
5. are leaving
6. had lost
7. am going to live
1. When did you buy this car?
2. Beverly has lived in Liverpool for six years.
3. We are flying to Italy next summer.
4. Paul has had his driving licence since April.
5. Clara is going to study medicine next year.
6. We will be playing volleyball tomorrow at 5:30.
7. Andrew spent all his money in the trip trip. / Andrew had spent all his money by the end of the trip.
8. They will have written all the invitations by the time they go to bed. / They had written all the invitations by the time they went to bed.
1 Match A to B to form words and phrases.
1. tin 2 a. fumes
2. exhaust 5 b. spills
3. nodear 4 c. warming
4. global 1 d. cans
5. oil 3 e. power
2 Answer the questions with expressions in Exercise 1
1. causes an increase in the temperature of the Earth? global warming
2. decomposes slowly? tin cans
3. is a form of energy? nuclear power
4. causes air pollution? exhaust fumes
5. kills fish? oil spills
3 Complete the sentences with the words and expressions below
plastic • source • cut down • environmentally friendly • landfill • Earth • smoke • recycle
1. People cut down trees to make paper products.
2. It takes a long time for plastic products to decompose.
3. Smoke affects the aire we breathe.
4. It's important to recycle as much rubbish as you can.
5. The Earth is getting warmer.
6. I try to buy products that are environmentally friendly
7. The sun is one source of power.
8. For many years, rubbish has been buried in this landfill.
Words from the Text
complete • criticise • search • issue • work out • predict
1. Don't be negative to me all the time. It makes me feel bad. criticise
2. I hope to finish the project by tomorrow and then we can meet. complete
3. Fortunately, we were able to solve the problem. workout
4. Can you help me look for my dog? search
5. It's hard to guess what he will do. predict
6. The topic of global warming is very worrying. issue
1. Choose the correct answer
1. I think our team will win the game this week.
2. I'll invite her but I'm sure she won't come.
3. Careful! You are going to fall.
4. You can't have the car because I am using it tonight.
5. Don't worry. I will help you.
2 Complete the sentences with the verbs below. Use the Future Simple or be going to
rain • meet • try • show
1. I will show you.
2. I will try it.
3. I am going to meet…
4. It is going to rain…
3 Tick the answers in Exercise 2 that can also be written in the Present Continuous.
4 Choose the correct answer.
1. Be sure to arrive before 10.00, or we (a) will have gone out
2. We … a film in an hour so come and join us. (b) will be watching
3. They ... to music tonight so it will be quiet at home. (b) won't be listening
4. By the time she returns home, she ... to five countries. (a) will have travelled
5. I'm so excited. At this time tomorrow. I... in the ocean. (b) will be swimming
5 Complete the sentences with the verbs in brackets. Use the Future Perfect Simple or Future Continuous.
1. Hopefully by the end of the week, we will have got (get) our results.
2. Ten years from now, people will be using (use) fewer plastic products.
3. By this time next week, will you have completed (complete) your project on the environment?
4. On Saturday, my friends and I will be spending (spend) the day at the beach.
5. You can call me in another two hours. I won't be sleeping (not sleep).
6 Complete the passage with the correct future form of the verbs in brackets
NOT ENOUGH WATER
People are using the Earth's water too carelessly, and scientists fear that in the near future, the water problem (1) will become (become) a catastrophe.
Experts predict that by the year 2025, people (2) will have used (use) much of the Earth's fresh water, so that 65% of the world's population (3) won't
have (not have) enough water to dnnk. In the next few years, scientists (4) will be working (work) on a plan to try to save the situation. They (5) are
going t0 try (try) to find new ways of turning sea water into fresh water or of reusing water for agriculture. Hopefully, they (6) will find (find) a way t0
help solve the problem. Meanwhile, however, we must all learn to use less water.
7 Answer the questions using the future tenses. Make the answers true for you
8 Correct the errors.
1. What do you do next weekend? What are you doing next weekend?
2. The phone is ringing. I answer it. The phone is ringing. i'll answer it.
3. Don't phone Tim tomorrow evening. He will is studying. Don't phone Tim tomorrow evening. He will be studying.
4. Will have they destroyed the rainforests by the year 2020? Will they have destroyed the rainforests by the year 2020?
5. By this time next year, we will haven't finished secondary education. By this time next year, we won't have finished secondary education.
9 Translate the sentences into your own language.
1. El gobierno prevé que los parques eólicos ayudarán a combatir el calentamiento global.
2. Vamos a visitar una planta de reciclaje la semana próxima.
3. EI gobierno se va a tomar en serio las cuestiones medioambiontales
4. Para el año 2015, el humo habrá dañado la mayoría de Ios edificios de esta ciudad.
5. Dentro de diez años, estaremos produciendo biodiésel a partir del aoceite para cocinar.
1 Read the following words and expressions. Which have got a positive (P) meaning and which have got a negative (N)
N 1. deforestation P 6. recycle
N 2. harm N 7. pollutants
p 3. save P 8. care about
N 4. ecological disaster P 9. protect
P 5. conservation N 10. rubbish
2 Complete the sentences with the words below
protect • decompose • care about • increase • landfills • recycle • pollution • harm
Many millions of people drive cars, and the numbers continue to (1) increase all the time. Cars certainly make our lives easier but there's an
environmental price to pay.
in addition to the fact that cars cause air (2) pollution , there are other ways that they (3) harm the environment. Think of all those millions of old tyres
that are discarded around the world. Every year, large areas are needed to provide (4) landfills for the tyres, and then, it takes decades for the tyres to
(5) decompose .This is causing a serious environmental problem. Groups and organisations that (6) care about the environment and want to
(7) protect it are now sending used tyres to special companies that (8) recycle them For instance, Dayton Crumb in the United States freezes old tyres
and uses the crumbs to make flooring for playgrounds. So the next time you need to discard an old tyre, try to find a way that is good for the
3 Choose the correct answer to show you have understood the meaning of the prefixes in italics
1. People who overeat eat too much.
2. Anti-government groups oppose the government.
3. If you reuse a paper bag, you've used it before.
4. In interschool contests, students compete against students from other schools.
5. A sweater in several colours is multicoloured.
6. An understaffed school hasn't got enough teachers.
4 Complete the words in the sentences with the prefixes below
re • anti • under • multi • over • inter
1. To protect my computer, I installed an antivirus program.
2. Boys of John's age are usually much taller; he's undersized.
3. This composition is full of mistakes; please rewrite it.
4. I need a long holiday. I'm overworked.
5. We took the Intercity train from London to Manchester.
6. People of many races live in London. It's a huge, multicultural city.
1 Choose the correct connector of sequence.
1. I've decided to have a party. First of all, I need to make a list of people to invite.
2. Jane decided not to go to coliege.Late, she regretted that decision.
3. My parents bought this house before I was born.
4. At first it was difficult to train every day but I got used to it.
2 Number the sentences to show the order in which the events happened. Pay attention to the connectors of sequence
c. At the age of ten, my brother Greg used to play table tennis at school for fun.
g. While he was playing one day, the sports teacher noticed he had talent
f. With his teacher's encouragement, he began to play for the local area team.
a. Eventually, he became the under–16 champion.
d. Later, at university, Greg was chosen to play for the national team.
b. However, it was difficult for him to train and study at university, too.
e. In the end. he decided to just focus on his studies and not to play table tennis.
1 Choose one of the following ideas
(2) Encouraging British children to take part in sport.
3 Decide if the sentences are true IT) or false IF). Find evidence in the text to justify your answers
1. Taking part in sport is very popular in Britain.
FALSE "... taking part in sport is much less popular."
2. The new campaign only deals with improving physical education in schools.
FALSE... aims to target older teenagers who are no longer at school.
3. Schools will offer students five hours of physical education.
TRUE ... two hours ... three hours ot sport on top of this."
4. The government is satisfied with the way physical education is currently taught in schools.
FALSE...hopes to change the way physical education is taught in schools."
4 Write words from the text that have got the same sound as:
day /ew/: campaign, aims, teenagers
5. Answer the questions
1. Why are golf, cycling and archery mentioned in the passage?
Because these are new sports the government wants to introduce in schools to make sport more popular with voting people.
2. What is the writer's opinion of the new campaign?
He is sceptical.
6 Find words or expressions in the text that mean the opposite of:
1. participating (paragraph 1) taking part in
2. at this time (paragraph 2) currently
3. financial support (paragraph 2) funding
4.connection ( paragraph 3) link
5.relate to ( paragraph 4) address
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1 Complete the sentences with the words and phrases below.
win • trained • disciplined • runner-up • beat • draw • take up • talented • determined • competitive sports
1. A: Do you think the other team can beat us? B: Nol We're determined to be the winners this year
2. A: Kevin is so talented at running. Did he win the race? B: No, but he was the runner-up.
3. A: Why don't you take up swimming? B: I'm afraid I'm not disciplined enough to go to the pool regularly.
4. A: The team trained every day the week before the match. I hope they won! B: Actually, no one won. It was a draw.
A: Why do you like participating in competitive sports? B: Because I like sports in which the objective is to win.
2 Replace the words in bold with expressions below that have got a similar meaning. Make any necessary changes
score a goal • break a record • keep fit • 3 challenge competitive • enter 3 competition • dedicated to •. caravan
1. Did he get the bail in the net? score a goal
2. Preparing for the Olympics is quite difficult a challenge
3. I've always been a person who likes to win. competilive
4. That hockey player scored the most goals in history. broke a record
5. Helen has decided to participate in a race. enter a competition
6. Nigel is a player who spends a lot of time at his sport. dedicated to
7. What's a good way to stay healthy? keep fit
3 Choose the correct answer
1. Have you ever watched a car race before?
2. You can take this DVD. I saw it last night
3. I don't know anyone in this town because I've just moved here.
4. We tried to call him yesterday.
5. Ellen and I have known each other since 2004.
6. My friends haven't learnt to drive.
4 Complete the passage with the verbs in brackets. Use the Past Simple or Present Perfect Simple.
THE HOMELESS WORLD CUP
The Homeless World Cup is an annual world football competition for homeless people that (1) began in 2001. The people who started it (2) decided to
organise homeless people all over the world into football teams and train them. They (3) believed that sport would have a positive effect on homeless
people - and they were right. Thousands of players (4) have participated since the HomelessWorld Cup started, and more than 90% say that it has improved
their lives. Many players (t) have found jobs since joining, and a large number (7) have stopped using drugs and alcohol. The competition, winch Is held every
year in one of the world's large cities, (8) has become very popular. When it was held in 2005, 60,000 people (9) attended, and this number (10) grew to
100,000 in 2006
5 Choose the correct connector
1. First, we did warm-up exercises.(b) Next, we learned some new dance steps.
2. (b) At first, I felt quite uncomfortable, but I soon made friends.
3. I practised for hours.(a) Eventually, I learned the new dance perfectly.
4. Our dog was missing for days but we (c) finally found her.
s. The teacher left. (c) Then, everyone went home