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Design-oriented Pedagogy: A New Framework for Making Learning Whole

To be presented in Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 11.12.2015

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Design-oriented Pedagogy: A New Framework for Making Learning Whole

  1. 1. Design-oriented Pedagogy: A New Framework for Making Learning Whole Jorma Enkenberg Professor emeritus University of Eastern Finland jeeberg@gmail.com @jormaenkenberg 11.12.15    in  Ho  Chi  Minh,  Vietnam   1  
  2. 2. Contents of my presentation 1.  What our children should know and be able to do? –  Perspectives on education and learning –  Skills to be learned 2.  How to educate children for the constantly changing world? –  New Finnish National Core Curriculum (FNCC) –  Rising of participatory culture and participatory learning –  Design-oriented pedagogy (DOP) as an example of participatory pedagogies 3. From participatory learning to participatory learning culture –  Development of school culture in FNCC –  Participatory learning culture and DOP 9.12.15   in  Ho  Chi  Minh   2  
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  4. 4. This follows some basic questions What our children should know and be able to do in the future societies (for making the world better )? How to educate children for constantly changing world? How to enhance schools to change when needed, take risks, and develop teaching toward the future challenges (and for the better world)? 9.12.15   in  Ho  Chi  Minh   4  
  5. 5. 1. What should our children know and be able to do? 9.12.15   in  Ho  Chi  Minh   5  
  6. 6. “Creativity and imagination are the key elements of 21 st century learning.” (Thomas&Brown 2011) “Education is a self-organization system where learning is an emerging phenomena.” (Sugata Mitra 2013) “The school that cannot enhance genuine will and need to learn cannot produce the kind of learning, that is needed in the future society. “ ( Pasi Sahlberg 2010) 9.12.15   in  Ho  Chi  Minh   6  
  7. 7. ”Constantly changing world demands that we should be able to reniew continuously our cultural practices and enhance in our children the skills, that make it possible.” (J. Enkenberg) ”The emerging challenges are not possible to face and the problems to solve without systemic thinking and understanding of the relationships of the parts of the whole.” (Thomas and Brown, 2011) 9.12.15   in  Ho  Chi  Minh   7  
  8. 8. The skills that learning activities should be able to mediate? (21 st. Century Skills/ATC21S) 9.12.15   in  Ho  Chi  Minh   8  
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  10. 10. 2. How to educate children for constantly changing world? •  What is the relevant conception of learning the learning community (e.g. the school) shares? •  What kind of citizens we expect the schools should be able to produce? •  How can the educational organization take into account the changes that happens increasingly in their surrounding world? 9.12.15   in  Ho  Chi  Minh   10  
  11. 11. Finnish National Core Curriculum (FNCC) Conception of learning •  The pupils are active actors and learn to set goals and to solve problems both independently and together with others. •  Learning is an inseparable part of an individual's growth as a human being and the building of a decent life for the community. •  Language, physical elements and the use of different senses are essential for thinking and learning. •  While acquiring new knowledge and skills, the pupils learn to reflect on their learning, experiences and emotions. •  Positive emotional experiences, the joy of learning and creative activities promote learning and inspire the pupils to develop their competence. 9.12.15   in  Ho  Chi  Minh   11  
  12. 12. •  Thinking and learning to learn •  Cultural competence, interaction and self-expression •  Taking care of oneself and others, managing daily life •  Multiliteracy •  Competence in information and communication technology •  Working life competence and entrepreneurship •  Participation, involvement and building a sustainable future 9.12.15   in  Ho  Chi  Minh   12   21st century skills in FNCC (called as transversal competencies)  
  13. 13. Multidisciplinary learning (FNCC) Multidisciplinary learning modules (MLs) are study periods of integrative instruction crossing over the borders of different school subjects (and domain fields). The learning modules express the principles that guide the development of the operating culture of basic education and support the development of interdisciplinary competencies. 9.12.15   in  Ho  Chi  Minh   13  
  14. 14. Design-oriented pedagogy •  The first implementation of Design-oriented pedagogy was called Case Forest pedagogy (2005-2008) •  Since that the pedagogy has been dissseminated successfully to seven European countries for use in project-based learning (Comenius project; 2009-2010) •  Its current form has been tested and validated in tens of schools in Finland from pre-primary education to university (especially to teacher education) •  Just now we have over 100 teachers from the City of Lappenranta in in-service training course. The goal is to take DOP into use in multidisciplinary learning modules of the schools 9.12.15   in  Ho  Chi  Minh   14  
  15. 15. •  Most of the child will learn is a consequence of continuous breathing-like activity – participation in daily activities. •  Learning is depending about what interests him/her, what kind of aims he/she has adopted, and what kind of resources he/she has in attaining the aims. •  Our children are in themselves programmed to learning. They learn mostly by doing and making and from the failures. 9.12.15   in  Ho  Chi  Minh   15   How children learn (interpretation built in DOP)
  16. 16. •  Knowledge: An experience that is acquired through interaction with the world, people, and things. (cf. Jean Piaget) •  Learning: A self-directing and iterative process by which learners invent for themselves the tools and mediations that best support the exploration of what they most care about. (cf. Edith Ackermann about Papert’s constructionism) 9.12.15   in  Ho  Chi  Minh   16  
  17. 17. Rising of participatory culture (enabled by social media) Jenkins, Henry; with Clinton, Katie; Purushotma, Ravi; Robison, Alice J.; & Weigel, Margaret. (2006). Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: Media education for the 21st century. MacArthur Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.macfound.org/media/article_pdfs/JENKINS_WHITE_PAPER.PDF 9.12.15   in  Ho  Chi  Minh   17   h:ps://sites.google.com/site/odu307fall2012/ resource-­‐arGcle/jenkins    
  18. 18. Participatory learning (Davidsson& Goldberg 2009) •  Self-learning (eg. in knowledge seeking) •  Horizontal organizational structure (cf. knowledge creative organizations or enterprises) •  Shared ownership and responsibility (cf. distributed expertise) •  Distributed pedagogy (cf. school, organized activity outside school and hobbies) •  Participation (cf. networks and communities) •  Technology (cf. social media as a powerful tool for communication) 9.12.15   in  Ho  Chi  Minh   18  
  19. 19. Design-oriented pedagogy as an example of participatory learning culture Object of the learning –  Complex problem to what the students aim to find solution by making inquiries –  Phenomena in nature or culture environment to what the students aim to construct explanation (theory) by making inquiries –  Existing cultural practice, which the students try to improve (renew) by making inquiries 9.12.15   in  Ho  Chi  Minh   19  
  20. 20. 9.12.15   in  Ho  Chi  Minh   20   Learning   theore,cal   framework  
  21. 21. The learning ecosystem in DOP The Learning Task 9.12.15   in  Ho  Chi  Minh   21  
  22. 22. Principles for instructional design in DOP –  Addicting and orienting learners by driven questions and whole tasks –  Anchoring the learning process on learners’ ideas, thoughts, conceptions and interpretations about the research questions to be investigated –  Working with objects that represent the phenomenon and applying physical and cognitive tools –  Developing knowledge by collaborative designing –  Using learners’ possessed technologies in collecting empirical data –  Placing emphasis on affording learning resources, guiding and supporting the learning process –  Putting a special emphasis on the students’ self- organization 9.12.15   in  Ho  Chi  Minh   22  
  23. 23. Topical Whole tasks/Phenomena: Poverty, hunger, healthy, learning, equality, clean water, energy, work, industrial production, living, traffic, environment, seas, forests, peace, justice, development and climate change e.g. What questions comes into your mind about e.g. Energy (-> identifying the phenomenon) ? The questions expressed by the students are the starting points for DOP-projects (-> lead to the learning tasks and later to the research questions). 9.12.15   in  Ho  Chi  Minh   23  
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  25. 25. Indentifying a phenomenon in its context = becoming familiar with the context of the chosen phenomenon (by reading a story in internet/newspaper, visiting a nature environment or museum etc.) Navigating = gives answer to the question where we are Taking action= gives answer to the question where to go Designing= iterative thinking, prototyping, concretisizing and materialization of ideas 9.12.15   in  Ho  Chi  Minh   25  
  26. 26. Assessment in DOP Object of assessment Form of assessment Engagement in learning Individual students Self-assessment Learning process (formative assessment) Small group (students) Observation (by the teachers) Self-assessment (by the small group) Knowledge and skills Digital story (produced by the small group of students) Document analysis (by the teachers) and peer-assessment (by other small groups) 9.12.15   in  Ho  Chi  Minh   26  
  27. 27. Experiences about ongoing in-service training course in Lappeenranta, Finland this Fall •  4 workshops once a month •  Between the workshops from 2 to 6 teachers’ groups worked with their students to the next phase •  Teachers were asked to make observations about how their students experience the new kind of projects and what they did in trying to solve complex problem •  At the end of the course the teachers were asked to make abstracted replays in their groups to find aswers to the three questions: –  Which kind (and how often) of thinking skills-related activities emerged in the students’ projects? –  What kind (and how often) making-related activities emerged ? –  How (and how often) did the students try to improve their activities? •  Inquired phenomena were: nutrition, theatre, Cityfox, forest, bugs, games, paper mill, lake of Saimaa (nearby) from several perspectives, stone, Saimaa channel, refugee, Finnishness 9.12.15   in  Ho  Chi  Minh   27  
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  29. 29. 9.12.15   in  Ho  Chi  Minh   29   3. From participative learning to participative learning culture
  30. 30. •  A learning community at the heart of the school culture •  Well-being and safety in daily life •  Interaction and versatile working approach •  Cultural diversity and language awareness •  Participation and democratic action •  Equity and equality •  Environmental responsibility and sustainable future orientation 9.12.15   in  Ho  Chi  Minh   30   Principles that guide the development of the school culture in FNCC  
  31. 31. 9.12.15   in  Ho  Chi  Minh   31   Learning community (definition adopted in DOP) Learning communities consist of the students and students’ peers; fellow educators in the schools, libraries, museums and afterschool programs; professional experts in various disciplines around the world; members of community organizations that serve students in the hours they are not in school; and parents who desire greater participation in their children’s education. (Connected teaching: National Technology Plan 2010)
  32. 32. 9.12.15   in  Ho  Chi  Minh   32   Principles of participatory learning community (that DOP is based on) 1)  Is open to the phenomenon of our world, discusses about them, aims to understand them and to search explanations and solutions to them 2)  Accepts that learning and development are consequences of interactions with the physical objects, people and the world as well as feedbacks from experiments 3)  Places emphasis on self-organization in developing its function 4)  Aims continuously to develop and improve its function 5)  Examines the phenomenon from systemic perspective (wholeness, parts and relationships) 6)  Creates, modifies and builds learning spaces and environments for answering to the diverse needs and interest of the students
  33. 33. Literature   •  Banks, J. Au, K. Ball, P. Gordon, E. Gutierrez, K. Heath, S. Lee, C. Lee, Y. Mahiri, J. Nasir, N. Valdes, G. Zhou, M. (2007). Learning in and out of school in diverse environments. Life - long, Life -wide , Life -deep. The LIFECenter (The Learning in Informal and Formal Environments Center), Universityof Washington, StanfordUniversity, and SRI International. •  Bereiter, C. & Scardamalia, M. (2003). Learning to work creatively with knowledge. In E.DeCorte, L. Verschaffel, N. Enstwistle & J van Merrienboer (eds.) Powerful learning environments: Unravelling basic components and dimensions. Oxford: Elsevier Science. •  Brown, J.S., Adler, R. (2008). Minds on Fire. EDUCAUSE Review. January •  Fischer, G. (2008). Transdisciplinary education and collaboration. Education in HCI in Education. Conbstribution to HCIC-2008. •  Schank, R. (2011). Teaching minds. How cognitive science can save our schools. NY: Teachers College Press. •  Tharp, R. G. & Gallimore, R. (1989). Rousing minds to life: Teaching and learning in social context. New York: Cambridge University Press. •  Thomas, D.&Brown, J.S. (2011). A New Culture of Learning: Cultivating the Imagination for a World of Constant Change •  Weigel, M., James, C. Ja Gardner, H. (2009). Learning: Peering Backward and Looking Forward in the Digital Era. Internal Journal of Learning and Media. Vol. 1 (1), 1-17 9.12.15   in  Ho  Chi  Minh   33  
  34. 34. •  H. Vartiainen, S. Pöllänen,, A. Liljeström P. Vanninen, & J. Enkenberg (in press) Designing connected learning: Emerging learning systems in a craft teacher education course. Design and Technology Education: An International Journal, February 2016 •  A. Liljeström, J. Enkenberg, S. Pöllänen (2014) The case of design-oriented pedagogy: What students’ digital video stories say about emerging learning ecosystems. Education and Information Technologies 19 (3), 583-601 •  H Vartiainen, J Enkenberg Participant-Led Photography as a Mediating Tool in Object-Oriented Learning in a Museum. Visitor Studies 17 (1), 66-88 •  H Vartiainen, J Enkenberg (2013) Learning from and with museum objects: design perspectives, environment, and emerging learning systems. Educational Technology Research and Development 61 (5), 841-862 •  H Vartiainen, J Enkenberg (2013) Reflections of design-oriented pedagogy for sustainable learning: An international perspective. Journal of Teacher Education for Sustainability 15 (1), 57-72 •  A Liljeström, J Enkenberg, S Pöllänen (2013) Making learning whole: an instructional approach for mediating the practices of authentic science inquiries. Cultural Studies of Science Education 8 (1), 51-86 •  H Vartiainen, A Liljeström, J Enkenberg (2012) Design-Oriented Pedagogy for Technology-Enhanced Learning to Cross Over the Borders between Formal and Informal Environments. Journal of Universal Computer Science 18 (15), 2097-2120 •  Vartiainen, H. (2014). Principles of Design-Oriented Pedagogy for Learning from and with Museum Objects. Publications of the University of Eastern Finland. Dissertations in Education, Humanities, and Theology, no. 60. University of Eastern Finland, 2014. Recent publications about DOP 9.12.15   in  Ho  Chi  Minh   34