2. Design Thinking- is a discipline that uses the designer’s sensibility and methods to match
people’s needs with what is technologically feasible and what a viable business strategy can
convert into customer value and market opportunity.
- is a combination of desirability, feasibility and viability (Tim Brown)
-is a constant process of trying to find innovative solutions to problems through deep
understanding and empathy of the target user.
IDEO – IS A CONSULTING COMPANY FOUNDED IN California in 1991 that uses the design
thinking approach to design products, services, environments, and digital experiences.
Principles of Design Thinking
1. Human-centricity and empathy- this is about providing solutions to problems that
focuses on human needs and user response. In reality, the drivers in innovations are people
and not merely technology .Hence, the process should really contain a step that considers
the shoes of users and relate them with genuine empathy.
3. • 2. Collaboration – The purpose of design thinking is to form a pond of
perspectives and ideas. These ideas shall be used in innovation. Design
thinking works well with diverse composition of teams who would cooperate
with each other.
• 3. Ideation-Is a core design thinking principle at the same time a step in the
design thinking process. The focus of design thinking is to come up with as
many ideas and potential solutions as possible. As a step, participants are
encouraged to produce many ideas without first considering the quality.
• 4. Experimentation and Iteration- Ideas are turned into prototypes. Said
prototypes are tested and feedback from users are taken. Design thinking is
a continuous and repetitive process to discover mistakes and defects of the
initial versions until getting the preferred form of the proposed solution.
• 5. A bias towards Action –design thinking is an applied and practical
solution-based method that is rather more focus on action than on
discussion. This method favors a face-to-face engagement through ‘going out
in the field”. Instead of discussing on the possible solutions are turned into
5. 5 Phases of Design Thinking
I. Empathize : Research about User’s Needs
- the first step in the design thinking process allows to obtain
understanding of the people who experience a problem before
designing a solution to serve them.
Key Empathy –Building Methods
1. Empathy interviews- The objective of the interview is to find out as
much insight as possible using an open conversation. The most
effective way of an interview is constantly asking “why?” even if the
answer has already been given. Storytelling is encouraged here and
also be attentive to nonverbal cues.
6. • 2. Immersion and Observation- Users should be observed in their natural
environment or immersed in a certain situation while they are in action.
Photographing or videoing could be done in observation to identify user’s
needs, motivations, or challenges that they are not conscious of and which
they could not express. Users could be observed here as they act naturally.
• 3. Extreme Users- Usually the extreme users are the ones sought to re-
structure the problem and discover fresh insights. The reason is that the
needs of extreme users are usually intensified that could help solve the
problem. Compared to average users, they find work arounds to existing
• 4. Ask what, how, and why in curiosity- the what, how, and why of user’s
behavior must always be considered. This line of questioning can lead the
observation into more abstract user motivations. The “what” question shall
give details of what action has taken place. The “how” question considers
the manner of completion of the action that happened in the “what”. With
the “why’, educated guesses could be formed about the user’s motivations
and emotions as he completes the action.
7. • Empathy map- a method that can be used to record efficiently the
information from the interview.
• 4 components of empathy map
• 1. Say- this quadrant covers what the users says loudly in an interview or
some other usability study.Ideally, it contains precise and direct quotes
• 2. Think – this quadrant captures what the user is thinking throughout the
experience. Here, there should be special attention paid to what users
think, but may not be eager to articulate. Often, they are hesitant to share
their thoughts because they are uncertain, uncomfortable, well-mannered,
or scare to tell others something.
• 3. Do – this quadrant encompasses the actions the user undergoes.This
could be what the user physically does and how the user goes about doing
• 4. Feel- this quadrant contains user’s emotional state such as his
worries,excitement about a certain experience.
8. II. Define: State User’s Needs and Problems
• - the first step towards defining a problem is to find who the user is, what is his
needs and the develop insights from the answers.
Guidelines in Generating the question under the Design Thinking Process:
1. Strengthen the good- in design thinking, all the positive aspects of the
customers’ needs are intensified.
2. Eliminate the bad – With design thinking, all the bad components witnessed
in the problem are taken out.
3. Search the opposite- Using design thinking, the problem needs to be
transformed into opportunity.
4. Enquiry of the Assumptions- This step in design thinking consists of
enquiring about the assumption at hand.
5. Pinpoint the Unanticipated Resources- having design thinking, some other
resources not stated by the customer can be sought on how they can be
9. • 6. Form an Analogy – design thinking also includes the manner of
creating relationships between the problem at hand and unconnected
• 7. Breakdown the Problem into Pieces – this is where again analysis
comes into picture for a short while before the problem definition
can be synthesized. The points discussed from ‘empathize’ section
can be broken down into elementary fragments to make the work
• IDEATE: Challenge Assumptions and Construct Ideas
In this stage, designers are prepared to start generating ideas. The
Concrete background of knowledge from the first two stages means
anyone can begin to “think outside the box”
10. III. IDEATION TECHNIQUES
• 1. Brainstorm- this is a more relaxed and informal way of solving a problem
using imaginative thinking.Oftentimes, these thoughts and ideas seem a bit
crazy.These ideas are original and creative solutions to a problem.Some of
these ideas may even trigger more ideas. Brainstorming gets people
released their ideas by shaking their heads without the usual way of
• 2. Brainwrite- this is serial process of asking participants to write down the
ideas about a specific question or problem on sheets of paper. Each
participant passes his ideas on to someone else, who reads the ideas and
adds new ideas.The process repeats that would last from 10 to 15 minutes.
Once the sheets and collected, they are posted for discussion.
• 3. Worst Possible Idea- this is a technique where members of the team look
for the worst solutions in ideation periods.This is a reverse way of examining
their ideas, contest assumptions and obtain insights in discovering great
ideas.In this way it would strengthens creativity and boosts the confidence
of team members.
11. • 4.SCAMPER – method is a concept that aims to look for solutions to
problems.The scamper technique is more engrossed on the process of
discovering unfamiliar and innovative solutions to problems. The goal of
also is improving a product or service
• A.Substitute – a designer may look for something to replace that will
result in improvements of concept,product,service or process.Possibly,
this could be a triar and error process to test which among the
alternative works better or could be rest.
• B. Combine – sometimes, the solutions are already at hand and not
really something new. An idea might not work alone, but a combination
of some ideas, processes or products could work best.
• C. Adapt – Often, there is already the right solution to a problem,
butstill unknown yet.Sometimes, an idea could solve one or more
12. • D. Modify- At times, exaggerating a situation or problem could offer a
new insight or added value.This could help isolate which among the
part of process or concept is vital.
• E. Put to another use- this is making the idea or concept works into a
different used compared to what is originally planned.
• F. Eliminate- In the same process like the Lean Six Sigma, this
concerns eliminating waste due to inefficient processes. Removing
ineffective procedures could reform them.
• G. Reverse- this is doing things that are completely against the
original purpose in order to see something from a different angle.
IV. Prototype: Start to Form Solutions
Prototype – is a low-cost, scaled-down quick working sample of
entrepreneurial ideas for new products or particular features found in
13. • Benefits of Prototyping
• 1. Timely feedback –collecting feedback is an important feature of the product
building process. Reviews at every step of the product development such as
adding new feature or designing parts of the product can be collected using
prototyping. Feedback could reveal what works for the market or what could not.
• 2.Prompt changes save time and cost-changes could be in the form of drasting
restructuring, assumption and revision.Essentiallly, having an initial model
prepared makes possible the preferred changes promptly.This way early changes
may reach the designer’s goals earlier with less or no investment or effort at all.
• 3.Validation Prior to Development- Before getting into final development, there
would be several discussions in between repetitive changes using
prototyping.Said repetitive process ensures to build easier what in reality is
• 4.User research and user testing- It is vital to identify potential user and gather
ideas to serve them best. This could only be attained using protyping.Actually, the
crucial intention of constructing a prototype is user testing.User testing shall
reveal how the product would become functional and valued by the final
user.Ideas and insights can be gained concerning how actual users would use the
product and make improvements of the pain points.
14. • TYPES OF PROTOTYPING
• 1. Low fidelity- this consists of paper protypes that are used in the
early stages that are constantly improved during the process.This
prototyping makes improvements easy and fast. The focus here is the
system not the outer appearance which makes it more open to
improvements depending on the user feedback.However, as the
product becomes complex, these low fidelity prototypes become
ineffective in keeping up with theses design complexion.
• 2. Medium fidelity- this protype concerns the product that is made
with practical functionalities based on storyboard and user situations.
• 3. High fidelity-this protype are mistaken for the final product,
because they look closely like the would-be actual end product.
15. V. TEST: TRY OUT SOLUTIONS
-The complete product are tested in real life environment using the best solutions
in the previous steps.If the final users are contented with the product then it will
go to reproduction.While if the end users are not happy, then process is reiterated
in addition to integrating the feedback and then reframe the problem.
The Power of Storytelling
• Storytelling- is the core of the structure and functions of every human being to
connect events as a complete experience through time.
• 3 Elements
• 1.Domain/What- This is the definition of the topic that is concern of the story.In
design process,it can be the problem of a consumer that should be resolved.
• 2. Players/Who- This are the people involved in a story. In the design process, the
main player is the persona who represents the demographic information of the
consumer who faces the experiences.
• 3. Story flow/How- There are three main chapters for each story namely the
beginning, the middle and end. In every story there is a problem that could be part
of the middle stage which is the target which is the target in the design process.
Issues may arise that may be found before the main event in the story.
16. Problem Framing- This step comes early in the design process that
deals with exploring the problem exactly the concern that needs a
Solution Framing-In the solution definition and prototyping stages, the
designer need to test and evaluate a number of possible solutions to
obtain based on the standpoint of the user.
Solution Implementation- the consumer feedback about the product
or the service can be collected as basis for improvement.
Observation and Insights- collecting information about the target
consumer is a vital part of the design thinking approach. Knowing what
customers think or feel is the initial step towards making innovative
products and services that they want and need.
17. Observation Techniques
9 Dimensions for Observational Purposes
• 1. Space- the physical lay-out of the place/s
• 2.Actor- the range of people involved
• 3. Activity- a set of related acts people do/or activities that happen
• 4. Object – the physical things that are present
• 5. Act- single actions that people do
• 6. Event – a set of related activities that people carry out
• 7. Time – the sequencing of events that takes place
• 8. Goal – the things people are trying to accomplish
• 9.Feeling- the emotions felt and expressed
18. • 5 Dimensions for Observation
• 1. Activity- this comprises actins and behaviors with specific goals in
mind, and the process executed to accomplish them.
• 2. Environment- It details the overall context and characteristics of the
space where activities are being observed.
• 3. Interaction- It consists of both interpersonal and person-artifact
interactions. Proximity and space may also play a significant role within
• 4.Object- This sets the items within the environment and how they are
used. It essential to note both the fundamental and minor uses of
objects and how people connect them to do their activities.
• 5.User- This includes the people within the environment that are being
observed.The key information comprises their values and biases,
behaviors, needs and relatonships.
- interviewing is an important tool to identify and emphatize with
customer’s needs, form fresh ideas and find out new opportunities
1. Make the interviewee relaxed
2. The interview should be on tie and heading in the right direction
3. Concentrate on the customer and not on documentation
4. Ask open ended questions
5. Listen, refrain from talking
6. Encourage but not influence
7. Follow one feelings and drill down
- is an approach of approving or disproving the soundness of an idea
3 types of experiments
• 1. Trying out new experiences
• 2. Taking apart products, processes and ideas
• 3. Testing ideas through pilots and prototypes