5. Nervous System is the control and
communication system of the body. Its job is to
send and receive messages. Your nervous system
controls all your thoughts and movements.
It is a complex collection of nerves and
specialized cells known as neurons that transmit
signals between different parts of the body. It is
essentially the body’s electrical wiring.
It has two components:
• the Central Nervous System
• the Peripheral Nervous System
7. Dendrites-- Neuron parts that detect the stimulus
Cell body -Neuron part that contains most of the cytoplasm and the nucleus.
Synapse -Space between two neurons or between a neuron and an effector. This is
where neurotransmitters get released.
axon -Neuron part that sends an action potential(nerve impulse) away from the cell
axon endings- Ends of axons that contain vesicles with NTs (neurotransmitter)
myelin sheath- Layer of lipid rich(fatty rich) cells wrapped around the axon to prevent
electrolyte (Na+, K+) loss effector
A muscle or a gland- (respond to stimulus) that receives a message from a motor
Dendrites -short branches of a neuron that receives stimuli and conduct impulses to the
Cell Body -the center of metabolic activity in a neuron, it is where the nucleus and
much of the cytoplasm are located.
Axon -the long fiber that carries impulses away from the cell body
8. Central Nervous is the primary command
center for the body and is comprised of the
brain, spinal cord and nerves.
Peripheral nervous system consists of
sensory neurons, ganglia (clusters of neurons)
and nerves that connect to one another and to
the central nervous system.
10. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
Brain is the command center of your entire body. The brain
is the body's main information center. It is made of billions of
neurons. The brain helps the body respond to the
information it receives from the senses. The brain also
processes thoughts. When you think, neurons in your brain
Has 3 main parts:
Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Brain steam
12. The cerebrum or cortex is the largest part
of the human brain, associated with higher
brain function such as thought and action.
The cerebral cortex is divided into four
sections, called "lobes": the frontal lobe,
parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal
14. • The Cerebellum: The cerebellum, or
"little brain", is similar to the cerebrum
in that it has two hemispheres and has a
highly folded surface or cortex. This
structure is associated with regulation
and coordination of movement,
posture, and balance.
• Limbic System: The limbic system,
often referred to as the "emotional
brain", is found buried within the
cerebrum. Like the cerebellum,
evolutionarily the structure is rather
• This system contains the thalamus,
hypothalamus, amygdala, and
hippocampus. Here is a visual
representation of this system, from a
midsagittal view of the human brain:
15. Brain Stem
Underneath the limbic system is
the brain stem. This structure is
responsible for basic vital life functions
such as breathing, heartbeat, and blood
pressure. Scientists say that this is the
"simplest" part of human brains because
animals' entire brains, such as reptiles
(who appear early on the evolutionary
scale) resemble our brain stem.
The brain stem is made of the midbrain,
pons, and medulla.
17. Lobes of the cerebral cortex
The frontal lobe is the
emotional control center
of the brain responsible
for forming our personality
and influencing out
decisions. The frontal lobe is
located at the front of the
central sulcus where it
signals from other lobes of
18. The parietal lobe processes sensory information for
cognitive purposes and helps coordinate spatial
relations so we can make sense of the world around
us. The parietal lobe resides in the middle section of
the brain behind the central sulcus, above the
The temporal lobe is
located on the bottom of
the brain below the lateral
fissure. This lobe is also
the location of the primary auditory cortex,
which is important for
interpreting the sounds
language we hear.
19. The occipital lobe is
located at the back
portion of the brain
behind the parietal
and temporal lobes.
The occipital lobe is
21. THE SPINAL CORD
• The spinal cord is a tube of neurons that
runs up the spine and attaches to the brain
stem. Information from nerves that branch
out to the rest of the body goes to the
spinal cord. Some messages are processed
by the spinal cord but most information is
sent on to the brain.
22. Structure of the spinal cord
The spinal cord has a core of grey matter containing nerve cell
bodies , dendrites, and supporting cells. Surrounding the grey
matter is white matter containing columns of nerve fibers that carry
signals to and from the brain along the length of the spinal cord.
23. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
There are two types of cells in the peripheral
nervous system. These cells carry
information to (sensory nervous cells) and
from (motor nervous cells) the central
nervous system (CNS).
Cells of the sensory nervous system send
information to the CNS from internal
organs or from external stimuli.
24. Motor nervous system cells carry information
from the CNS to organs, muscles, and glands.
somatic nervous system
autonomic nervous system.
The somatic nervous system controls skeletal
muscle as well as external sensory organs such
as the skin. This system is said to be voluntary
because the responses can be controlled
consciously. Reflex reactions of skeletal muscle
however are an exception. These are
involuntary reactions to external stimuli.
25. The autonomic nervous system controls
involuntary muscles, such as smooth and cardiac
muscle. This system is also called the involuntary
26. The parasympathetic division controls various
functions which include inhibiting heart rate,
constricting pupils, and contracting the bladder.
The nerves of the sympathetic division often
have an opposite effect when they are located
within the same organs as parasympathetic
nerves. Nerves of the sympathetic division speed
up heart rate, dilate pupils, and relax the bladder.
The sympathetic system is also involved in the
flight or fight response. This is a response to
potential danger that results in accelerated heart
rate and an increase in metabolic
27. Summary of PNS
Peripheral Nervous System DivisioN
The peripheral nervous system is divided into the following sections:
Peripheral Nervous System
Sensory Nervous System - sends information to the CNS from internal organs or from external
Motor Nervous System - carries information from the CNS to organs, muscles, and glands.
Somatic Nervous System - controls skeletal muscle as well as external sensory
Autonomic Nervous System - controls involuntary muscles, such as smooth and
Sympathetic - controls activities that increase energy expenditures.
Parasympathetic - controls activities that conserve energy expenditures.
Peripheral Nervous System Connections
Peripheral nervous system connections with various organs and structures of the body are
established through cranial nerves and spinal nerves. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves in
the brain that establish connections in the head and upper body, while 31 pairs of spinal
nerves do the same for the rest of the body. While some cranial nerves contain only sensory
neurons, most cranial nerves and all spinal nerves contain both motor and sensory neurons.
31. LET’S SEE IF YOUR BRAIN IS WORKING!!
State the color of the word not the color stated by the word.
RED BLUE YELLOW VIOLET
GREEN YELLOW ORANGE
BLACK WHITE RED BLUE
YELLOW BROWN GREEN
VIOLET BLUE ORANGE
BLACK PINK WHITE RED