RASHTRASANT TUKDOJI MAHARAJ NAGPUR UNIVERSITY
SPECIALIZATION – HR
MODULE NO 3
GROUP & TEAM DECISION MAKING
- Jayanti R Pande
Q1. Explain the Concept of Group and Team. Give the classification of Group.
CONCEPT OF GROUP
• A Group is a collection of individuals who come together for a common purpose, such as discussing ideas
or sharing information.
• Groups may be informal or formal, and they may or may not have a designated leader.
• Group members may not have specific roles or responsibilities, and they may not share the same level of
commitment or sense of accountability.
• Examples of groups in the business context may include brainstorming sessions, social events, or interest
DEFINITION OF GROUP
A group is a collection of individuals who come together for a common purpose or interest.
Edgar H Schien – “A Group may be defined as social phenomenon in which two or more persons decide
to interact with one another, share common ideology & perceive themselves as a group”
CONCEPT OF TEAM
• A Team is a group of individuals who work together towards a common goal or objective, such as
completing a project or achieving a sales target.
• Team members have complementary skills and roles, and they work together closely and regularly to
achieve the team's objectives.
• Teams may be formal or informal, and they often have a designated leader who is responsible for setting
goals, allocating resources, and coordinating the team's efforts.
• Teams are often structured, with clear communication channels, procedures for decision-making and
conflict resolution, and shared accountability for achieving the team's goals. Examples of teams in the
business context may include project teams, cross-functional teams, or management teams.
DEFINITION OF TEAM
A team is a group of individuals who work together closely and regularly towards achieving a common goal
or objective, with shared accountability and complementary skills and roles.
Stephen P Robbins – “ A Work Team is a collection of people whose individual efforts result in a level of
performance which is greater than the sum of their individual contributions.”
Primary & Secondary
Membership & reference
In & out
Formal & Informal
Temporary & Permanent
Nominal & Non-performing
CLASSIFICATION OF GROUPS
1 Primary & Secondary groups: Primary groups are typically small, intimate, and characterized by strong
emotional bonds among members, such as families and close friends. Secondary groups are typically larger,
more formal, and task-oriented, such as work teams and professional associations.
2 Membership groups & reference groups: Membership groups are groups to which individuals belong,
such as clubs, societies, and professional organizations. Reference groups are groups to which individuals do
not necessarily belong, but with which they identify and use as a standard for evaluating themselves and
their behaviour, such as aspirational or social comparison groups.
3 In groups & out groups: In groups are groups with which individuals identify and feel a sense of belonging,
such as a sports team or political party. Out groups are groups with which individuals do not identify and may
view as different or inferior, such as a rival team or opposing political party.
4 Interest & Friendship groups: Interest groups are formed around shared interests or activities, such as a
hiking club or a book club. Friendship groups are formed around personal relationships and shared values,
such as a group of childhood friends.
5 Formal & Informal groups: Formal groups are established by an organization or institution to perform a
specific task or achieve a goal, such as work teams or committees. Informal groups emerge spontaneously
among members of an organization, such as lunch groups or social networks.
6 Temporary & Permanent groups:Temporary groups are formed for a specific purpose or period of time,
such as project teams or task forces. Permanent groups exist over an extended period of time, such as social
clubs or families.
7 Nominal & Non-performing groups: Nominal groups are groups in name only, without any significant
interaction or communication among members. Non-performing groups are groups that fail to achieve their
goals or objectives, due to a lack of cohesion, coordination, or commitment among members.
Q2.Why do people join groups? What are the stages of Group Formation?
1 People attraction:
• Shared interests, values, or personalities can attract people to join a group.
• Being part of a group can provide social support, companionship, and a sense of belonging.
2 Group activities:
• Groups often engage in enjoyable, challenging, or rewarding activities that members may not be able
to do alone.
• Participating in group activities can provide opportunities for personal growth, skill development, and
3 Group goals:
• Groups are often formed to achieve specific objectives or goals, such as completing a project or
winning a competition.
• Being part of a group with clear goals can provide direction, motivation, and a sense of purpose for
4 Security and social affiliation:
• Being part of a group can provide a sense of security and protection, especially in times of stress or
• Being part of a group can provide social affiliation and acceptance, which can help individuals feel
valued and supported.
5 Status and self-esteem:
• Being part of a successful or high-status group can provide individuals with a sense of pride and self-
• Contributing to the accomplishments and achievements of a group can give individuals a sense of purpose
• Being part of a group can provide individuals with a sense of power and influence, especially when
working towards common goals.
• Having a voice and making decisions as part of a group can provide individuals with a sense of control and
STAGES OF GROUP FORMATION
1.Forming: In this stage, group members are getting to know one another, establishing ground rules and
expectations, and defining the group's goals and purpose.There may be uncertainty and cautious behavioUr
as members try to understand their role within the group.
2.Storming: In this stage, conflicts and tensions may arise as members start to assert their opinions and
ideas.There may be disagreements over goals, leadership, and individual roles within the group.This stage
can be challenging but is important for establishing group norms and values.
3.Norming: In this stage, the group starts to develop a sense of cohesion and unity. Members may start to
compromise and work together to achieve common goals. Group norms and values become more
established, and there is a greater sense of trust and openness among members.
4.Performing: In this stage, the group is functioning effectively and achieving its goals. Members have a
clear understanding of their roles and responsibilities, and there is a sense of mutual support and
collaboration.This stage is characterized by high levels of productivity and effectiveness.
5.Adjourning: In this stage, the group disbands, either because the project is complete, or because
members move on to other endeavours. Members may experience a sense of loss or sadness as the group
comes to an end, but there may also be a sense of accomplishment and pride in what the group achieved
Q3.What are different types of teams? Explain Team processes.
TYPES OF TEAMS
A) Problem-solving teams:
Formed to address specific problems or challenges within an organization.
Typically temporary and made up of individuals from different departments or functions.
Members work together to develop and implement solutions to the problem.
Examples: quality improvement teams, project teams, and task forces.
B) Self-managed teams or autonomous work groups:
Responsible for managing their own work processes and decision-making.
Made up of individuals with complementary skills and expertise.
Work together to achieve a common goal.
Typically have a high degree of autonomy and decision-making power.
Examples: manufacturing teams, product development teams, and service teams.
C) Cross-functional teams:
Made up of individuals from different departments or functions within an organization.
Formed to work on a specific project or initiative that requires expertise from multiple areas.
Members work together to achieve a common goal.
Typically have a project manager or team leader who coordinates the team's activities.
Examples: new product development teams, process improvement teams, and strategic planning teams.
D)Virtual teams or GDT (Global Distributed Teams):
Work together from different geographic locations, often using technology to collaborate and
Members may be located in different countries and time zones.
Communication and collaboration are facilitated through technology, such as video conferencing and
online collaboration tools.
Examples: software development teams, customer service teams, and project teams.
1.Team objectives:The process of setting clear and achievable goals for the team. Effective team objectives
should be specific, measurable, and aligned with the overall goals of the organization.
2.Participation: a. Interaction:The process of team members engaging in discussions and exchanging
ideas. Effective participation involves active listening, speaking up, and building on others' ideas. b.
Information sharing:The process of team members exchanging information and knowledge. Effective
information sharing involves being transparent, providing feedback, and sharing expertise.
3.Constructive controversy: The process of engaging in healthy debate and disagreement in order to
arrive at better solutions. Effective constructive controversy involves respectful communication, open-
mindedness, and a focus on problem-solving.
4.Error management:The process of identifying and correcting errors or mistakes. Effective error
management involves taking responsibility for mistakes, learning from them, and implementing strategies to
prevent future errors.
5.Creativity & innovation:The process of generating new and innovative ideas. Effective creativity and
innovation involves brainstorming, experimentation, and risk-taking.
6.Reflexivity: The process of reflecting on the team's processes and performance. Effective reflexivity
involves examining team processes and identifying areas for improvement, as well as celebrating successes
and recognizing individual and team contributions.
Q4.What is synergy of team work? Give the difference between team and group.
Synergy of teamwork:
• It refers to the idea that the combined efforts of a group of individuals working together are greater than
the sum of their individual efforts.
• In other words, when individuals collaborate and work together effectively in a team, they can achieve
more than they could working alone.
1.Suitable for short-term projects or tasks.
2.Limited sharing of information and expertise.
3.Members are individually accountable for their
4.Focus is on individual contributions rather than
5.Roles may little concern for other members'
needs or opinions.
6. overlap or be unclear.
7.Often led by an appointed leader.
8.Members may not have a shared identity or goal.
9.Examples Can be formed quickly and disbanded
10.include study groups or committees.
1.Suitable for long-term or complex projects.
2.Active sharing of information and expertise.
3.Members are collectively accountable for achieving
4.Focus is on group performance and achieving shared
5.Clear roles and responsibilities for each team member.
6.High level of concern for other members' needs and
7.Leadership is shared or rotates among team members.
8.Strong sense of shared identity and purpose.
9.Require time and effort to form and
10.Examples include sports teams, project teams, or
cross-functional teams in a company.
Q5.What is Social Loafing? Give its causes and ways to reduce it.
Social loafing is a phenomenon where individuals exert less effort or contribution towards a group task
than they would if they were working alone. It occurs when individuals feel that their individual
contributions are not essential or valued in a group setting, and therefore they reduce their effort.
CAUSES OF SOCIAL LOAFING
Lack of motivation: Individuals may feel that their contributions are not essential to the group's success
and therefore lack motivation to contribute their best effort.
Relaxation due to others' presence:When individuals work in a group, they may feel less accountable for
their performance because they believe their contribution will not be noticed or evaluated individually.
Simple tasks:When tasks are too simple or straightforward,individuals may feel that their contributions
are not needed, and therefore reduce their effort.
Dispersion of responsibility:When individuals are part of a larger group, they may feel less responsible
for the outcome of the task, and therefore reduce their effort.
WAYS OF REDUCING SOCIAL LOAFING
Make each performer identifiable:
By assigning specific tasks to individual members of the group and making their contributions
identifiable, it becomes clear who is contributing and who is not.
Make tasks more interesting and important:
By making tasks more interesting, challenging, and important, individuals are more likely to feel
motivated and invested in contributing their best effort.
Reward individuals for contributing to group performance:
By recognizing and rewarding individuals for their contributions to the group's success, individuals feel
more valued and motivated to contribute.
By implementing consequences or punishments for non-contributing members, individuals are
motivated to contribute to avoid negative consequences.
Q6.What is Group Decision Making? Give its process and techniques.
GROUP DECISION MAKING
Group decision making is the process of making decisions collectively by a group of individuals. It involves a
series of steps and techniques that help the group to reach a consensus or agreement on a particular course
GROUP DECISION-MAKING PROCESS
1.Problem identification:The first step in the decision-making process is identifying the problem that needs
to be addressed.
2.Problem diagnosis:The group then analyses the problem to understand its underlying causes and effects.
3.Solution generation:The group generates a range of possible solutions to the problem.
4.Solution evaluation:The group evaluates each solution based on its feasibility, effectiveness, and potential
5.Framing a decision:The group then frames a decision based on the information gathered in the previous
6.Follow-up actions:The group identifies the follow-up actions necessary to implement the decision.
GROUP DECISION MAKING TECHNIQUES
In this technique, group members discuss and exchange ideas with each other to generate
solutions to the problem.
This technique involves a group of individuals generating a large number of ideas in a short
amount of time.The focus is on generating as many ideas as possible without evaluating them at
the initial stage.
3.Nominal group technique:
This technique involves individual members generating ideas independently, which are then
shared with the group for discussion and evaluation.
This technique involves using technology to facilitate communication and decision making among
group members who are not physically present in the same location.
Q7. What is morale? Highlight measures to strengthen team morale.
Morale refers to the level of enthusiasm, confidence, and motivation that employees have towards their work
and the organization they work for. High morale indicates that employees are satisfied with their job, are
committed to the organization's goals, and are motivated to perform at their best.
Davis – “ Organisational morale is basically a mental condition of groups & individuals which determines
MEASURES TO STRENGHTHEN TEAM MORALE
Provide employees with decision-making power and autonomy
Delegate responsibilities and involve employees in decision-making processes
Keeping the employee informed:
Regularly communicate the organization's goals, plans, and developments
Be transparent and provide updates on company progress
Appreciate and reward employees:
Recognize and reward employees for their efforts and achievements
Use various means such as bonuses, promotions, and public recognition
Offer flexible work hours to help employees balance work and personal life
Provide options for remote work or telecommuting
Listen to employee opinions and value their contributions
Treat employees fairly and respectfully, regardless of position or seniority
Designing comfortable work environment:
Provide comfortable furniture and equipment to promote physical well-being
Ensure proper lighting and ventilation to create a pleasant and productive work environment
Creating groups and teams:
Foster a sense of camaraderie and collaboration through team-building activities
Encourage group projects and collaborative efforts to increase teamwork and morale
Q8.What is group dynamics? State its nature and importance.
Group dynamics refers to the interactions and processes that occur within a group or team. It encompasses
the social and psychological factors that affect the behavior, attitudes, and performance of group members.
Kurt Lewin – “ Group Dynamics deal with internal nature of groups, how they are formed, what structure and
processes they adopt, how they function & affect individual members, other groups & organisations.”
NATURE OF GROUP DYNAMICS
Group dynamics is an ongoing process that evolves over time.
Changes in group dynamics can occur due to new members, changing goals, or other external factors.
Group dynamics is dynamic, meaning that it is constantly changing.
These changes can be influenced by both internal and external factors.
Concerned with group:
Group dynamics focuses on the behavior, attitudes, and interactions of group members.
It takes into account the unique characteristics and dynamics of each group.
Rigidity or flexibility:
Group dynamics can be rigid or flexible, depending on the group's goals, norms, and roles.
A rigid group dynamic may limit creativity and innovation, while a flexible group dynamic can encourage
new ideas and approaches.
Defines effectiveness of leader:
Effective leaders must understand and manage group dynamics to achieve their goals.
A leader who can create positive group dynamics and manage conflicts is more likely to be successful.
Enhancing productivity: Understanding and managing group dynamics can lead to increased
productivity and performance.
Improving communication: Effective communication is essential in achieving shared goals and
Fostering teamwork: Positive group dynamics can lead to increased collaboration, cooperation, and
Managing conflicts: Understanding group dynamics can help identify and resolve conflicts that may
arise within the group.
Encouraging innovation: Positive group dynamics can lead to increased creativity and innovation within