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English system education_conclusions

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English system education_conclusions

  1. 1. PE-MC-EAE Promoting English as Means of Communication in European Adult Education 2013 - 1 - ES - GRU06 - 73300 THE STUDY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE ITALIAN, ROMANIAN, SPANISH AND TURKISH SYSTEMS OF EDUCATION Istituto Statale d'Istruzione Superiore "Buonarroti - Fossombroni", Arezzo, ITALY Liceul Tehnologic de Servicii "Sfantul Apostol Andrei", Ploiesti, ROMANIA Centre de Formació d'Adults Josepa Massanés i Dalmau, Tarragona, SPAIN İnönü Teknik ve Endüstri Meslek Lisesi, Istanbul, TURKEY
  2. 2. THE STUDY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE ITALIAN, ROMANIAN, SPANISH AND TURKISH SYSTEMS OF EDUCATION PE-MC-EAE Pag. 2 of 21 INDEX INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................................3 1. THE STUDY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE ITALIAN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION...........4 1.1. STATE PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION................................................................4 1.2. ADULT EDUCATION ................................................................................................................4 2. THE STUDY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE ROMANIAN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION .....6 2.1. STATE PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION................................................................6 2.2. ADULT EDUCATION ................................................................................................................7 3. THE STUDY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE SPANISH SYSTEM OF EDUCATION .........9 3.1. STATE PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION................................................................9 3.2. ADULT EDUCATION ................................................................................................................9 4. THE STUDY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE TURKISH SYSTEM OF EDUCATION.......11 4.1. STATE PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION..............................................................11 4.2. ADULT EDUCATION ..............................................................................................................11 5. GENERAL CONCLUSIONS...........................................................................................................13 5.1. EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS.....................................................................................................13 5.2. COMPULSORY EDUCATION.................................................................................................13 5.3. COMPULSORY EDUCATION STAGES .................................................................................14 5.4. STATE SECONDARY SCHOOL.............................................................................................15 5.5. STUDENTS RATIO IN COMPULSORY EDUCATION ............................................................15 5.6. ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN COMPULSORY EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM ...................................16 5.7. ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SECONDARY EDUCATION..........................................................17 5.8. CONTENT LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING (CLIL) ....................................................18 5.9. ADULT EDUCATION ..............................................................................................................18 5.10. ENGLISH IN ADULT SCHOOLS.............................................................................................19 REPORT AUTHORS..............................................................................................................................21
  3. 3. THE STUDY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE ITALIAN, ROMANIAN, SPANISH AND TURKISH SYSTEMS OF EDUCATION PE-MC-EAE Pag. 3 of 21 INTRODUCTION This research comes out of the need of all the partners involved in the project - Istituto Statale d'Istruzione Superiore "Buonarroti - Fossombroni", Arezzo, ITALY; Liceul Tehnologic de Servicii "Sfantul Apostol Andrei", Ploiesti, ROMANIA; Centre de Formació d'Adults Josepa Massanés i Dalmau, Tarragona, SPAIN; İnönü Teknik ve Endüstri Meslek Lisesi, Istanbul, TURKEY- to get to know and to compare the different educational systems in the four countries before creating and designing materials which is the main aim of this project. Before analysing in detail how English language is taught and learnt in adult education across these countries, a general but careful analysis of compulsory education has been carried out. Secondary education has been distinguished from adult education, even though, in Spain, it is considered a part of it. The study of English language has been examined in detail both for what concerns compulsory education in general and Secondary school. In the section which follows, regarding adult education, some aspects strictly related to this particular kind of students have been examined. In the final part of the report, devoted to the general conclusion, we tried as much as possible to compare all the aspects which distinguish or level the different systems of education in the four participating countries especially regarding the study of English language.
  4. 4. THE STUDY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE ITALIAN, ROMANIAN, SPANISH AND TURKISH SYSTEMS OF EDUCATION PE-MC-EAE Pag. 4 of 21 1. THE STUDY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE ITALIAN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.1. STATE PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION In Italy education is compulsory from the age of 6 up to 16, that is 10 years altogether. There are two main stages: 6-11 Primary education and 11-14 Middle education. Secondary education lasts 5 years (14-19) and it’s made up of two stages: the first two years which have recently become compulsory and other three years with the state final exam and the diploma. The average number of students per class is 25. The English language is compulsory for 10 years, 3 hours a week. At the end of Primary education the expected level reached by the students should be A1 while the average level of English at the end of Secondary education is B1-B2. In all Secondary schools -lyceum, technical and vocational schools – ESP (English for Specific Purposes) is taught in the fourth and fifth year (literature, culture and civilization, business English and communication, etc.). The English teacher has not to be a mother tongue. Usually 20/25% students get a certificate in English language. The most common English certificates are UCLES-Cambridge and Trinity College-London. The Highest level tested is B2. 1.2. ADULT EDUCATION ISIS “Buonarroti – Fossombroni” school is a State Technical Secondary school and it has been the seat of adult education in town since 1966. There are courses in Italian language for immigrants with final exams and certifications, computer and English classes. There are two courses for adults: Social Studies and Accountancy. Both courses are structured in four years and at the end there is a final State exam so that the students can get their Diploma. There are seven classes altogether. Classes start in early September and finish in the middle of June, and lessons are from 6.25 pm to 10.35 pm from Monday to Friday. Students are aged from 16 to 65. Most students have already attended from 1 to 3 years of Secondary school and more the 50% of them are working. Most of them interrupted their studies because they failed at school or because of family problems, they had to go to work and earn a living.
  5. 5. THE STUDY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE ITALIAN, ROMANIAN, SPANISH AND TURKISH SYSTEMS OF EDUCATION PE-MC-EAE Pag. 5 of 21 Students come back to school to get a qualification because the Diploma represents a valuable tool to improve their working position, to get a job, if they are unemployed, or simply for personal ambition or to go to university. At the moment, mainly due to the economic recession, most of our students attend our courses because they need re-qualification and to get new skills. So adult courses represent a second chance for these people who, for different reasons, couldn’t follow the “normal route” towards the Diploma. Some of the students are at risk of social exclusion due to economic hardships and a lot of them are migrants trying to become part of the Italian society. The majority of them have already studied English but sometimes there are some real “beginners”, mainly among older adults. The number of weekly lesson isn’t enough to reach the expected level at the end of the course. The learning material used at school is not generally addressed to adults but to teenagers so it lacks of topics suitable and interesting for adults. English teachers mainly use the already made published materials but some of them create their own ones. Teachers are partly free in choosing topics since they have mainly to follow the Ministry of Education suggestions and guidelines. There isn’t any subject taught in English but IT, Maths and Economics could be suitable. All the four skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing) have to be improved with particular attention to speaking. The language skills mainly required to adult students outside school are speaking and writing. Some of them sometimes use English outside the school, when they go on holiday abroad or for their job.
  6. 6. THE STUDY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE ITALIAN, ROMANIAN, SPANISH AND TURKISH SYSTEMS OF EDUCATION PE-MC-EAE Pag. 6 of 21 2. THE STUDY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE ROMANIAN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 2.1. STATE PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION Children start compulsory education when they are 6 years old up to 17, that is 11 years. Compulsory Primary education consists of 9 compulsory years of studies. Primary education (grades 0 to 4: 5 years, from 6 to 10 years old) and Lower Secondary or Gymnasium (grades 5 to 8: 4 years, from 11 to 14 years old). Secondary education - High school lasts 4 years, grades 9 to 12 and students’ age varies from 15 to 19 years old. The first 2 years are compulsory, then the next 2 years are for those who want to sit the Baccalaureate exam at the end of High school or vocational classes for a future job, but very few give up this opportunity, therefore the majority of students attend the High school entirely. Those who decide to give up High school choose vocational classes and a specialism which will allow them to find a job as soon as they graduate, but they cannot sit the Baccalaureate exam. Average number of students per class is between 25 and 34. This number is decided after the exam students sit at the end of the eighth grade (14 years old) and according to the final marks and the preferences they have shown. There is a national computer-based repartition. Pupils study English for 9 years, as long as the State Primary Education lasts1 . During the first 3 years (grades 0 to 2) pupils study English 1 hour per week; during the next 2 years (grades 3 and 4) they study it 2 hours per week; during Lower Secondary (grades 5 to 8) they study English every year 2 hours per week as well. Children from the Lower Secondary have the possibility to study English for 3 hours instead of 2 if there is an intensive course (this is a way to attract students and their families and for this the school has not only to ask permission from the school inspectorate, but also to organise an exam to select the best students to take part in the intensive class). English studied in High school is compulsory and it is studied all 4 years, no matter if it is one kind of education or another. There are usually 2 or 3 hours of English per week, but depending on the specialism of High school this number can increase to 6 (another 3 optional classes of English at Philology – Theoretical High schools). Teachers who teach English in State Primary Education are Romanian natives. At the end of Primary school (grade 4) the level is A1 and at the end of the Lower Secondary (grade 8) the level is A2. On one hand some students can reach B1 if they are interested in English and teachers work extra with them during the English classes; on the other hand, there are students who can’t manage to reach even the A1 level. Students’ level of 1 English as a compulsory subject – before 2013 English was optional for the first 3 years of primary school (grades 0 - 2) and parents could choose it as a subject for their children or not, but now it is compulsory for every grade.
  7. 7. THE STUDY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE ITALIAN, ROMANIAN, SPANISH AND TURKISH SYSTEMS OF EDUCATION PE-MC-EAE Pag. 7 of 21 English at the end of Secondary school is supposed to be B1-B2, but it is only as a suggestion in the national curriculum, because the reality shows that uninterested students are still beginners with an A1-A2 level and there are also students interested in attending foreign universities and they can reach C1-C2 level according to the university requirements. Private English certificates are not compulsory; the Cambridge exams are held at the British Council in Bucharest (and sometimes its representatives organise exams in High schools if there are many students who enroll) and only students interested in attending universities abroad sit the exams requested by those institutions or the students who think that they need those certificates in their future career; usually the level tested is B2-C2; on the other hand, there is a national compulsory examination of linguistic competences before the Baccalaureate exam which students sit at the end of High school and it certifies the level of English required – those interested in English can get B2, but a great percentage of students get A1-A2; students who get an international certificate don’t have to sit the examination in school. The percentage of students getting a certificate in English – if we talk about the national linguistic examination, 100% of students get the certificate with different levels according to the skills tested (and rarely happens to be zero at some skills for the weakest students because A1 is easily obtained); the percentage of students who get an international certificate is quite high, because there is a good rate of students who are interested in getting Cambridge certificates (these certificates allow them to be able to get scholarships from foreign universities). In some High schools English literature is compulsory along with grammar and communication, in others literature is not studied, depending on the type of High school. 2.2. ADULT EDUCATION There are two types of students involved in adult education: those who left school earlier (due to varied reasons: urgent need to find a job to survive financially, early marriage, changed interests) and return to continue education, graduate High school and get the Baccalaureate exam; and the majority are those who graduated High school and want to continue their education with a post-Secondary school (not university) in order to get a diploma in a specialism to get a better job – they can enroll adult education even if they didn’t get the Baccalaureate exam, but they have to get this diploma before the graduation of the adult education. Those who left school earlier come back to graduate and get the Baccalaureate diploma because this is what gets them a qualification and helps them find a job, keep their actual one or find a better paid one, and even personal ambition and self-esteem can motivate them quite often; those who graduated High school and have(n’t) the Baccalaureate exam enroll in a post-
  8. 8. THE STUDY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE ITALIAN, ROMANIAN, SPANISH AND TURKISH SYSTEMS OF EDUCATION PE-MC-EAE Pag. 8 of 21 Secondary school in order to get a diploma in a certain specialism but lower than university to improve their position at work or simply because they don’t have the financial possibility to go to the college. More than 50% of adult students work and their age varies from 19 to late 50’s. Although adult students have studied English at school, the majority are real beginners, either because they’ve studied for a small number of years or because they were not interested to learn a foreign language. The number of English lessons per week is not enough to reach the level expected at the course (usually 1-2 hours per week). English teaching materials used in school are not specially designed for adults, teachers decide what is best for them to use. Most of the time they choose to copy materials from different textbooks and to bring them to classes due to financial possibilities of students. But sometimes these materials don’t have interesting and suitable topics for adult learners so teachers have to design their own, either starting from other materials or simply inventing new ones. There are no optional subjects and teachers are partially free in choosing the topics because the Ministry of Education suggests the main guidelines and teachers have to improvise and use imagination and creativity in designing every lesson because there are neither textbooks provided by school nor the free possibility to photocopy the printable materials. There are no other subjects taught in English in my school, but probably those related to the specialism of school could be taught in English. The language skills which have to be improved are speaking, writing and listening. Speaking and listening are the skills mainly required to adult students outside school because they have to be able to communicate at their jobs. The only chance students have to speak English is if they go abroad or their work brings them the chance to interact with foreigners; only some of them went abroad for work and fewer on holiday.
  9. 9. THE STUDY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE ITALIAN, ROMANIAN, SPANISH AND TURKISH SYSTEMS OF EDUCATION PE-MC-EAE Pag. 9 of 21 3. THE STUDY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE SPANISH SYSTEM OF EDUCATION In Spain all regions have different systems of education, so we will focus on the one within CFA Josepa Massanés is framed: the Catalan one. 3.1. STATE PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION In Catalonia most children start school when they are 3, but it is not compulsory until they are 6. The compulsory education lasts 10 years until they are 16. (The system changed 20 years ago, because in the past it was only compulsory to stay at school until you were 14). Nowadays there are two compulsory education stages (Primary education from 6 to 12, and Secondary from 13 to 16). There is also a pre-compulsory level (from 3 to 6 years, “Educació Infantil” (Nursery school) and several post-compulsory options: Low and High Vocational Schools and “Batxillerat” (2 extra years at a Secondary school for those students who want to enter the University). Studying a foreign language is compulsory during Primary and Secondary School. Most of the schools choose English. They usually start teaching English when students are 8 years at Primary School (some schools even before, when they are 6 or 7). At Secondary School students have English during all their school years. So, in the end, students have been taught English 3 hours a week for 8 to 10 years. The average number of students per class is 20-25 at Primary schools and 25-30 at Secondary. The mother tongue of the English teacher is usually Catalan or Spanish. The level reached at the end of Primary school is A1. The aimed level when they leave compulsory school at 16 is B1-B2. At the moment students who have finished Secondary school don’t get any specific English certificate. Nevertheless, at this moment Catalan Education Authority is thinking about it, in order to give a B1 English certificate to those students who finish Secondary school successfully. 3.2. ADULT EDUCATION According to experience and statistics done in CFA Josepa Massanés, a vast majority of adult school students have already attended Secondary school. Most of them left school because of failure, but there are some (mainly those who are older than 35) who left school to
  10. 10. THE STUDY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE ITALIAN, ROMANIAN, SPANISH AND TURKISH SYSTEMS OF EDUCATION PE-MC-EAE Pag. 10 of 21 work when school was only compulsory until 14 years. Nowadays, these students need to get a Secondary degree to access a vocational school. Minimum age is 18, but they can also attend an adult school if they are 16 or 17 and they have got a job contract. About 40% of students are working at the moment. They come back to school to get a qualification and improve their chances to find a better job. The majority of students have already studied English. Nevertheless, some of them are real “beginners”. The number of weekly lessons (and average of three hours) is not enough to reach the expected level at the end of the course. The learning material used in school is not mainly addressed to adults. English teachers usually use ready-made published materials which lack of topics for adult learners. So, English teachers often create their own materials. Even though grammar, vocabulary and use of English contents are fixed by the official curriculum, English teachers are quite free to choose topics for their classes. There is no other subject taught in English. Maths and TIC could be suitable to be taught in English. Listening and speaking have to be improved. Listening and speaking skills are mainly required to adult students outside school. They rarely use English outside the school. Only few of them have ever been abroad, mainly on holidays.
  11. 11. THE STUDY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE ITALIAN, ROMANIAN, SPANISH AND TURKISH SYSTEMS OF EDUCATION PE-MC-EAE Pag. 11 of 21 4. THE STUDY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE TURKISH SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 4.1. STATE PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION Children start compulsory education when they are 6 years old and they continue up to 18, that is 12 years. Nowadays there are three compulsory stages, they are called “4+4+4”. The first 4 years are called Primary; the second 4 years are called Secondary and the last 4 years are called Post-secondary. Before they start their post-Secondary education, when they are 8th grade, they need to take an exam in order to choose the High school that they want to go to. In general there are 5 types of High school in Turkey: Anatolian High school, technical and vocational High school, religious High school, fine arts High school and standard High school. The average number of students per class is 35-40. Studying a foreign language is compulsory in all stages. Students begin to study English when they are in the 2nd grade (7 years). In the first three years they study English 2 hours per week; then in the 5th and 6th grade (10-11 years) they study English 3 hours per week and when they are in the 7th and 8th grade (12-13 years) they have 4 hours English per week. In post-Secondary, they study a foreign language between 2-6 hours per week. It differs according to the type of High school they are in. The mother tongue of the teachers isn’t English. Until 12 years old, they are supposed to reach A1 level and when they finish Secondary school (14 years) their level reaches A2. They are supposed to reach B1 level when they graduate from post-secondary stage (18 years). These students don’t get any certificate of English when they graduate from post- Secondary school. 4.2. ADULT EDUCATION Students in Turkish adult schools must have a diploma of Secondary school before they enroll in adult education. Otherwise, they can’t study there. Minimum age is 16. Many of them are working and they come to school at the weekends or after 5 pm on weekdays depending on their schedule. Most of them left the school because of the failure, there are some students who left the school because they needed to work and earn money.
  12. 12. THE STUDY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE ITALIAN, ROMANIAN, SPANISH AND TURKISH SYSTEMS OF EDUCATION PE-MC-EAE Pag. 12 of 21 They especially come to school to get a diploma and a certificate in order to run a business. Almost all of them have studied English, however they must be considered real “beginners”. The number of weekly lessons isn’t enough to reach the expected level. Generally, the learning material used in classes isn’t addressed to adult students. So teachers create their own learning materials. There isn’t any subject taught in English, but ICT is suitable to be taught in English. All four skills have to be improved. They almost have no chance to use English outside the class.
  13. 13. THE STUDY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE ITALIAN, ROMANIAN, SPANISH AND TURKISH SYSTEMS OF EDUCATION PE-MC-EAE Pag. 13 of 21 5. GENERAL CONCLUSIONS 5.1. EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS Primary; 4 Primary; 6 Primary; 5 Primary; 5 Middle; 3 Lower Secondary; 4 Secondary; 5 Secondary; 4 Secondary; 4 Secondary; 4 Post-Sec.; 2 Post-Secondary; 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 TURKEY SPAIN ROMANIA ITALY YEARS In all countries, Italy, Romania, Spain and Turkey, children start compulsory school at 6 years old. The full system of education lasts 13 years in Italy and Romania, 12 in Spain and Turkey. Students finish their education route when they are 19 years old in Italy and Romania, 18 in Turkey and 16 in Spain. In all countries education is divided in 3 stages, but in Spain the third stage is not compulsory. In Romania, the last two years of the Secondary school aren’t compulsory either, but in practice all students finish Secondary education. So, the length of compulsory education is different in each country. Turkish compulsory education is the longest (12 years), Romanian compulsory education is 11 years long while in Italy and Spain compulsory education is 10 years long. 5.2. COMPULSORY EDUCATION 10 11 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 YEARS ITALY ROMANIA SPAIN TURKEY COMPULSORY EDUCATION ITALY ROMANIA SPAIN TURKEY
  14. 14. THE STUDY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE ITALIAN, ROMANIAN, SPANISH AND TURKISH SYSTEMS OF EDUCATION PE-MC-EAE Pag. 14 of 21 5.3. COMPULSORY EDUCATION STAGES COUNTRIES FIRST STAGE SECOND STAGE THIRD STAGE AGE AGE AGE Italy 6 - 11 PRIMARY 11 -14 MIDDLE 14-16 First 2 years of SECONDARY Romania 6 - 11 PRIMARY 11 -15 LOWER SECONDARY 15-17 First 2 years of SECONDARY Spain 6 - 12 PRIMARY 12 -16 SECONDARY Turkey 6 - 10 PRIMARY 10 -14 SECONDARY 14-18 POST-SECONDARY In Italian compulsory education there are 3 stages. The first stage (6-11 years old) is called Primary Education, the second stage (11-13 years old) is called Middle Education and the third stage (14-16 years old) are the first two years of Secondary Education. In Romanian compulsory education there are 3 stages. The first stage (6-11 years old) is called Primary Education; the second stage (11-15 years old) is called Lower Secondary, and the third one (15-17 years old) are the first two years of Secondary Education. In Spanish compulsory education there are 2 stages. The first stage (6-12 years old) is called Primary Education and the second stage (12-16 years old) is called Secondary Education. In Turkish compulsory education there are 3 stages, it is called “4+4+4”. The first stage 6- 10 years old called Primary Education; the second stage: 10-14 years old called Secondary Education and the last stage 14-18 years old called Post-Secondary Education. If they fail twice, they have to quit and join adult education. From these data we can deduce that in the Italian, Spanish and Romanian educational systems there are some optional years at the end of Secondary Education that aren’t still vocational or academic education. Regarding exams, in the Italian compulsory education there are 2 exams: one at the end of the Middle Education (13-14 years old) and another, the state final exam, at the end of the Secondary Education (19 years old) to get the diploma. In the Romanian compulsory education there are 2 exams: one at the end of the Lower Secondary Education (14-15 years old) in order to choose the High school that they will attend and a Baccalaureate exam which students sit at the end of High school (19 years old). In Spain there isn’t any exam for the compulsory educational system but there is an official exam for students who want to enter university after post-secondary education (Selectivitat). Finally, in the Turkish compulsory education there is an exam at the end of Secondary Education (14 years old) in order to choose the High school that they want to go to.
  15. 15. THE STUDY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE ITALIAN, ROMANIAN, SPANISH AND TURKISH SYSTEMS OF EDUCATION PE-MC-EAE Pag. 15 of 21 5.4. STATE SECONDARY SCHOOL 5 4 4 4 0 1 2 3 4 5 YEARS ITALY ROMANIA SPAIN TURKEY COUNTRIES SECONDARY SCHOOL ITALY ROMANIA SPAIN TURKEY Secondary Education is 4 years long in Romania, Spain and Turkey. Only in Italy it is 5 years long. In all of these countries Secondary Education is made up of 2 stages except for Italy where there are 3. STUDENTS AGE FIRST STAGE SECOND STAGE OTHER STAGES ITALY 14 -19 2 years COMPULSORY 2 years NOT COMPULSORY 1 year NOT COMPULSORY ROMANIA 15 -19 2 years COMPULSORY 2 years NOT COMPULSORY SPAIN 12 -16 2 years COMPULSORY 2 years COMPULSORY TURKEY 14 -18 4 years COMPULSORY 5.5. STUDENTS RATIO IN COMPULSORY EDUCATION 25 30 25 34 25 30 30 45 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 students Italian Romanian Spanish Turkish Secondary Education NUMBER OF STUDENTS PER CLASS Maximum Minimum
  16. 16. THE STUDY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE ITALIAN, ROMANIAN, SPANISH AND TURKISH SYSTEMS OF EDUCATION PE-MC-EAE Pag. 16 of 21 The highest number of students per class is in Turkey with 30-45 students, while in Italy, and Spain the number of student is between 25 and 30 and in Romania is between 25 and 34. 5.6. ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN COMPULSORY EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM 10 11 10 11 0 3 6 9 12 YEARS Italian education Romanian education Spanish education Turkish education THESTUDY OF ENGLISH IN COMPULSORY EDUCATION English language is a compulsory subject in compulsory education along all school routes in all countries. In the Turkish compulsory education study of English starts in the second year of Primary School and in Spain the year in which they start depends on school policies (most schools start on the first year of compulsory education but some of them on the third year of compulsory education). Generally speaking, we can say that in the Italian and Spanish compulsory education pupils study English for 10 years, while in Romanian and Turkish education they study English for 11 years. The number of hours1 per week of English language and the English level reached at the end of the studies is shown below. HOURS PER WEEK compulsory education ITALY 3 ROMANIA 1 2 3 - 1 hour - first 3 years (Primary School) - 2 hours - since fourth year (end of Primary and along Secondary) - 3 hours - class starting the 5th grade (Lower Secondary) if there is an intensive English course subject to a permission from the school inspectorate SPAIN 3 TURKEY 2 3 4 - 2 hours - first 3 years (since 2nd year of Primary School) - 3 hours - fifth and sixth year (Secondary school, 5th and 6th grade) - 4 hours - seventh and eighth year (Secondary school, 7th and 8th grade) 1 In the Italian and Romanian schools the length of a lesson is between 50 and 60 minutes; in Turkey, 40 minutes; and in Spain, 60 minutes.
  17. 17. THE STUDY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE ITALIAN, ROMANIAN, SPANISH AND TURKISH SYSTEMS OF EDUCATION PE-MC-EAE Pag. 17 of 21 According to the different curricula, the students are expected to reach the following levels from the CEFR (Common European Framework of Reference for Languages). AIMED LEVEL AT THE END OF THE STUDIES (compulsory education) AGE ITALY A2 16 ROMANIA A1 A2/B1 11- Primary school 15- end of Lower secondary SPAIN A2/B1 16 TURKEY A1 A2 12- Primary and Secondary school 14- end of Secondary school English teachers, in all countries, are not expected to be native speakers of English and, actually, a vast majority of them aren’t. 5.7. ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SECONDARY EDUCATION English language in Secondary Education is a compulsory subject in all countries and students study English for 4 years in Romania, Spain and Turkey. Only in Italy they study English for 5 years. Secondary Education STUDY ENGLISH YEARS HOURS PER WEEK Italian 5 3 Romanian 4 2 - 6 - 2 or 3 at High school depending on the specialism, increased with another 3 optional classes per week at Philology / Theoretical High schools Spanish 4 3 Turkish 4 2 - 6 - 3 hours - 9th grades, but in Anatolian High school: 6 hours. - 2 hours - 10th-12th grades, but in Anatolian High schools 4 hours The English level that should be reached at the end of the studies is B1-B2 in each country, even if actually in most of the cases it is not reached. The table below shows if there is/are a national language examination of the English level reached and how many students attend this examination. AIMED LEVEL National CERTIFICATES LEVEL TESTED % STUDENTS ITALY B1-B2 NO ROMANIA B1-B2 YES National compulsory examination before the Baccalaureate exam B2 1 100% 1 Students sit for a B2 examination but they can be accredited B1, A2, etc. according to the level shown in the different skills.
  18. 18. THE STUDY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE ITALIAN, ROMANIAN, SPANISH AND TURKISH SYSTEMS OF EDUCATION PE-MC-EAE Pag. 18 of 21 AIMED LEVEL National CERTIFICATES LEVEL TESTED % STUDENTS (end of High school), and English competence examination is part of the Baccalaureate exam. Students who get an international certificate don’t have to sit the examination in school SPAIN B1-B2 NO TURKEY B1-B2 NO In Romania and Italy there’s a tradition to accredit English level through an external international examination (Trinity, Cambridge, UCLES, IELTS, etc.). Most of state schools in Romania and Italy offer students extra classes and assistance to attend these examinations. On the other hand, in Spain and Turkey state schools usually don’t offer this opportunity, so if students are accredited, it is mainly by private interest. 5.8. CONTENT LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING (CLIL) CLIL is becoming more and more popular in secondary schools in all four countries but up to now it depends on school policies. One of the problems for this to be spread is the lack of teachers prepared to teach their subjects in English. Nevertheless, there is a new law in Italy and, starting from school year 2014-2015, it will be compulsory that at least one subject is taught in English in the last year of secondary school. 5.9. ADULT EDUCATION The majority of adult students in Italy, Romania, Spain and Turkey have already attended Secondary school but they didn’t get the diploma. They gave up education for different reasons: mainly they keep failing subjects for a while; some others interrupted their studies because they had to go to work and earn for a living, or they had family problems, early marriage or new interests. The reasons why they come back to school are different. The first one is to get a qualification to improve their working position, to find a better job or, if they are unemployed, to get a job. In all four countries, mainly due to the economic recession, students now attend courses because they need re-qualification and to get new skills. Most of them look for a certain specialism (lower than university) to find a job, to improve their working position or simply because they can’t afford to go to the college. Some of them are at risk of social exclusion due to economic hardships.
  19. 19. THE STUDY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE ITALIAN, ROMANIAN, SPANISH AND TURKISH SYSTEMS OF EDUCATION PE-MC-EAE Pag. 19 of 21 In Italy and Spain it is to notice the high percentage of migrants trying to get a diploma to have better chances to integrate in society and labour market. GET A QUALIFICATION IMPROVE THEIR POSITION / RUN A BUSINESS FIND A JOB PERSONAL AMBITION / IMPROVE THEIR POSITION PERSONAL / GO TO UNIVERSITY ITALY • • • • ROMANIA • • • • SPAIN • • • • TURKEY • • • • In Italy, Romania, and Turkey the percentage of adult students who are working is over 50% while in Spain is under 40%. Adult education in all four countries means people are over eighteen, most of the students being in their twenties and thirties. In Romania students cannot attend adult education if they aren’t over 18, but in Italy and Spain they can access adult education from 16 years old if they prove they cannot attend a normal secondary school because of different reasons: they have a job that doesn’t allow them to attend a normal secondary school, they are top sportsmen, etc. In Turkey, students who have failed for two years in secondary school must attend an adult school even if they are 15 years old. In the Italian Adult School system classes start in early September and finish in the middle of June, and lessons are from 6.25 pm to 10.35 pm from Monday to Friday. In Romania classes start at the end of September and finish in the second half of June (they can have extra practical classes for the summer). Lessons start at about 4 pm and finish about 9pm, but there are some groups that can have morning classes. In Spain classes start in the second half of September and finish in middle June. Adult schools have classes the whole day (morning groups, afternoon groups and evening groups). In the Turkish Adult School system classes also start in September and finish in June; classes for adults are at weekends or after 5 o'clock on weekdays. 5.10. ENGLISH IN ADULT SCHOOLS In all countries most adult students have already studied English at Secondary school but they have a very poor level of English. In Italy, Romania and Spain we find some real beginners who studied French or Russian when they were young. They are usually the oldest people in the lessons.
  20. 20. THE STUDY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE ITALIAN, ROMANIAN, SPANISH AND TURKISH SYSTEMS OF EDUCATION PE-MC-EAE Pag. 20 of 21 The number of weekly lessons is not enough to reach the level expected at the end of the course. In all four countries teachers have to follow the Ministry of Education curricula but they are quite free to choose topics, methodology and materials. In all countries the learning material mainly used at school is not addressed to adults and these materials lack of topics suitable and interesting for adult learners in each country. In all four countries English teachers tend to use the ready-made published materials but they also create their own materials. Moreover, Romanian teachers have to prepare every lesson by themselves because there are neither textbooks provided by school nor the free possibility to photocopy the printable materials. Adult students don't usually use English outside school. Italian adult students sometimes go on holiday abroad and this is a good opportunity to speak English. Only few adult Romanian students have been abroad for working or on holiday where they have had the chance to use English. Only few adult Spanish students have been abroad on holiday. Few of the adult Turkish students have been to other countries to work or on holiday.
  21. 21. THE STUDY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE ITALIAN, ROMANIAN, SPANISH AND TURKISH SYSTEMS OF EDUCATION PE-MC-EAE Pag. 21 of 21 REPORT AUTHORS Sorina Monica ANDREI Liceul Tehnologic de Servicii "Sfantul Apostol Andrei" Maurizio BONATESTA Istituto Statale d'Istruzione Superiore "Buonarroti - Fossombroni" Yolanda CABRÉ SANS Centre de Formació d'Adults Josepa Massanés i Dalmau Alessandra GATTESCHI Istituto Statale d'Istruzione Superiore "Buonarroti - Fossombroni" Rafael GUINOVART BELLMUNT, Centre de Formació d'Adults Josepa Massanés i Dalmau Nazan GÜVEN İnönü Teknik ve Endüstri Meslek Lisesi Sebastià POY ALEGRET Centre de Formació d'Adults Josepa Massanés i Dalmau Kezban Sevda YIYIT İnönü Teknik ve Endüstri Meslek Lisesi

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