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On the Literature Divergences of the
Humanitarian Supply Chain
Hossein Baharmand1
Laura Laguna Salvado1,2
Tina Comes1
Matt...
THE NEED FOR
RESEARCH ON
HUMANITARIAN
SUPPLY CHAIN (HSC):
• Raise of number of humanitarian disasters
• The gap between ap...
30.10.2015Baharmand et al.: On the literature divergences of the humanitarian supply chain
Research on humanitarian respon...
30.10.2015Baharmand et al.: On the literature divergences of the humanitarian supply chain 4
HUMANITARIAN LOGISTICS
• Logi...
30.10.2015Baharmand et al.: On the literature divergences of the humanitarian supply chain 5
METHODOLOGY AND FORMULATED QU...
• HSC encompasses all activities involved in sourcing,
procurement, conversion and logistics.
• Its different attributes i...
• Three categories that OR has focused on:
(a) facility location problems, (b) distribution problems,
(c) inventory decisi...
30.10.2015Baharmand et al.: On the literature divergences of the humanitarian supply chain 8
FLOW CONTROL
Developing softw...
30.10.2015Baharmand et al.: On the literature divergences of the humanitarian supply chain 9
TIME FRAMES
Literature concen...
30.10.2015Baharmand et al.: On the literature divergences of the humanitarian supply chain 10
DYNAMIC UNCERTAINTY
• Lack o...
30.10.2015Baharmand et al.: On the literature divergences of the humanitarian supply chain 11
RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
• Demand...
30.10.2015Baharmand et al.: On the literature divergences of the humanitarian supply chain 12
SUMMARY
ARCH DIRECTIONS
30.10.2015Baharmand et al.: On the literature divergences of the humanitarian supply chain 13
INTEGRATED DISTRIBUTION PLAN...
30.10.2015Baharmand et al.: On the literature divergences of the humanitarian supply chain 14
Rekik et al. 2013
30.10.2015Baharmand et al.: On the literature divergences of the humanitarian supply chain 15
DECENTRALISED SUPPLY NETWORK...
Thank you all for participating in this session
Contact us!
30.10.2015Baharmand et al.: On the literature divergences of t...
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On the Literature Divergences of the Humanitarian Supply Chain

Long-paper presented at ISCRAM-med 2015, Tunis, Tunisia
Abstract
The field of humanitarian logistics has evolved rapidly over the past decade, drawing on contributions from the areas of operations research, business engineering, supply chain management, information systems, and computer sciences. Even more varied are the specific problems that are modeled and addressed, ranging monitoring of the supply chain as a whole to decision support for specific sourcing or distribution decisions. While recently, few studies have presented taxonomies and identified research gaps, there is to this date not yet a clear understanding of how the different methodologies and domains shall be combined to achieve a consistent mix of methods and tools. In this paper, we present a start towards this aim comparing two distinct perspectives and related research approaches, methods and tools: business engineering and operations research. Our findings indicate that there are real opportunities for interdisciplinary research to improve the overal performance of the humanitarian supply chain.

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On the Literature Divergences of the Humanitarian Supply Chain

  1. 1. On the Literature Divergences of the Humanitarian Supply Chain Hossein Baharmand1 Laura Laguna Salvado1,2 Tina Comes1 Matthieu Lauras2 1 CIEM, University of Agder 2 Mines d’ Albi, University of Toulouse 30.10.2015
  2. 2. THE NEED FOR RESEARCH ON HUMANITARIAN SUPPLY CHAIN (HSC): • Raise of number of humanitarian disasters • The gap between appeals and funding 30.10.2015Baharmand et al.: On the literature divergences of the humanitarian supply chain 2 MORE EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT RESPONSE
  3. 3. 30.10.2015Baharmand et al.: On the literature divergences of the humanitarian supply chain Research on humanitarian response comprises a large variety of expertise and knowledge. It demands for integration across disciplines, like business-engineering science (BS) and operations research (OR): • BS looks at HSC management as a whole to keep track of all included processes and at the same time attempts to align them appropriately according to each other. • OR decomposes HSC into separate problems (like facility location, inventory management, transportation, etc.) and use modeling and simulation approaches to optimize their output. 3
  4. 4. 30.10.2015Baharmand et al.: On the literature divergences of the humanitarian supply chain 4 HUMANITARIAN LOGISTICS • Logistics deals with efficient and effective delivery; the challenge is to deliver the appropriate emergency supplies in sufficient quantities exactly when and where they are needed. • Humanitarian logisticians are forced to make quick vital decisions in a highly dynamic and uncertain environment where time pressure is high and resources are scarce due to strict budget limitations. • Challenges like network design, facility layouts, fleet planning, etc. • Humanitarian relief organizations are more focused on ‘getting the job done’ and have forgot about performance measurement! • There is a need for flexible ICT solutions that support relief operations. “Logistics is the part [of any disaster relief] that can mean the difference between a successful or failed operation.” Van Wassenhove, 2006
  5. 5. 30.10.2015Baharmand et al.: On the literature divergences of the humanitarian supply chain 5 METHODOLOGY AND FORMULATED QUESTIONS • BS and OR study HSC from different angles: holistic view vs. detailed simulations and modeling. • Four joint areas of interest are identified by reviewing recent survey papers in both disciplines: HSC structure; flow control mechanisms; time frames; dynamic uncertainty. • Research questions formulated referring to four frequently addressed topics in relation with BS and OR: • What is the state of the art in HSC? • What are future research directions in HSC?
  6. 6. • HSC encompasses all activities involved in sourcing, procurement, conversion and logistics. • Its different attributes in comparison to commercial supply chains ask for balance between aims in efforts: • Application of commercial process modeling in humanitarian sector is limited. • Furthermore, the use of simulation tools to evaluate modifications of the HSC and analysis of ongoing response processes is still needed. 30.10.2015Baharmand et al.: On the literature divergences of the humanitarian supply chain 6 HSC STRUCTURE (BS VIEW) Effectiveness Efficiency
  7. 7. • Three categories that OR has focused on: (a) facility location problems, (b) distribution problems, (c) inventory decision problems. • Survey papers propose that previous research assumptions and constraints leave the field still interesting for further research. • To understand the situation better, there is a need for ground up research: 30.10.2015Baharmand et al.: On the literature divergences of the humanitarian supply chain 7 HSC STRUCTURE (OR VIEW) Before field study After field study
  8. 8. 30.10.2015Baharmand et al.: On the literature divergences of the humanitarian supply chain 8 FLOW CONTROL Developing software for HSCM Performance Management Performance Indicator OR Challenges: • Zero lead-time, • Reliable commodity flow • Material convergence BS HSC
  9. 9. 30.10.2015Baharmand et al.: On the literature divergences of the humanitarian supply chain 9 TIME FRAMES Literature concentrate on response mainly because • BS: Time frames appears because HSC experience transitions from agility to leanness. Sometimes it is called leagile. • OR: Literature shows challenges in making and solving multi- period models. • BS & OR: During different time frames, objectives may become different: moving from effectiveness to efficiency. • BS & OR: To reflect real situations in the aftermath of disasters, we need multi-period and multi objective models. These models need to be solved timely efficient. It`s about saving lives Logistics plays a significant role Media coverage is huge
  10. 10. 30.10.2015Baharmand et al.: On the literature divergences of the humanitarian supply chain 10 DYNAMIC UNCERTAINTY • Lack of efficiency and misalignment of the response with the real situation are common implications of uncertainty. • BS suggests: • short term forecast and prediction; • focus on the beneficiaries’ needs; • the simulation of the HSC system. • A decision support system that enable decision makers to have a clear vision of the on-going situation and future of demand can help in facing uncertainties. • Shifting from deterministic modelling to stochastic modelling is required in OR. Furthermore, efficient solution for these models are necessary.
  11. 11. 30.10.2015Baharmand et al.: On the literature divergences of the humanitarian supply chain 11 RESEARCH DIRECTIONS • Demand for ground up research in both BS and OR to use in modeling and simulations. • Information flow is insufficient and there is a need for identifying performance indicators for HSC which benefits both BS and OR. • Referring to time frames, BS is looking for leagile management system and OR needs dynamic modeling. • Predictive decision support systems and stochastic modeling can help relief organization in dealing with uncertainties.
  12. 12. 30.10.2015Baharmand et al.: On the literature divergences of the humanitarian supply chain 12 SUMMARY ARCH DIRECTIONS
  13. 13. 30.10.2015Baharmand et al.: On the literature divergences of the humanitarian supply chain 13 INTEGRATED DISTRIBUTION PLANS • Integrated = Location + Allocation + Transportation • Literature review reveals rare efforts in integrated approaches in OR. • This research outcome will be a model that focuses on strategic and tactical decisions in response. • Stochastic and dynamic approach will be used for mathematical modeling. • Model parameters are driven by insights from a recent field study in Nepal (model development phase). • The developed model can be a part of a potential decision support system.
  14. 14. 30.10.2015Baharmand et al.: On the literature divergences of the humanitarian supply chain 14 Rekik et al. 2013
  15. 15. 30.10.2015Baharmand et al.: On the literature divergences of the humanitarian supply chain 15 DECENTRALISED SUPPLY NETWORK • Develop a DSS to orchestrate the supply network response with “leaglity” approach. • It focuses on operational decisions in response. • This research is based on the International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.  Today: 3 main global hubs  Not economically sustainable  Tomorrow (?): Use the Red Cross National Societies potentialities as logistic Network • It will have a direct interface and connection with the “distribution planes”.
  16. 16. Thank you all for participating in this session Contact us! 30.10.2015Baharmand et al.: On the literature divergences of the humanitarian supply chain 16 ciem.uia.no www.mines-albi.fr www.disasterresiliencelab.org hossein.baharmand@uia.no laura.lagunasalvado@mines-albi.fr tina.comes@uia.no matthieu.lauras@mines-albi.fr

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