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HelioVolt Printed Electronics/PV USA Dec 2010

An overview of methods of CIGS manufacture, and an introduciton to HelioVolts Reactive Transfer Processing.

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HelioVolt Printed Electronics/PV USA Dec 2010

  1. 1. CIGS Manufacturing TechnologyMatures: Perspective on ScalingB.J. StanberyChief Scientist, Founder, and ChairmanPrinted Electronics/Photovoltaics USA 20102 December 2010; Santa Clara, CAHelioVolt Confidential and Proprietary
  2. 2. HelioVolt Corporate History HelioVolt and NREL win R&D 100 Award Time Magazine’s “Best Inventions of 2006” Printed Electronics Industry Award 1st production run HelioVolt Wall Street Journal August 2009 founded Technology Award 12% cell 12% prototype module 11% production efficiency and 14% cell efficiency module efficiency FASST® Process wins achieved achieved achieved Nano50 Award 2001 2003 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Series A Series B Industry veteran Jim funding funding Flanary joins as CEO Commercial agreements NREL CRADA Exclusive NREL Opened first factory in signed for 3 years of established IP Agreement Austin, Texas productionPrinted Electronics/PV USA 2Dec 2010 2
  3. 3. HelioVolt Module Production Process Module Out Glass FASST® CIGS Module Final Assembly Preparation Process Formation & Test Glass InPrinted Electronics/PV USA 2Dec 2010 3
  4. 4. Our CIGS Products vs. Alternatives Our Process Glass In Module Out Glass FASST® CIGS Module Final Assembly Preparation Process Formation & Test Competitors’ CIGS Cell-Based Processes Substrate In Module Out Substrate CIGS Contact & Grid Final Assembly Cell Cut & Sort Cell Stringing Preparation Process Formation & Test Silicon Process Polysilicon Ingot Wafer Solar Cell Solar Module Source: Wall Street research.Printed Electronics/PV USA 2Dec 2010 4
  5. 5. HelioVolt CIGS Thin-Film Products P3 Monolithic Interconnect Structure ZnO P2 buffer P1 CIGS Moly substrate • Alloy of Copper, Indium, Gallium and Selenium • Highest efficiency single-junction thin-film PV semiconductor material – 20.3% conversion efficiency (ZSW) • CIGS is one of three known intrinsically stable PV materials (with Silicon and Gallium Arsenide) – Intrinsic stability required for long lived robust products • More efficient absorber of light than any other known semiconductor • Requires 1/100th of the material compared to silicon for comparable light absorptionPrinted Electronics/PV USA 2Dec 2010 5
  6. 6. Product Scaling and Performance Experience 14.0% Cell Efficiency 1364x scale-up Cell 3.0% 3 Months Prototype Module 12.0% Scalability Proof Efficiency DONE 4.5% Prototype 8x scale-up 2 Months 11.5% Efficiency 7.8% Module 2% Production Module Progress 4 Months 10 Months Commercial Production Size NOWPrinted Electronics/PV USA 2Dec 2010 6
  7. 7. 2010 Module Efficiency Progress 12% 120% Max 11% 110% CV = Std Dev Average 10% 100% Coefficient of Variation (CV) Average Efficiency 9% 90% 8% 80% 7% 70% 6% 60% Equipment 5% 50% CV Capability Upgrade 4% and 40% 3% Characterization 30% 2% 20% 1% 10% 0% 0% MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV 2010 Efficiency: average, maximum, and distribution improved significantly month-to-month 7
  8. 8. 11.5% Champion Module Efficiency 75 Watts 75 W 11.5% 8
  9. 9. Pre-Certification Reliability Tests Complete • Most recent modules underwent Damp Heat (DH) and Humidity Freeze (HF) testing for pre-certification reliability screening. • DH Modules followed IEC protocol 1000 hours at 85°C; 85% relative humidity. • Humidity Freeze – Half of the modules followed IEC protocol for HF test alone. – Half of the modules were tested per IEC protocol with 1000Hrs DH, then 1000Hrs HF. • No loss of power, Voc, Isc in any screening tests.Printed Electronics/PV USA 2Dec 2010 9
  10. 10. HelioVolt Module Rooftop Test Array Photograph of Factory Rooftop HelioVolt module test array. Array tracks performance of HelioVolt, as well as, other thin-film and silicon modules, and invertersPrinted Electronics/PV USA 2Dec 2010 10
  11. 11. Multiple Proven Ways to Win Performance Leader Next Gen Innovation 22% • First generation $1.2B players have proven market and value creation Module Efficiency $1.7B $1.2B 14% • Opportunity for $1.4B technology $9.2B innovation to trump incumbents 6% on both cost and Low Margin Manufacturers High Margin Manufacturers performance $2.00/w $1.00/w $0.50/w Module Cost Note: Market cap as of June 1, 2010. Source: Wall Street research.Printed Electronics/PV USA 2Dec 2010 11
  12. 12. Roadmap to 16% Module Efficiency 18% 12% Advanced TCO, Enhanced Transmission, Ultrafast Heating, Light Trapping Active Quenching, Predictive Design 6% Advanced Composition Baseline Process Grading Control 0% 2010 2011 2012 2013 • Development work based on HelioVolt patents and trade secrets will drive module efficiency from 10% to 16% • Applied Research – HelioVolt’s partnership with NREL will drive module efficiency from 16% to 21%Printed Electronics/PV USA 2Dec 2010 12
  13. 13. Printed Electronics/Photovoltaics USA 2010 2 December 2010; Santa Clara, CA MOTIVATION FOR ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO CIGS PROCESSINGPrinted Electronics/PV USA 2Dec 2010 13
  14. 14. Characteristics of an Ideal CIGS Manufacturing Method • High device-quality material – Ability to create intrinsic defect structures limiting recombination; role of the order-disorder transition? – Ability to control Group III and VI composition gradients – Control of extrinsic doping (e.g.: sodium) • High processing rate – Reduces capital cost for targeted throughput • Low thermal budget – Reduces operating cost and energy payback time • High materials utilization – Reduced materials consumption and recycling expensesPrinted Electronics/PV USA 2Dec 2010 14
  15. 15. Synopsis of Prior Art for CIGS Synthesis: Co-evaporation • First method to achieve 10% efficiency and research approach used to make all record cells since 1989 • Simultaneous evaporation of the constituent elements onto a high-temperature (450-700°C) substrate to directly synthesize CIGS in a single stage process • Competition between adsorption and desorption kinetics reduces (1) selenium utilization and (2) indium incorporation at temperatures near/above the order-disorder transition • Extended dwell at high temperatures generates high thermal budget and equipment costsPrinted Electronics/PV USA 2Dec 2010 15
  16. 16. Synopsis of Prior Art for CIGS Synthesis: Metal Precursor Selenization • Most well-developed, widely used approach for commercial manufacture of CIGS modules, providing good large-area uniformity • Deposition of multilayer metal films by PVD, plating, or particle suspensions followed by second-stage high-temperature annealing in Se or H2Se/H2S • Complex intermetallic alloying reactions and differential diffusion during selenization cause uncontrolled segregation • Selenium/Sulfur diffusion limits reaction rate and resulting extended dwell at high temperature generates high thermal budget; first stage deposition method determines materials utilization efficiency and capital intensityPrinted Electronics/PV USA 2Dec 2010 16
  17. 17. Synopsis of Prior Art for CIGS Synthesis: Oxide Precursor Selenization • High-speed printing of copper indium gallium oxide nanoparticle ink onto a metal foil substrate, subsequently annealed at high temperature in H2Se/H2S to convert the oxide into sulfo-selenide – Enables excellent materials utilization • Reduced diffusion lengths of chalcogens in nanoparticles speeds displacement reaction • Difficult recrystallization kinetics limit film densification and large grain growth • Composition gradient control challengingPrinted Electronics/PV USA 2Dec 2010 17
  18. 18. Synopsis of Prior Art for CIGS Synthesis: Stacked Elemental Layers (SEL) • Differs from the metal selenization approaches by incorporating layers of selenium, as well as the metals, into the precursor film itself – Circumvent the need to diffuse selenium through the entire thickness of the precursor stack – Enables intervention in intermetallic formation by stacking sequence control – Multi-step reaction kinetics shown to generate compound intermediates prior to CIGS formation • Rapid thermal processing used in second stage to minimize thermal budget and parasitic reactionsPrinted Electronics/PV USA 2Dec 2010 18
  19. 19. Printed Electronics/Photovoltaics USA 2010 2 December 2010; Santa Clara, CA REACTIVE TRANSFER PROCESSINGPrinted Electronics/PV USA 2Dec 2010 19
  20. 20. Reactive Transfer Processing of Compound Precursors • Two-stage process Se, S 112 = Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 – Low-temperature 247 = Cu2(In,Ga)4(Se,S)7 deposition of multilayer compound precursor Cu2Se3. .(In,Ga)2(Se,S)3 films CuSe. 112 .(In,Ga) (Se,S) 247 247 – RTP reaction of Cu2Se. .(In,Ga)4(Se,S)3 compound precursors to form CIGS Cu In, Ga Intermetallic PlethoraPrinted Electronics/PV USA 2Dec 2010 20
  21. 21. FASST® Reactive Transfer Processing Non-Contact Transfer (NCT™) Synthesis Process Step Cu, In, Ga, Se • Independent deposition of distinct compound precursor layers on Substrate substrate and source plate Source Plate with Transfer Film • Rapid non-contact reaction Pressure – Turns stack into CIGS with high efficiency grains Heat – Combines benefits of sequential selenization with Close-Spaced Vapor Transport (CSVT) for junction optimization Source Plate • CIGS adheres to the substrate and the source plate is reused Substrate CIGS Layer A rapid manufacturing process reduces depreciation of capitalPrinted Electronics/PV USA 2Dec 2010 21
  22. 22. Recrystallization of Nanoscale Vacuum Precursor Films Forming Large Grain CIGS Precursor Film FASST® CIGS cross-sectionPrinted Electronics/PV USA 2Dec 2010 22 © 2009 HelioVolt Corporation
  23. 23. Reactive Transfer Processing Compound Precursor Deposition • Two methods have been developed for deposition of compound precursors – Low-temperature Co-evaporation • Equipment requirements similar to conventional single- stage co-evaporation but lower temperatures lead to higher throughput and reduced thermal budget – Liquid Metal-Organic molecular solutions • Proprietary inks developed under NREL CRADA • Decomposition of inks leads to formation of inorganic compound precursor films nearly indistinguishable from co-evaporated films (for some compounds)Printed Electronics/PV USA 2Dec 2010 23
  24. 24. MOD Comparison with Vacuum Precursor Deposition MethodCo-evaporated Top View Top View SprayCIGS Precursor Deposited Film CIGS Precursor Film Cross Section Cross SectionPrinted Electronics/PV USA 2Dec 2010 24
  25. 25. Metal-Organic Decomposition (MOD) Precursor Film Deposition • Inorganic compound reaction CIGS synthesis provides pathway for evolutionary adoption of MOD precursors • Key drivers – Low capital equipment cost – Low thermal budget – High throughput • Flexibility – Good compositional control by chemical synthesis – Variety of Cu-, In- and Ga-containing inks can be synthesized and densified to form multinary sulfo-selenide precursors • Efficient use of materialsPrinted Electronics/PV USA 2Dec 2010 25
  26. 26. NREL CRADA – Hybrid CIGS by FASST® XRD SEM  Chalcopyrite CIGS (& Mo)  (220/204) preferred orientation  Exceptionally large grains achieved  Columnar structurePrinted Electronics/PV USA 2Dec 2010 26
  27. 27. Device Quality CIGS in 30 Seconds: First Ultra-Fast Heating ResultsPrinted Electronics/PV USA 2Dec 2010 27
  28. 28. HelioVolt Highlights• Disruptive CIGS technology• Extensive CIGS intellectual property portfolio• 9+ years and ~$145mm of R&D• Unique technology commercialization partnership with NREL• Full-scale R&D line in Austin• Deep technical team• Technical Accomplishments – 11.5% efficiency champion production module with >10.5% average efficiency• Efficiency roadmap to 16%+ by 2014• Plan for production expansion under development
  29. 29. Thank you!stanbery@heliovolt.comHelioVolt Confidential and Proprietary