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Definition and Classification Of Problem Solving. well defined vs. ill defined- Routine vs. Non Routine -Adversary vs. Non adversary - Knowledge Rich vs. Knowledge Lean Problems.

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Definition and Classification Of Problem Solving. well defined vs. ill defined- Routine vs. Non Routine -Adversary vs. Non adversary - Knowledge Rich vs. Knowledge Lean Problems.

- 1. Done by Haseena Thasneem kk
- 2. “ A Problem exists when a living organism has a goal but does not know how this goal is to be reached” Karl Duncker,1945
- 3. ‘ Problem solving is an active process where the person accesses stored knowledge and manipulates information in order to achieve a solution ’
- 4. Current approaches to understanding problem solving behavior use a common frame work for describing problems. This framework is based on Newell and Simon’s (1972) View of problem solving. Here problems are described in terms of their problem space, initial state, goal state, and operators.
- 5. The problem space is the problem solver’s internal or mental representation of the problem. it can include the initial, current, and goal states as well as operators that change the problem from one state to another. The initial state described the problem as it is presented to the problem solver at the beginning. For example: the initial state of a cryptarithmetic problem would include a series of letters arranged in a particular sequence such as, DONALD+ GERALD ROBERT And, perhaps some starting information (D=5)
- 6. The goal state describes the solution or final state of the problem. in the case of this problem, goal is to substitute a different single digit (from 0 to 9) for each of the ten distinct letters in the problem so that the digits add up properly. At the end the solution will show two rows of five digit numbers that add together to form another five digit number. the problem solver uses operators to move from the initial state to the goal state. Operators that modify Problem states. in the case of the cryptarithmetic problem, one class of operators involve substitution . for instance, 5 would be substituted for D and 0(zero) would be substituted for T. other operators would be based on the problem solvers knowledge of addition and arithmetic. As operators are applied , the problem state changes.
- 7. The Current state of a refers to the intermediate state of a problem that is currently being used by the problem solver. based on the operations discussed so far, the current state of the cryptarithmetic problem would be, 5ONALD GERAL5 ROBER0 the application of operators will changes the current state of the problem and this procedure should eventually result in the goal state being achieved.
- 9. A Well-defined problem is one for which the initial and goal states as well as the operators and actions needed to move from one state to another can be specified. A correct answer exist for a well defined problem. An anagram is a good example of a well –defined problem. the anagram “CLEPOMX” Is the initial state. By applying operators that rearrange the letters, the goal state, a word(COMPLEX), is achieved. it is of three types: Problem of inducing Structure Problem of transformation Problem of arrangement.
- 10. Problem of inducing structure. the classic example of it involves the use of analogies. For example , Up is to Down as Black is to…….? In problem solving notation, this problem is represented as up: down::black: ? The relationship for the first pair is one of opposites. Therefore, the correct response to maintain that structure (and relationship)is white, the opposite of black.
- 11. Problem of transformation it requires the problem solver to apply a sequence of operations or moves that will transform an initial state into the goal. Puzzles such as the Cryptarithmetic problem described earlier are a good example of problems of transformation. Problem of arrangement such as the anagram problem involves taking the elements of the problem and rearranging them until some criterion is achieved. the elements are not transformed into another form but are rearranged.
- 12. An Ill- defined problem has components of the problem space that are not specified(either initial or goal states or operators or some combinations). There may also be no one “correct” answer. (Buying an automobile or renting an apartment are two good examples of ill- defined problem. in both cases, the goal state, the car purchased or apartment that is rented, is not always known at the beginning of the problem. while the person have a ideal car or apartment in mind. often the one purchased or rented is not the ideal, but rather a compromise based on a number of factors.) Many of problems studied in laboratory are Well- defined, many of problems faced in life are ill defined.
- 13. Routine problems it involves application of operators in a predictable, systematic manner known to the problemsolver.Multi plying two four-digit number is a routine problem. the solver need only follow the rules for multiplying the digits to arrive at the solution. • Non- routine problems it requires the problem solver to apply operators in a novel fashion or use a procedure that is not well known to the user. Most of the psychological research in problem solving is based on no routine problems. Our insight into the problem solving process devoleps from studies involving nonroutine applications to problems.
- 14. In an Adversary Problem , the problem involves competition between two or more players. Chess is one example of an Adversary problem that has been studied extensively in problem- solving research. the opportunity for a competitor to change the problem space and to counter or alter changes made by the problem solver can make the problem space much more complex than in a nonadversary problem. The problem solver does not face a competitor in solving a nonadversary problem. There has been considerable research in some domains of adversary problems, example: chess playing; however the majority of problem solving research has focused on nonadversary problems. The amount of control a researcher can exert over the problem space is much greater for nonadversary problems than for adversary problems.
- 15. There is a further important distinction between knowledge- rich and knowledge-lean problems. Knowledge-rich problems can only be solved by individuals possessing a considerable amount of specific knowledge, whereas knowledge- lean problems do not require the possession of such knowledge. In approximate terms, most traditional research on problem solving has involved the use of knowledge-lean problems, whereas research on expertise (e.g., chess grandmasters) has involved knowledge-rich problems