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Started from beginning of 20th Century
World War 1 (1914-1918)
Emergence of new Nations
Women Rights Issues
Prepared by Hajat Hussain
A Major Literary Movement
Started in Early 20th Century
Influenced by Charles Darwin
and Karl Marx Theories
No Connection With History
When Writers felt they required new
form of writing
Dissillusionment of Victorian
ideas,belief and their way of writing
The age of Dissillusionment
The age of Machine
The age of innovations
The Age of Interrogations
The Age of War
The Age of Disintegration
Irony and satire as a tool of point out
faults, problems within society
Important characteristic of Modern
literature is that it is oppositon of the
At the end of Victorian era There was
felt the need of a change in the sphere of
The modern writers could no longer write in
the old manner
Writers of the twentieth saw the coming
future of the ‘Golden age’
ThisVictorian idea of permanancy was
replaced among the twentieth century
writers by the sense that nothing is fixed
and final in the world.
TheVictorians believed in the sanctity of
home life, but in twentieth century the
sentiments of family life declined
Science and Arts really influenced the
Psychology also influence
The Psychoanalytic theories of Sigmund
Frued became more popular and widely
T.S Eliot was dominant figure
TheWaste Land His famous Poem
Totally AgainstVictorianism and
The twentieth century poets who were in
In the nineteenth century poetry the main
characteristics was preoccupation with a
Under the new conditions modern poets
could not take dream habit seriously.
Arnold was not qualified to give a new
direction to the poetry
Browning had no aptitude to
understand the complexities of modern life
It was essential that a new techniques of
Which brought about the movements
known as Imagism and Symbolism in
Modern Poets excercise to get a freedom in
choice of new themes
Use new and wide range of subjects ,
themes and issues.
Features of Modern Poetry....
Totally against the Victorian and
The disappearance of religious faith
regular metre have been discarded
no regular rhyming scheme
Juxtaposition of ideas
Use of free verse
Use of irony
Use of metaphors
Movements in Modern Poetry.....
Literary movement in early 20th century
This Movement was Active for 10 Years
First revolt against the Victorian and Romantic
The Imagists rejected the 19th century poetic
form and language.
The imagists rejected the sentiments of
Victorian and Romantic Poetry
They use the Common language
They used exact words instead of
They create new rhythms
According to them poems are works of art
and not pieces of emotional
A revolutionary impact on English-
language writing for the rest of the 20th
Leader of Imagists was Ezra Pound. Other
poets were F.S Flint, James Joyce etc.
First started in France
Representing things by means of symbols.
The symbolists found beauty in every detail
of normal day by day life
The symbolists doesnot consider any
particular topic, diction or rhytm to be used
The technique of the symbolists is
impressionistic not representational
The Symbolists poetry in England came
into prominence with the appearance of
Yeats, Joyce etc were Symbolists.
Thomas Stearns Eliot (1888-1965)
Born in USA
Chief representative and a dominant figure
A social philospher
Educated at Harvard University
he poet surveys the desolate scene of the
The Love Song of J.Alfed Prufrock
The Dry salvages
William Butler Yeats (1865-1939)
He was anti-rationalist
Founder of Celtic Movement
Due to World War 1 Yeats wrote in
The Wanderings of Oisin
The Poet Pleads with the Elements powers
a symbolism poem
The Shadowy Waters
The Winding Stair
The Wind at Coole
Trench Poets or War Poets
The poets who wrotes about war
Most important and popular literary
Only literary form which can compete for
popularity with the film and the radio.
Only literary form which meets the need of
the modern world
The modern man also under the influence
of science, is not particularly interested in
the metaphorical expression which is the
characteristic of poetry.
The modern man prefers the novel form
The modern scientific discoveries, the new
The development of psychology
The stream of consciousness technique,
became an important part of novelist
technique in the twentieth century.
The modern novel is realistic. Realistic
opposed to idealistic
The modern novel is Psychological
Under the influence of Sigmund Frued
theories the modern novel tends to reveal
the hidden inner motives behind people’s
This term was introduced byWilliam James.
Used in Novels
A technique that reveals the character
completely historically as well as
Used byVirginiaWoolf and James Joyce
1. The Ancestors
2. The Transitionalists
3. The Moderns
Novelists who dominated the earlier part of the
Herbert George Wells (1866-1946)
insisted that classical humanism should be
discarded in favour of science and biology
No loyalty to the past.
Their novels divided into three parts
1. Scientific romance
2. Domestic novels
3. Sociological novels
Masterpieces of imaginative power
The Time Machine –hero invent time
machine and accelerate the and project
himself into the future.
The Island and Dr. Moreau (1896)
The War of the Worlds’ (1898): Theme of
the invasion of Earth by Mars.
When the Sleeper Wakes (1899)
The First Man in the Moon (1901)
The Food of the Gods (1904)
Domestic novels ....
familiar with the life in London.
Kipps (1905): Comedy of class instincts, full
of satire and humour
Tono Bungay (1909): Disintegration of
Love and Mrs. Lewisham (1910)
The History of Mr. Polly (1910)
Social problems confronting the men of his
The New Machiavelli (1911): Story of political
and sociological creeds.
Mr. Britling sees itThrough (1916): Reaction
of people toWorld War I.
The Undying fire (1919): Religious and
the new forces resulted from the war which
broke the old tradition.
James Joyce (1822-1941)
• An Irish
• Unique and extraordinary genius
worked in the ‘stream of consciousness’
Ulysses (1922): Masterpiece, epic,
counterpart of Homer’s Odyssey, speech not
action-a token of humanity, does not present
to life. Used stream of consiousness
The Dubliners (1914)
A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
Used ‘stream of consciousness’ technique
Impressed by Ulysses
Gifted with poetic temperament
TheVoyage Out (1918): Meaning of life.
Night and Day (1919)
Jacob’s Room (1922): first serious
experiment in the stream of consciousness
Mrs. Dalloway (1925)
To the Lighthouse (1927)
Orlando (1928): Liveliest, fantasy.
TheYears (1937): Simpler form of fiction
William Somerset Maugham (1874-1965)
He was Novelist
Short story writer
Liza of Lambeth (1897): Naturalistic,
Picture of life.
Of Human Bondage (1915)
The Moon and Sixpence (1919)
Cakes and Ale (1930)
The Razor’s Edge (1944): Maugham
seeks the meaning of life.