2. Origins and Development of Sociology
Society, Sociology and its Method
The Social Sciences
3. “Study hard and you will do well in life.”
“If you do this elective or set of electives you
will have a better chance of getting a good
job in the future”.
“As a boy/girl this does not seem a correct
choice of job”
“Your family needs you to get a job soon so
why choose a profession that will take a very
long time” or “You will join your family
business so why do you wish to do this job?”
4. Sociology makes a scientific study of society:
Prior to the emergence of sociology the study
of society was carried on in an unscientific
manner and society had never been the
central concern of any science.
It is through the study of sociology that the
truly scientific study of the society has been
5. Sociology because of its bearing upon many
of the problems of the present world has
assumed such a great importance that it is
considered to be the best approach to all the
6. Sociology studies role of the institutions in
the development of the individuals: It is
through sociology that scientific study of the
great social institutions and the relation of
the individual to each is being made.
The home and family ,the school and
education, the church and religion, the state
and government ,industry and work ,the
community and association, these are
institutions through which society functions.
7. Sociology studies these institutions and their
role in the development of the individual and
suggests suitable measures for re
strengthening them with a view to enable
them to serve the individual better.
8. Study of sociology is indispensable for
understanding and planning of society:
Society is a complex phenomenon with a
multitude of intricacies.
It is impossible to understand and solve its
numerous problems without support of
It is rightly said that we cannot understand
and mend society without any knowledge of
its mechanism and construction.
9. Without the investigation carried out by
sociology no real effective social planning
would be possible.
It helps us to determine the most efficient
means for reaching the goals agreed upon.
A certain amount of knowledge about society
is necessary before any social policies can be
10. Sociology is of great importance in the
solution of social problems: The present
world is suffering from many problems which
can be solved through scientific study of the
It is the task of sociology to study the social
problems through the methods of scientific
research and to find out solution to them.
11. The scientific study of human affairs will
ultimately provide the body of knowledge and
principles that will enable us to control the
conditions of social life and improve them.
12. Sociology has drawn our attention to the
intrinsic worth and dignity of man: Sociology
has been instrumental in changing our
attitude towards human beings.
In a specialized society we are all limited as
to the amount of the whole organization and
culture that we can experience directly.
13. We can hardly know the people of other areas
In order to have insight into and appreciation
of the motives by which others live and the
conditions under which they exist a
knowledge of sociology is essential.
14. Sociology has changed our outlook with
regard to the problems of crime etc: It is
through the study of sociology that our whole
outlook on various aspects of crime has
change. The criminals are now treated as
human beings suffering from mental
deficiencies and efforts are accordingly made
to rehabilitate them as useful members of the
15. Sociology has made great contribution to
enrich human culture: Human culture has
been made richer by the contribution of
sociology. The social phenomenon is now
understood in the light of scientific
knowledge and enquiry. According to Lowie
most of us harbor the comfortable delusion
that our way of doing things is the only
sensible if not only possible one.
16. Sociology has given us training to have
rational approach to questions concerning
oneself, one's religion, customs, morals and
It has further taught us to be objective,
critical and dispassionate.
It enables man to have better understanding
both of himself and of others.
17. By comparative study of societies and groups
other than his existence ,his life becomes
richer and fuller than it would otherwise be.
Sociology also impresses upon us the
necessity of overcoming narrow personal
prejudices, ambitions and class hatred.
18. Sociology is of great importance in the
solution of international problems: The
progress made by physical sciences has
brought the nations of the world nearer to
each other. But in the social field the world
has been left behind by the revolutionary
progress of the science.
19. The world is divided politically giving rise to
stress and conflict. Men have failed to bring
in peace. Sociology can help us in
understanding the underlying causes and
20. The value of sociology lies in the fact that it
keeps us update on modern situations: It
contributes to making good citizens and
finding solutions to the community problems.
It adds to the knowledge of the society. It
helps the individual find his relation to
21. The study of social phenomena and of the
ways and means of promoting what Giddens
calls social adequacy is one of the most
urgent needs of the modern society.
Sociology has a strong appeal to all types of
mind through its direct bearing upon many of
the initial problems of the present world.
22. West - Plato‟s Republic and Aristotle‟s Ethics
and Politics ---
India – Upanishads, Sutras and the Puranas
Special importance – Laws of Manu or
Sukracharya – Nitisastra
Arthasastra by Chanakya or Kautilya is the
most famous work of ancient Indian literature
on this subject
Persians - Zoroaster
23. The term sociology was coined by French
philosopher and sociologist Auguste Comte
Latin societas (society) and the Greek logos
He defined sociology as the science of social
24. Herbert Spencer – His sociology is essentially
He asserted that society was like an organism
or living body
Frederic Le Play – applied case-study method
to his research; introduced the survey
method and the concept of „participant
25. Karl Marx (economist)
Charles Durkheim (biologist)
Sigmund Freud (Psycho analyst)
26. Emile Durkheim and Max Weber became
Durkheim – ultimate social reality is the
group, not the individual
Max Weber introduced interpretive
understanding (Verstehen) in sociology
For him individual is the basic unit of society
His approach is opposite to that of Durkheim
27. Verstehen refers to understanding the
meaning of action from the actor's point of
It is entering into the shoes of the other, and
adopting this research stance requires
treating the actor as a subject, rather than an
object of your observations.
28. Evolutionary and organismic theories
Naturalist and analytical
29. In the simplest sense ,evolution means the
slow process of change from a simple to a
more complex structure.
Evolution assumes that all living things are
Humans are supposed to have developed
from some simpler forms.
30. Most of the scientists today accept the basic
principle of evolution but they have varying
views regarding how evolution has taken
place or how far it has gone.
The evolution of life began in the oceans.
About four hundred million years ago the first
land based creatures emerged.
31. Some of these gradually evolved into the
large reptiles who were later displaced by
Mammals are warm-blooded creatures having
greater capacity to learn from experience
than other animals and this capacity has
reached its highest development in the
32. Our closest relatives are chimpanzee, gorilla
Though similarities between man and other
animal forms were discovered by Linnaeus
who grouped men ,the great ape and
monkeys in a single order, the main theory is
Survival of the fittest through struggle for
33. A further elaboration of the evolutionary
Darwin and Spencer
Those which conceive of society as a
biological organism with nerves, tissues, cells
34. Naturalism or positivism: Attempts to equate
the methods of sociology to those of the
natural sciences such as physics, chemistry
and biology by using external observation
and measurement or quantification
Inspiration: Comte, Pareto
There is no qualitative difference between
physical and social relations
Disown introspection, interpretation
35. Inspiration: Max Weber
Difference between natural and social
sciences (contrast to naturalistic)
Introspection, interpretation techniques have
their place in sociology
36. Widely followed in modern times
Inspiration: Comte, Spencer, Durkheim, and
All parts of a culture or group are integrated
into the whole or are interdependent on each
other and social phenomena are functions or
effects of social structures such as class
37. Sociology – Latin societas (society) and the
Greek logos (study or science)
Reciprocal recognition and commonness are
the characteristic features of every social
Method – Greek meta (with, after) and hodos
(way) --- an apt way of doing something,
investigating or teaching with brevity,
thoroughness and the like.
Method vs. technique
38. For convenience, I decide to take a side path
instead of the high road in order to go to a
village, I may do it by going on foot or on
The following of the side path is the method
and the use of the bicycle the technique.
39. Formulation of the Problem
40. Juvenile delinquency refers to antisocial or
illegal behavior by children or adolescents
41. A hypothesis is a proposed explanation for an
Chocolate may cause pimples.
Salt in soil may affect plant growth.
Plant growth may be affected by the color of
Bacterial growth may be affected by
Ultra violet light may cause skin cancer.
Taller people have larger handspans
If I eat pizza everyday then I get fat.
42. When certain conditions obtain, broken
homes are the main cause of juvenile
If we give plant A more fertilizer than plant B
then plant A will grow faster than plant B.
43. America --- broken homes are the main
cause of juvenile delinquency
France, India, Brazil and other nations????
We cannot accept this hypothesis as general
44. Archimedes principle: „A body immersed in a
fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the
weight of the liquid it displaces‟
Fluid – water, oil or any other liquid
This we can always predict without fear of
being wrong. By prediction the law shows that
it can act as such
45. Sociology and Economics
Sociology and Political Science
Sociology and History
Sociology and Psychology
Sociology and Anthropology
Sociology and Ethics
Other Social Sciences
46. Economics is the study of production and
distribution of goods and services.
As the economic process develops in society,
it influences and is influenced by the social
life of man; the relation between these two
sciences is very intimate.
Many economists like Max Weber interpret
economic change as an aspect of social
47. The study of economics would be misleading
and incomplete apart from its social setting –
an opinion that has gained considerable
ground during the last few decades.
As the economic system is embedded in the
social structure as a part of it, the study of
the former cannot be undertaken but as a
function of the latter; that‟s why Economics
must be the handmaid of sociology.
48. Economics deals with the production of
goods and services and how they are
distributed to people just like sociology which
also consider how the goods are distributed
to members of the society.
49. Political science deals with social groups
organized under the sovereignty of the state
Law and freedom; legislative power etc.
Close affinity between sociology and political
science but the view points are different; the
former looks upon a state as a social
institution; the latter as the supreme
regulating power of the community and the
source of political law
50. The correlation between these two branches
as per Giddings: “To teach the theory of the
state to men who have not learned the first
principles of sociology, is like teaching
astronomy or thermodynamics to men who
have not learned Newton‟s laws of motion.”
51. Sociology and Political science are also
related in the sense that they both concern
the welfare of people in a society.
Political science basically deals with the
distribution of power and the exercise of
power, democracy, dictatorship, communism,
how people vote etc.
52. Ethics is concerned with the moral rightness
or depravity of human actions
It investigates the laws of morality and
formulates the principles and rules of morally
53. A peaceful strike directed to improve the
condition of the working classes, when all
other legal means have proved futile, is
morally good, or at least not wrong; whereas
the same strike, used as a piece of
revolutionary strategy, with the object of
spreading unrest in the population, is
54. No ethical action is possible unless it is social
Not everything that is social is ethical
55. Do not furnish the image of competitors by
Do not deceive or cheat the customers by
selling substandard or defective products by
under measurement or any other means.
Do not report to hoarding, black marketing or
56. Ensure payment of fair wages and fair
treatment to the internal customers as well as
external customers and share holders.
Make accurate business records so that
transparency to the share holders can be
Treasure sincerity and accuracy in
advertising, labeling and packaging.
57. Kidney transplantation in India has become
most popular because of easy availability at
The doctors run into confusion when they
come across the situation where a patient‟s
life can be saved by disturbing the health of
58. The physical and cultural development of
human beings from their origin to the present
time is the object of the study of
Human Evolution, Physical anthropology,
Archaeology, Cultural anthropology, Social
59. Human evolution (study of fossil man)
Physical anthropology (concerned with bodily
characteristics of racial groups)
Archaeology (attempts to reconstruct the
social life of prehistoric man)
Cultural anthropology (study of man‟s culture
both material and non-material)
Social anthropology (deals with man as a
social being, in which sense it would coincide
60. The non material aspects of any culture are
its beliefs, customs, philosophy, patterns and
ways of communication (verbal and non-
verbal) and its government.
The material aspect of culture consists of the
physical. These are houses, food items,
factories, raw materials and technologies.
Every culture is the product of this interaction
between its' material and non material
61. History primarily deals with past events.
Sociology on the other end will be concerned
with how people interacted, how culture was
History emphasizes particular historical
occurrences; sociology deals in general.
62. History primarily deals with past events and
how they affected society e.g., how the
colonization of Africa underdeveloped Africa.
Sociology on the other end will be concerned
with how people interacted, how culture was
affected etc during the colonization and the
63. The primary interest of the sociologist is the
finding of the general laws of society and that
of the historian the reconstruction of the
order in which historical events have been
History deals with human events in so far as
they are correlated in time, while sociology
studies them from the viewpoint of the social
64. While the historian describes the Napolean
wars with all the circumstances
accompanying them, a sociologist would
study their impact on the lives of the people,
the role that these wars had on the
subsequent development of the nationalistic
spirit in Europe and the part that convictions
and propaganda played in arousing the spirits
of patriots against the invader.
65. While the historian may deal with the
development of the family in different
civilizations, the sociologist‟s task is to
investigate into the various forms of this
institution; to trace the morphological
similarity between them; to find their
correlations so as to be able to formulate the
laws of change and causality that intervene
among those traits and institutions.
66. As society is fundamentally a mental
phenomenon, the relation between social
psychology and sociology becomes at once
67. Social psychology deals with the mental
processes of man considered as a social
being. It studies particularly the influence of
group life on the mental development of the
individual; the effect of the individual mind
on the group, and the development of the
mental life of the groups within themselves
and in their relations with one another.
68. Psychology and Sociology link on that they
deal with the behavior of people, psychology
deals with the behavior of people and their
mental process just like sociology which also
seek to understand how people's behavior
The distinction is that the one studies society
from the view point of the community
element; the other from the viewpoint of
psychological factors involved
Sociology of communication
Prognostics or futurology (society of future).
“FASTEST GROWING SCIENCE”
70. Meeting point of sociology and philosophy
Its role is the study of the fundamental
principles and concepts of social life in their
epistemological and axiological aspects
Epistemological : philosophical study of
Axiological : philosophical study of values
71. Ontological: fundamental principles and
concepts of social life such as man, society,
justice, happiness etc.
Criteriological: criticizes or inquires into the
validity of the principles and conclusions of
the social sciences
Synthetic: Seeks to bring together its results
with those of the other sciences that deal
72. In its axiological aspect social philosophy
deals with the ultimate values of social life
and the means of attaining them.
Its objective is, therefore, the attainment of
the social good in itself and in its relations
with ultimate moral values.