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Theme : PERSPECTIVE ON URBAN REDEVELOPMENT
1 43rd
ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE URBAN AFFAIRS ASSOCIATION
3-6 April 2013, San F...
Theme : PERSPECTIVE ON URBAN REDEVELOPMENT
2 43rd
ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE URBAN AFFAIRS ASSOCIATION
3-6 April 2013, San F...
Theme : PERSPECTIVE ON URBAN REDEVELOPMENT
3 43rd
ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE URBAN AFFAIRS ASSOCIATION
3-6 April 2013, San F...
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  1. 1. Theme : PERSPECTIVE ON URBAN REDEVELOPMENT 1 43rd ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE URBAN AFFAIRS ASSOCIATION 3-6 April 2013, San Francisco California,United States of America REVITALIZING URBAN DEVELOPMENT IN MALAYSIA THROUGH THE IMPLEMENTATION OF URBAN REGENERATION PROGRAMME by Dahlia Rosly dahlia@townplan.gov.my Azmizam Abdul Rashid azmizam@townplan.gov.my Abstract Malaysia’s modern urban growth, development and urbanisation experiences may be conveniently periodised into three major periods, based on the form, structure and functions of the urban centres. . In Malaysia, given the growing conditions of neglect and degradation of the cities centers. Since most Malaysian city centers are very old historical cities and seem to be rediscovering now the economic value of creative industries and culture. Urban revitalization and regeneration together with the issues of energy sustainability and the need to reduce pollutant emissions, are today the major challenges facing the planning of cities. The concept of urban regeneration in Malaysia’s cities to promote a “return to the city”, revitalise the city centre, restore activity in a fiercely competitive international context, and implement initiatives to improve the quality of the environment operating in a wide sense towards a smart growth. Urban regeneration is more than just upgrading the physical environment of an area to hopefully spark private investment. However one of most critical issue in urban regeneration is gentrification. This should not be happening in the true spirit of urban revitalization. Instead of displacing the existing community, they should be relocated to the same site. Therefore urban regeneration processes accomplishes the growing importance in literature of concepts like territorial governance, institutional relational density, creativity, social capital, city branding, city image and place marketing. Kuala Lumpur City Hall is among the municipalities practices urban regeneration by recognizing it as one of the strategic directions the city will take in an effort to encourage more sustainable lifestyles. Keywords : urban revitalization, urban regeneration, gentrification, public participation Introduction By 2050, the world population is expected to increase by 2.5 billion, passing from 6.7 billion in 2008 to 9.2 billion. At the same time, the population living in urban areas is projected to increase from 3.3 billion in 2008 to 6.4 billion in 2050. Thus, the urban areas of the world are expected to absorb all the population growth expected over the next four decades while at the same time drawing in some of the rural population (OECD, 2005). Most of the population growth expected in urban areas will be concentrated in the cities and towns of the less developed regions. Asia, in particular, is projected to see its urban population increase by 1.8 billion, Africa by 0.9 billion, and Latin America and the Caribbean by 0.2 billion. Population growth is therefore becoming largely an urban phenomenon concentrated in the developing world.
  2. 2. Theme : PERSPECTIVE ON URBAN REDEVELOPMENT 2 43rd ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE URBAN AFFAIRS ASSOCIATION 3-6 April 2013, San Francisco California,United States of America There will be an increasingly large population to accommodate in the context of space requirements for economic and social activities. Malaysia’s population in mid-2009 stood at 28.3 million, and the United Nations projects the nation’s population to grow to 40.4 million by 2050. Projections from Malaysia’s National Physical Plan indicate that the population of Peninsular Malaysia would increase to 26.8 million in 2020, from a total of 18.5 million in 2000. Peninsular Malaysia’s population would largely reside in urban areas of various levels and categories. While Peninsular Malaysia’s urban population stood at 65.4 percent (12.1 million) in 2000, it is expected to increase to 75 percent (20.1 million) in 2020. Spatial requirements for urban and city development would thus continue to be a challenge to meet the needs of the ever increasing population (OECD, 2001). Cities and towns will expand in size and nature to play very important roles as engines of growth to spur development. Cities are expected to provide economic opportunities, and create conducive social environments for a better quality of life. Cities will grow, evolve and age over time into complex and dynamic systems to meet the needs of evolving businesses, employment, housing needs and lifestyles through generations. However, the urban population’s expansion over the last 50 years has placed excessive pressure upon the limited resources of the environment. Excessive industrial growth, increased motorized transportation movements and social lifestyle expectations, contribute to the expansion and continued sprawling of cities’. This gives rise to the excessive use of energy and carbon burning which affects the environment and the inner cities (OECD,2001). At the same time, older cities now face deteriorating urban infrastructure and services, inefficient water supply, sanitation, waste management, and transportation problems as well as worsening environmental conditions. Challenges in planning and managing urban and cities development, would therefore escalate in time when land for expansion is scarce. Continued sprawling and expansion of cities in valuable greenfield areas consequently leaves areas of inner cities to run down and decay in dilapidated conditions. This adversely affects the physical, economic, and social environments of inner city areas (Paddison,1993). Arising Issues of Urban Development in the World Cities or part of cities experiencing urban decay are easily recognized by characteristics which include depopulation, economic restructuring, property abandonment, high unemployment, fragmented families, political disenfranchisement, crime, and desolate and unfriendly urban landscapes. Brownfield on the other hand commonly denotes any former or current commercial or industrial site that is currently vacant or underutilized and on which there has been, or there is suspected to have been, a discharge of a contaminant. Generally, brownfields are properties that are abandoned or underutilized because of either real or perceived contamination. By common definition, brownfield site is a product of urban decay and are more often associated with land left vacant or under-used due to contamination caused by previous land use activities such as waste disposal and manufacturing activities.
  3. 3. Theme : PERSPECTIVE ON URBAN REDEVELOPMENT 3 43rd ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE URBAN AFFAIRS ASSOCIATION 3-6 April 2013, San Francisco California,United States of America However the term is also used to refer to any land or premises which has been used or developed and is not currently fully in use, which by this definition, also include underutilized urban residential land. Urban decay was first associated with Western cities, especially North America and parts of Europe during the 1970s and 1980s during when, major changes in global economies, transportation, and government policies created conditions that fostered urban decay. In North America, industrial based city such as Detroit is an example of a big city which has experienced urban decay. The car manufacturing sector was the base for Detroit's prosperity and employed the majority of its residents. When this industry began relocating outside of the city, it experienced massive population loss with associated urban decay, particularly after the 1967 riots. On continental Europe, the inner city districts and the edge of town suburbs made up of single-class state subsidised housing, such as the French "cités" and British "council estates", suffer the worst decay and blight. Britain experienced severe urban decay in the 1970s and 1980s (Davidson & Lees 2005). According to Paddison,1993, major cities like Glasgow in Scotland, the towns of the South Wales valleys, and some of the major English industrial cities like Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool, Newcastle, and East London all experienced population decreases with very large areas of 19th century housing experiencing market price collapse. Large French cities are often surrounded by decayed areas. While the city center tends to be occupied mostly by middle - as well as upper-class residents, the city is often surrounded by very large mid to high-rise housing projects. The concentration of poverty and crime radiating from the developments often cause the entire suburb to fall into a state of urban decay as more affluent citizens seek housing in the city, or further out in semi-rural areas. In early November 2005, the decaying northern suburbs of Paris were the scene of severe riots sparked in part by the substandard living conditions in public housing projects. The Need for Urban Regeneration Considering that land is a scarce resource, it is thus essential that land especially urban land needs to be properly, efficiently, profitably, feasibly and professionally invested, developed, administered and managed. The objective is to ensure that urban land is used efficiently and effectively in relation to the national development objectives which call for growth with equity (Brebbia, 2000). Whilst it is considered easier and cheaper to look for ‘greenfields’ to solve development pressure resulting from rapid urbanisation, efficient land use management dictates that there is the need to adapt to external as well as internal pressures within the existing urban area and look at these brownfield as potential sites for re-development that can accommodate the increase in demand for more and better housing accommodation as well as other usage, thus the need for urban renewal or regeneration. In other words, urban regeneration is a solution to the opportunities and challenges presented by urban degeneration itself (Roberts & Sykes, 2008). In the United States, the main responses to urban decay have been through positive public
  4. 4. Theme : PERSPECTIVE ON URBAN REDEVELOPMENT 4 43rd ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE URBAN AFFAIRS ASSOCIATION 3-6 April 2013, San Francisco California,United States of America intervention and policy, through a plethora of initiatives, funding streams, and agencies, using the principles of New Urbanism (or through Urban Renaissance, its UK/European equivalent). Early government policies included "urban renewal" and building of large scale housing projects for the poor. Today with many people interested in moving back to the inner cities, new urbanism has renewed and restored some of these neighborhoods. Due to higher population densities in Europe, economics dictate that extremely low-density housing would be impractical. In Western Europe, where land is much less in supply and urban areas are generally recognised as the drivers of the new information and service economies, urban regeneration has become a quasi industry in itself, with hundreds of agencies and charities set up to tackle the issue. European cities have the benefit of historical organic development patterns already concurrent to the New Urbanist model, and although derelict, most cities have attractive historical quarters and buildings ripe for redevelopment. In the suburban estates and cités the solution is often more drastic with 1960s and 70s state housing projects being totally demolished and rebuilt in a more traditional European urban style, with a mix of housing types, sizes, prices, and tenures, as well as a mix of other uses such as retail or commercial. One of the best examples of this is in Hulme, Manchester, which was cleared of 19th century housing in the 1950s to make way for a large estate of high-rise flats. During the 1990s it was cleared again to make way for new development built along new urbanist lines. The area is held up as an excellent example of Urban Renaissance. In the local scene, in particular in Kuala Lumpur City, the local authority in its effort to elevate the city’s status at par with other premier cities in the world, urban regeneration has been recognized as one of urban planning mechanism that can help achieve the target. Under the Draft KL City Plan 2020, older areas which include dilapidated and blighted housing areas, abandoned projects, brownfield sites and urban villages will be systematically and progressively regenerated and revived according to the urgency of the urban needs. Urban regeneration is a complex combination of social, economic, planning, construction and management activities. These elements of urban regeneration are brought together to improve the social sustainability, economic stability and the infrastructure of a geographical location and so help improve the sustainability of the urban landscape it occupies. There has been a trend towards including agencies outside the local authority in urban regeneration strategies. Experiences of successful regeneration demonstrated that urban regeneration is most effective when it is delivered in partnership with those groups and organizations best placed to influence the success of urban regeneration projects. This means that local authorities deliver urban regeneration in partnerships which can include Central Government, construction companies, other private sector organizations and, perhaps most importantly, local communities (Paddison, 1993). Consultation with local communities about urban regeneration plans has been recognized as being vital to the success of urban regeneration projects. This is because urban regeneration has direct links to, and affects directly, the communities living in
  5. 5. Theme : PERSPECTIVE ON URBAN REDEVELOPMENT 5 43rd ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE URBAN AFFAIRS ASSOCIATION 3-6 April 2013, San Francisco California,United States of America the areas where regeneration is planned. As a consequence, community regeneration is an integral part of urban regeneration and it is now hard to imagine the success of any regeneration project involving residential property where the views of local communities were not taken into account. Successful urban regeneration will not only work at the physical level but will result in successful, viable, vibrant and sustainable communities (Davidson & Lees, 2005). Urban Regeneration : The Dynamic Approaches in Urban Development In facing these challenges, planning and managing cities in this context require new and dynamic approaches. Initiatives and actions to refresh city living and treat cities as living ecosystems, is inevitable. Measures to mitigate and adapt to climate change impacts and fostering the involvement of private sector and civil society in the process of urbanization, is pertinent. Managing urban issues and development requires integrated approaches in reviving the development of cities. The appropriate combination and utilization of smart growth development concepts, mixed and compact cities’ development and transport-oriented developments that revitalize economic growth and market attractions, must be explored and implemented. In this context, all areas of cities and towns must be given attention. While the ‘young’ growth centres are injected with development, the ‘old and once flourishing’ city and town areas must not be left to decay further, but must be refreshed and given new breath. According to Roberts & Sykes (2008), termed urban regeneration as a global phenomenon. It is an outcome of the interplay between the many internal forces that are present within the urban areas itself and the external forces that dictate the need for the urban areas to adapt. Within an urban area, a rational pattern of land use will evolve and this tendency is exhibited in all cities irrespective of size, origin or geographical location. Principle factors that determine the pattern of land use in a particular urban area include competition for sites, accessibility and complementary factor in the sense that once a number of sites in a given area have been developed, this will have a strong bearing on the use of the remaining sites. Urban regeneration (similar to urban renewal in American English) is a program of land re-development in areas of moderate to high density urban land use to reinvigorate a run-down urban area, such as the inner city. It is defined by Roberts & Sykes (2008) as:Comprehensive and integrated vision and action which leads to the resolution of urban problems and which seeks to bring about a lasting improvement in the economic, physical, social and environmental condition of an area that has been subject to change. In North America and Europe, urban regeneration process began as an intense phase in the late 1940s after the World War II and continued into the late 1970s with traces of it still occurring in the early 1980s. The definition of urban regeneration is intermingled with urban renewal and urban redevelopment where urban regeneration is regarded as a part of urban renewal initiatives. The Human Geography dictionary defines Urban Regeneration as “the rehabilitation of deteriorated or distressed urban areas, by slum clearance and
  6. 6. Theme : PERSPECTIVE ON URBAN REDEVELOPMENT 6 43rd ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE URBAN AFFAIRS ASSOCIATION 3-6 April 2013, San Francisco California,United States of America redevelopment construction in housing and public facilities”. However in differentiating them, urban redevelopment is regarded as the physical activity of reconstructing distressed or dilapidated areas into better environments or simply the ‘destroy old’ and ‘erect new’ perspective in development. Urban regeneration is often presented as a natural process through which the urban environment, viewed as a living entity, undergoes transformation. The main purpose being to deliberately change the urban environment and to inject new vitality through planned adjustment of existing areas to respond to present and future requirements for urban living and working (Paiola,2008). Urban regeneration can be defined as a social and technical partnership based on the unification of the vision of politicians and designers and on the wide acceptance by the community. It is thus a multi-faceted and complex process which should not be viewed merely as a physical and financial proposition, but as a sociological, cultural, economical and political matter as well (Couch, 1990). Past experience has demonstrated the need to view neighborhood regeneration as a comprehensive and integrated process. A realistic renewal program must approach regeneration in a holistic way and be based upon a multi-disciplinary understanding of the social and economic forces affecting urban areas and the physical nature of towns and cities (Roberts & Sykes, 2008). Urban regeneration, on the other hand, is a comprehensive programme of land redevelopment with the complex combination of economic, physical planning, management and social considerations. The ‘old’ is enhanced and ‘new’ developments are constructed to revitalise the economic growth and the social environments of the selected areas. Urban regeneration involves rehabilitation efforts of impoverished and derelict urban industrial areas and neighbourhoods by large-scale renovation or reconstruction of housing, public works, commercial uses and mixed developments. These elements of urban regeneration are brought together to improve the social sustainability, economic viability and the infrastructure of city areas and to help improve urban landscapes. Similar mechanisms have played an important role in the history and demographics of cities around the world, including: Beijing, China, Melbourne, Victoria; Saint John, New Brunswick; Glasgow, Scotland; Boston, Massachusetts; Warsaw; San Francisco, California; and Bilbao, Spain. Commonly cited examples include Canary Wharf, in London, and Cardiff Bay in Cardiff. According to Roberts & Sykes (2008), Urban regeneration does not only mean re-development per se. Due to rather destructive nature of redevelopment process, there have been alternative methods of regeneration practiced by planners and authorities such as refurbishment, upgrading and restoration. Many US federal programmes have been directed towards urban revitalization, not all of them successful, but the containerization of Boston's docks, the redevelopment of the waterfront, and improvements in transport facilities have been accounted a success (Rosenthal,1980). Similarly, urban regeneration programs in the UK have evolved over the years. The British government was concerned to target regional aid, and set up enterprise zones and urban development corporations, while encouraging the
  7. 7. Theme : PERSPECTIVE ON URBAN REDEVELOPMENT 7 43rd ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE URBAN AFFAIRS ASSOCIATION 3-6 April 2013, San Francisco California,United States of America growth of housing associations. A score of the regeneration programs were carried out with participation from the private sector. In the UK, there are private companies known as Urban Regeneration Companies that seek to achieve a radical physical transformation of their areas through master-planning and coordinating financial assistance to developers from both the public and private sector (Davidson & Lees, 2005). The Urban Regeneration Wave Cities are undoubtedly the centres for a nation’s economic growth. But cities are like living organisms, they age over time, they evolve and change. They are complex and dynamic systems. Without change, cities will not be able to meet up with the needs of evolving businesses and employment, housing needs and lifestyles through the generations. Transformation of the urban environment, especially of old city centres can be termed as urban renewal. Urban literature uses, often without definition, terms such as urban regeneration, urban revitalization, gentrification, neighborhood renewal, rehabilitation, and renovation. The modern incarnation of urban regeneration began in the late 19th century in developed nations and since then, the process has had major impact on many urban landscapes, and demographics of cities around the world. Moving away from the traditional demolition, reconstruction and population displacement renewal schemes, present regeneration efforts are more comprehensive with the combination of economic, physical, institutional and social considerations for building effective and sustainable environments. Urban renewal and regeneration is now a pertinent ingredient for building sustainable cities. Many success stories of urban regeneration efforts from various developed cities and other parts of the world such as the UK, USA, Australia, Canada, Sweden, Hong Kong, Singapore and South Korea can be benchmarked to see how concerted efforts have transformed and revitalized cities. Successful examples indicate how derelict brownfields, dockyards, industrial areas, and worn-out city areas are transformed into new, fresh and vibrant economic centres providing new opportunities and city environments (Lees,2000). Successful Urban Regeneration Cases Urban regeneration is often presented as a natural process through which the urban environment, viewed as a living entity, undergoes transformation. The main purpose of is to deliberately change the urban environment and to inject new vitality through planned adjustment of existing areas to respond to present and future requirements for urban living and working (OECD,2005). Urban regeneration can be defined as a social and technical partnership based on the unification of the vision of politicians and designers and on the wide acceptance by the community. It is thus a multi-faceted and complex process which should not be viewed merely as a physical and financial proposition, but as a sociological, cultural, economical and political matter as well (OECD, 2005). Past experience has demonstrated the need to view neighborhood regeneration as a comprehensive and integrated process. According to Paddison (1993) and Davidson & Lees (2005) a realistic urban regeneration program must
  8. 8. Theme : PERSPECTIVE ON URBAN REDEVELOPMENT 8 43rd ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE URBAN AFFAIRS ASSOCIATION 3-6 April 2013, San Francisco California,United States of America approach to holistic way and be based upon a multi-disciplinary understanding of the social and economic. It must force that affecting urban areas and the physical nature of towns and cities. There are many examples of urban regeneration practices successfully carried out in many major cities in the world. Listed below are some of the more prominent and popular success stories. a. In the UK, the redevelopment of the London Docklands into attractive waterside apartments along the River Thames and the old docks by the London Docklands Development Corp, the agency set up to regenerate the 22 sq km area in east London has brought many benefits to areas including major facelifts in terms of new shops and food and beverage outlets. The high profile construction of the innovative and exclusive waterside regeneration development at London’s Canary Wharf in the 1980s reflected, in part, the hopes and aspirations of the Conservative Government at that time. In London’s Canary Wharf, the transformation of the once shipping dockyard, has boosted the Docklands into a major business centre with improved transportation links and an increasingly acceptable area to live with a ‘more than double’ population figure (Roberts & Sykes,2008); b. Another UK example, Glasgow, has been transformed from a redundant, dilapitated city of economic decline with high unemployment, urban decay and population decline to a revived economy with its regeneration of inner-city areas, especially the largescale Clyde Waterfront Regeneration, and the Glasgow Harbour Project. The futuristic Glasgow Harbour regeneration project is one of the largest waterfront regeneration projects in the UK. The city now resides in the Mercer index of top 50 safest cities in the world and is considered by Lonely Planet to be one of the world’s top 10 tourist cities (Roberts & Sykes,2008); c. In Canada, the regeneration of False Creek, a former railway and industrial area located in inner city area of Vancouver has resulted in an increase of green areas and parks amounting to 20 % of the total False Creek area of 204 acres that are accessible to city dwellers, a vibrant waterfront and additional supply of public housing (constituting 20 % of the total housing in the area); d. Melbourne Docklands, Australia, is another regeneration example. The area, once used for docks, rail infrastructure and industry, mostly fell out of use, vacant and unused during the 1980s. Urban renewal began in 2000 and now the project boasts wide open water promenades and road boulevards with contributions of landscaping and public art commissions. The Melbourne Docklands has become a sought after business address attracting multinational corporate businesses; e. Urban regeneration in Cheongyecheon, Seoul, South Korea is a “back to nature” initiative. The renewal project involves the restoration of a stream that was covered by an elevated highway which was then deteriorating and posed safety problems. The project was aimed at revitalising the economy of the Seoul metropolis and to become a human-oriented and environmental-friendly city. The urban renewal project was the catalyst for revitalizing downtown Seoul,
  9. 9. Theme : PERSPECTIVE ON URBAN REDEVELOPMENT 9 43rd ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE URBAN AFFAIRS ASSOCIATION 3-6 April 2013, San Francisco California,United States of America transforming Cheongyecheon into the centre of cultural and economic activities. Cheongyecheon is today a popular site among Seoul residents and tourists; f. In Shanghai, China, the regeneration by way of restoration, preservation and rejuvenation (by adding new high-rises at the periphery) of old and historical buildings of Xintiandi, has given new lease of life to area which has since become a major tourist attraction; g. In Hong Kong, the regeneration of Langham Place located in the heart of old Mongkok area has transformed the once red-light district area into a thriving commercial and retail address of today through a joint venture between the Urban Renewal Authority (URA) of Hong Kong and a private developer; and h. In Singapore, brownfield developments exercises carried out by Sime Darby Property Berhad on its properties, the Orion, an originally old serviced apartment with low building efficiency into a 27-storey high-end condominium with 46 luxurious units, and Petro Centre and Sime Darby Enterprise Centre (originally both were old factories) into high-rise modern light industrial buildings, have resulted in increased returns on investment of 63%, 36 % and 12 % respectively. Arising Issues of Urban Development in Kuala Lumpur City-Region In Malaysia, the traits of urban decay can be discerned by looking at the increasing number of urban poverty mainly due to migration of workers (both domestic and international) to urban areas in search of better economic opportunities and the expectation of an improved quality of life in urban areas especially within the period from 1980 to 1995 as shown by urbanisation rate, population and housing census and numbers of poor urban household which grew in tandem with each other. This increasing numbers of population among the lower income stretched the amenities, particularly affordable and medium cost housing and public transportation, to the limit. In year 1996 onwards, decentralisation of development started to occur and keep continuing resulting in Klang Valley urban sprawl which now sees the larger Kuala Lumpur Metropolitan Region covering an area of approximately 4,000km stretching south to the Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLCH,2008). As some urban household’s income has moved up the income ladder, some will move and relocate to more conducive housing areas which were developed rapidly in the suburbs or outskirts of the city centre resulting in empty units among old housing developments. This scenario could be found in old areas such as Brickfields, Sentul and Salak South / Sungei Besi. A type of urban decay that has been apparent in certain parts of Kuala Lumpur City is the one caused by abandoned projects resulting from the late 1990’s market crash and economic recession. Examples are the Plaza Rakyat bus and light rail transit terminal and Nas Pavillion upmarket condominium which have more or less marred the urban landscape of Kuala Lumpur City. Ironically, these two projects are also urban regeneration attempts of transforming the Jalan Imbi area marked by old and dilapidated shophouses into modern amenities building and upmarket condominium. There are many old towns
  10. 10. Theme : PERSPECTIVE ON URBAN REDEVELOPMENT 10 43rd ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE URBAN AFFAIRS ASSOCIATION 3-6 April 2013, San Francisco California,United States of America and cities in Malaysia, and in particular, within the state of Selangor where an estimated 90% of its population resides in cities and towns. There are external forces that would dictate these cities to adapt to changes and internal forces that are present such as physical, social, environmental and economic factors that are prime generators of change. The Selangor State Government is seeking to revitalize old city centres such that these centres not only act as magnets for businesses but also offer a better quality of life for city dwellers. According to National Urbanisation Policy by FDTCP, 2006,the major urban centres in Selangor are Petaling Jaya (2008 urban population of 261,000 persons), Subang Jaya (315,400 urban population), Shah Alam (258,300 urban population), Ampang Jaya (574,300 urban population), Kajang (356,800 urban population) and Klang (617,500 urban population). The population of these urban centres are mostly concentrated in the operational areas of the municipalities, recording high population densities. For instance, the Ampang Jaya Municipality has the highest density of 108.32 persons per hectare, followed by Petaling Jaya City Council (MBPJ) with 55.66 persons per hectare. The Subang Jaya Municipality has a density of 33.78 persons per hectare, Kajang Municipality with 31.82 persons per hectare, Shah Alam and Klang with 15.21 and 14.11 persons per hectare. Due to the economic opportunities and location, Selangor cities now play prominent roles in the flourishing developments of the Klang Valley.The high rate of development and population increase in the State brings challenges which need to be tackled. While the lack of clear urban limits has led to urban sprawl encroaching upon environmentally sensitive and major agricultural areas, the inner city areas face issues of decline in quality of living. Substantial parts of the aged inner city areas are now less competitive in urban economies, have an inefficient transportation system, inefficient infrastructure supply, insufficient community services, lack of emphasis on urban design and heritage conservation and are also degrading environmental quality. This demands attention and action. The increase in development demands new economic priorities, job opportunities, efficient transportation linkages, renewed areas for housing, social amenities, commercial and other urban landuses. Thus, while preserving agricultural and environmentally sensitive areas, cities and towns of Selangor require combined approaches of redevelopment and revitalization of its old and ageing cities into fresh and vibrant economies with environment-friendly and energy-saving features for achieving sustainability. Urban Regeneration Trend and Practices in Malaysia Malaysia has her fair share of redevelopment efforts that have taken place over the years. Urban regeneration practices in Malaysia can be considered to be still in its infancy stage. The exception to this perception is perhaps Kuala Lumpur city-region. Malaysia is still a developing country and many major cities in Malaysia are still growing with new on-going developments carried out and the full impact of urban decay is yet to really put its toll, if compared to other major cities in the world.
  11. 11. Theme : PERSPECTIVE ON URBAN REDEVELOPMENT 11 43rd ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE URBAN AFFAIRS ASSOCIATION 3-6 April 2013, San Francisco California,United States of America However, for older established cities such as Kuala Lumpur, Georgetown (Penang), Melaka and Johor Baru, directions as to the sustainable future development trends in inner and outskirt areas of the cities have brought about proposals and debates on urban regeneration practices, especially among the local authorities, property developers and landowners. Urban regeneration programme clearly stated in 10th Malaysia Plan under Chapter 6 - Building an Environment that Enhances Quality Of Life (PMD, 2009). Building vibrant and attractive living spaces that influencing the form and character of living spaces to make them attractive places to live, work and play. In order to unlock the development potential within cities, urban renewal and redevelopment of brownfield sites will be pursued. This will be achieved through appropriate incentives and mechanisms to support the redevelopment of unused, dilapidated or abandoned sites (PMD, 2009). In order to support the 10th Malaysia Plan on urban regeneration, 2th National Physical Plan stated that in order to utilise infrastructural investments efficiently urban expansion should be directed to where adequate infrastructure and social facilities are in place or committed to be put in place. Efforts should also be taken to encourage urban regeneration and infill development to reduce the speculative opening up of greenfield sites. Setting a National Spatial Framework - NPP 12 stated that Structure Plans and Local Plans shall encourage infilling and the use of brownfield sites within the urban areas, to better utilise existing and committed physical and social infrastructure. Local planning shall create scope for urban regeneration in the core cities not only for the purpose of economic growth but also for the purpose of enhancing the living environment. Local planning shall be sensitive to the conservation of historical, cultural and architecturally outstanding areas to enhance the character and uniqueness of individual cities. Under Section 16B(1) Act 172 Town and Country Planning Act 1976 also stated that Special Area Plan at any time during the preparation or upon the coming into effect of a structure plan or a local plan - a proposal for the designation of a special area for special and detailed treatment by development, redevelopment, improvement, conservation or management practice of the whole or part of such special area, and the nature of the treatment proposed. This will be achieved through appropriate incentives and mechanisms to support the redevelopment of unused, dilapidated or abandoned sites. One of thrusts under the National Urbanisation Policy is an efficient and sustainable urban development. Urban regeneration programme of suitable and strategic areas is one way of increasing the efficiency of urban areas. In addition, such programme is capable of fulfilling local needs for enhancing the quality of living and environment, generating economic activities and employment opportunities. For this purpose, one the policies proposed the urban development shall give priority to urban regeneration within the urban area. Therefore the strategies to implement urban regeneration in urban area are: a. Implement infill development at potential areas; b. Identify and prepare an inventory of brownfield areas;
  12. 12. Theme : PERSPECTIVE ON URBAN REDEVELOPMENT 12 43rd ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE URBAN AFFAIRS ASSOCIATION 3-6 April 2013, San Francisco California,United States of America c. Plan and prepare the re-development programmes for brownfield areas; d. Promote urban regeneration for areas potential for development; e. Rehabilitate polluted areas prior to development; f. Establish an agency responsible for planning and managing urban renewal; and g. Encourage private sector involvement through the provision of incentives and joint venture programmes with the government. Consequently, of late, various news and articles on urban regeneration issues have surfaced and made special features in major section of local business papers. From local authority’s perspective on urban policy, Kuala Lumpur City Hall is pre- emptive among the municipalities in terms of urban regeneration practices by recognizing it as one of the strategic directions the city will take in an effort to encourage more sustainable lifestyles by providing opportunity to recycle land, clean up contaminated sites, and assist environmental, social and economic regeneration, whilst at the same time reducing pressure to build on greenfield sites. The approach will be based on the following urban regeneration exercises: a. Total re-development This method will involve total demolition of the existing building and clearance of the site which include removal of existing business and residential occupants. It is particularly suitable for blighted housing and industrial areas to transform a dying area into a positive and dynamic image of the city. The areas identified to re- developed will be more intensified in use such as mixed development and medium to high density residential. All redevelopment areas will be required to provide for community facilities, improved infrastructures and urban parks/local play area. Any proposals for redevelopment also are required to be integrated with the surrounding urban fabric by ensuring continuity in public realm, green spaces and pedestrian networks. Where redevelopment areas are identified as Transit Planning Zones, provisions for transit facilities are to be made and the developments are to be integrated fully with transit facilities and high quality pedestrian environment. Revitalization / Refurbishment This method will involve upgrading of the existing building or site in order to rejuvenate and gives a new lease of life to the building or the site. b. Conservation and Preservation The method is particularly suitable for buildings or sites with historical value and have tourism potential. In Kuala Lumpur, perhaps one of the most prominent redevelopment projects in the country is the transformation of the former Selangor Turf Club area in Jalan Ampang to the Kuala Lumpur City Centre (or better known as KLCC) where the tallest Twin Towers stand. Another admirable project is the transport-led urban regeneration efforts of the KL Sentral as Kuala Lumpur city’s transportation hub. The project represents a vivid transformation of the Brickfields neighbourhood into a more promising local economy and creating development opportunities and impetus for growth in the area. It is clear that the transformation of Brickfields from an ethnic
  13. 13. Theme : PERSPECTIVE ON URBAN REDEVELOPMENT 13 43rd ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE URBAN AFFAIRS ASSOCIATION 3-6 April 2013, San Francisco California,United States of America residential and commercial enclave to a cosmopolitan hub is linked to the railway- linked regeneration effort. MRCB group in consortium with Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad (KTMB) and other construction company was awarded the privatization exercise by the Malaysian Government. The site which was previously used by KTMB as a marshalling yard, locomotive maintenance and warehousing and built with go downs, warehouses, sheds, living quarters, office buildings and facilities for locomotive cleaning has now been transformed into a contemporary and bustling transportation nucleus (KLCH ,2008). Tamansari Riverside Garden City is the RM9 billion riverside city project at the intersection of Jalan Pahang and Jalan Tun Razak area in Kuala Lumpur, previously occupied by the Pekeliling Flats which will have as its centrepiece a 60- storey tower unlike any other in the world. Residents of the one-room flat built in the 1970s has since been relocated to a three-room flat built by ASIE with financing from Devlopment Bank of Malaysia. Sentul, an area stigmatised as crime-infested area has seen a major facelift by the Sentul Masterplan regeneration involving a 294-acres of prime land divided into two portions by the existing Sentul KTM commuter station and its track forming two precincts; 186-acre Sentul West and 108-acre Sentul East. Sentul is now synonymous with KL’s performing arts centre. Southgate Commercial Centre, KL South is inspired by Xintiandi in Shanghai, Southgate is an integrated business centre with a fusion of creative work spaces and lifestyle retail developed over site previously occupied as industrial premise. Mah Sing Group is the developer of Southgate and has since managed to sell a block of the office building within the development to a government linked agency even though construction is still in early stage (KLCH 2008). Urban regeneration programme in Selangor is one of the six Selangor Government’s Economic Stimulus Package that has been announced recently. The stimulus package, which includes the rehabilitation of the Klang River and enhancing the transportation system, is expected to generate an estimated RM10 billion in investments. The urban regeneration and redevelopment programme is aimed at revitalizing the towns, creating job opportunities, enhancing the quality of life, improving amenities and infrastructure, improving management of the state assets as well as generating more revenue for the state and local governments. Beginning as vibrant economic centres for the State, over the years the older towns in Selangor have aged and are not functional to meet present-day needs and challenges. Urban regeneration is thus, needed to replan and transform the old urban and industrial areas of Petaling Jaya, Klang, Ampang Jaya and Kajang to revitalize economic activities, provide better transportation linkages and infrastructure for enhanced and efficient social environments. Urban regeneration is a complex combination of social, economic, planning, construction and management activities. In translating the policies from the State Structure Plan, the Local Plans for these municipalities have earmarked the appropriate areas for redevelopment in these towns. All in all, an approximate total of 2,375 hectares have been identified in the Local Plans and Draft Local Plans of Petaling Jaya, Klang, Ampang Jaya and Kajang
  14. 14. Theme : PERSPECTIVE ON URBAN REDEVELOPMENT 14 43rd ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE URBAN AFFAIRS ASSOCIATION 3-6 April 2013, San Francisco California,United States of America which are ripe for and in need for regeneration and redevelopment. Approximately, a total of 1,672 hectares are areas in Petaling Jaya, namely the industrial, commercial and residential areas of Sections 13, 51, 51A and 52 (MBPJ, 2008). Petaling Jaya City Council (MBPJ) has also recognized the importance of sustainable urban regeneration practices. The Local Draft Plan for the city has come up with a Special Area Plan (RKK) that was ready for public scrutiny in 2008. Under RKK, proposals that would encourage urban regeneration practices are stipulations that allow for increase in plot ratio and maximum building, conversion of land to commercial uses and restriction on new industrial activities will be imposed or no new manufacturing activities are allowed (existing ones area allowed to carry on) for areas specified under RKK. For old established area that are built-up with and occupied by large factories such as Section 13, the above policies are seen as to encourage landowners and property developers to embark on regeneration which most probably involve total redevelopment of their land from that of industrial use to commercial activities (MBPJ, 2008). Over the years, the section has been deemed as more suitable for commercial use as tougher environmental issues, higher rent and/or land costs and logistical reasons have forced some of the heavy and light industrial factories to move out to areas like Shah Alam, Klang, Sungai Buloh and Puchong.Already, the area has seen some kind of transformation via recent completion of commercial development on previously factory sites such as the new and trendy commercial (retail) developments of Jaya One and Jaya 33. Klang has an approximate total of 131.4 hectares in need of redevelopment, especially the Klang town centre and Kampung Pandan of Klang, besides the banks of the Klang River. Kajang has an approximate area of 412.4 hectares identified which are the town centre and Sungai Ramal areas while 159.3 hectares have been identified in Ampang Jaya covering the areas of Ampang New Village, residential areas in Jalan Jelatek, Taman Keramat (or better known as the Colombia Flats) and traditional villages in Kampung Pandan Dalam. Mechanism to Implement Urban Regeneration Programme The implementation of this effort on urban regeneration in Kuala-Lumpur city-region shall not be an easy task. Mechanisms for preparing the appropriate development plans, refining the legal aspects, stakeholders’ consultation and institutionalizing the implementation authority to undertake and implement the effort shall have to be carefully planned. The State Government is committed and determined in this venture and has embarked on initial moves towards this. Consultants and experts have been appointed to work along with the State Economic Planning Unit, State Town and Country Planning Department and the Local Authorities to study and identify actual sites for regeneration and to suggest priorities in developing them. A Special Committee has been appointed to oversee these studies and actions for the regeneration efforts. For the Klang area, the redevelopment of the Klang River is of priority. The State is now undertaking a landuse study to inventorize development
  15. 15. Theme : PERSPECTIVE ON URBAN REDEVELOPMENT 15 43rd ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE URBAN AFFAIRS ASSOCIATION 3-6 April 2013, San Francisco California,United States of America along the banks of the 21 kilometres Klang River alignment in the Klang, Shah Alam, Subang Jaya and Petaling Jaya Municipalities. From the legal perspective, the State and local authority intend to prepare development plans through the Special Area Plan mechanism as stipulated in the Town and Country Planning Act, 1976 (Act 172). We also understand that other related legislations that may have implications shall have to be studied, updated and coordinated along the way. From the institutional perspective, experiences of Hong Kong and Singapore indicate the necessity for establishing appropriate implementing bodies to spearhead renewal projects. Hong Kong and Singapore have Urban Renewal Authorities established while regeneration in Melbourne Docklands is through the existing agency of its State Government of Victoria. In South Korea the Seoul Metropolitan Government established the Cheongyecheon Restoration Project Headquarters and Cheongyecheon Restoration Research Corporation for establishing and review of the restoration plan for the Cheongyecheon stream restoration. In terms of funding, experiences of successful urban regeneration efforts demonstrate that urban regeneration is most effective when it is delivered in partnership with those groups and organisations best placed to influence the success of urban regeneration projects. The initiative for private funding or joint public- private funding is essential. This means that Government and Local Authorities would work in partnership with construction companies, private sector organisations and local communities. From the social perspective, consultation with local communities about urban regeneration plans has been recognised as being vital to the project’s success. This is because urban regeneration has direct links to, and affects directly, the communities living in the areas where regeneration is planned. As a consequence, community regeneration is an integral part of urban regeneration. Successful urban regeneration will not only work at the physical level but will result in the building of successful, viable, vibrant and sustainable communities. In Selangor, perhaps a Citizen’s Committee could be formed like in Korea, in order to emulate the experiences of successful projects from abroad. The State is determined that renewal efforts shall involve social inclusion of stakeholders into redevelopment efforts. Initial plans under discussion have touched on aspects of provision of affordable housing for low income households, micro-financing schemes for qualified low income individuals to ensure their direct involvement in development of urban slum areas, the improvement of IT infrastructure and broadband penetration and to enlarge regeneration areas into mini-city centres. These areas can then be transformed into hubs of economic activity for business, education and social activities as well as enhancing growth small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in these areas. Its would suggest that the possible approaches to neighborhood regeneration can therefore be identified as: (i) redevelopment, wherein a neighborhood is rebuilt anew; (ii) rehabilitation, wherein the existing structures are preserved and upgraded; (iii) and integration, a combination of the first two approaches. Each approach can involve the re-housing of the population on the original site or its relocation to another
  16. 16. Theme : PERSPECTIVE ON URBAN REDEVELOPMENT 16 43rd ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE URBAN AFFAIRS ASSOCIATION 3-6 April 2013, San Francisco California,United States of America part of the city. In terms of redevelopment, for developers, redevelopment represents maximum profit through the sale of new centrally -located units. For local governments, this approach represents maximum use of land, higher floor area ratio, and has the advantage of introducing higher income groups and commercial activities to the city center, which increase tax revenues. It also leads to higher population density and improved services and infrastructures, which is highly desirable for modernizing inner-city areas. However, this approach may carry heavy social and environmental costs. The demolition of architectural environments is probably the most serious consequence of the redevelopment approach. It can bring about the sacrifice of a community’s cultural heritage and the destruction of viable neighborhoods. Redevelopment generally involves the relocation of the original population to another part of the city. Even when the residents are re-housed on the same site after its redevelopment, the transformation of the neighbourhood beyond recognition has inevitable psychological impacts upon the community. For rehabilitation, often termed as conservation or preservation, is seen as the opposite of redevelopment. It is based on preserving, repairing, and restoring the natural and man-made environments of existing neighborhoods. Rehabilitation is applicable to areas where buildings are generally in structurally sound condition but have deteriorated because of neglected maintenance. In developing countries, upgrading generally refers to a comprehensive developmental approach wherein the original population remains on the site and incrementally upgrades the neighborhood, with or without public assistance. By treating the resident population as an active force in the housing process, this approach generates a greater pride in the neighborhood and halts the impending deterioration caused by a lack of investment and environmental concern. Rehabilitation is often perceived as a complex and time-consuming process which is more difficult to implement than redevelopment. It requires a high degree of social organization and social responsibility, as well as a total reorganization of the housing process. The third approach to neighborhood regeneration, which referred to as integration, views redevelopment rehabilitation as complementary forces and combines the best aspects of both approaches. It consists of rehabilitation of what can realistically be saved, combined with reconstruction of new buildings in place of those beyond the reach of feasible rehabilitation. Today, we consider integration as the most acceptable way to regenerate old neighborhood. It allows for flexible project implementation which can preserve the traditional urban environment and its human scale while achieving respectable densities. It respects the social order of the community by re-housing the majority of the original residents on the site and invites mass participation. Integration results in the creation of rich environment through the integration of new buildings within the existing neighborhood and allows for the development of a new form of contemporary architecture with local characteristics, enriching the appearance of the old city while maintaining its identity (Davidson & Lees , 2005).
  17. 17. Theme : PERSPECTIVE ON URBAN REDEVELOPMENT 17 43rd ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE URBAN AFFAIRS ASSOCIATION 3-6 April 2013, San Francisco California,United States of America Issues of Implementation Urban Regeneration in Malaysia Urban regeneration's effect on actual revitalization is a subject of intense debate. It is seen by proponents as an economic engine, and by opponents as a regressive mechanism for enriching the wealthy at the expense of taxpayers and the poor (Rosenthal, 1980). It carries a high cost to existing communities, and in many cases resulted in the destruction of vibrant, albeit run-down neighborhoods. For the proponents, the main argument is that urban regeneration would cut the tendency to urban sprawl, reduce pressure to extend development on green-field sites, prompt the rehabilitation of dilapidated properties and bring vacant properties back on the market. It would also remove a perceived imperfection in the current land market, which today is certainly forcing people and businesses out of the inner city, sometimes unwillingly. Best of all, the communities in which these ``future brownfield sites`` reside are benefited by the obvious and instant community and environmental benefits associated with the cleanup of a polluted site. For the opponents, urban regeneration is extremely controversial in that it typically involves the destruction of businesses, the relocation of people, and the use of eminent domain (known as compulsory Land Acquisition or Compulsory Purchase in the UK) as a legal instrument to reclaim private property for city-initiated development projects in order to secure sites into public ownership. Many authorities are sitting on large tracts of suitable land, but in the main any major development programme would involve the public sector acquiring land from the private sector. In many cases, compulsory land acquisition is too costly for the government to bear due to high land values generally associated with urban land. Urban regeneration also has been known to demolish entire neighbourhoods in many inner-cities and in many ways it was a cause of urban decay rather than a remedy. In cases involving slum areas, slum clearance is redevelopment after wholesale clearance of the site, but this has the effect of destroying communities and has become unacceptable in certain cities in the world. In Oxford, England for example, the community of St Ebbe's was relocated at the edge of the city, in Blackbird Leys, leaving the population with a long journey to work and fewer amenities. Often, at the same time, gentrification also occurs as a direct result of regeneration whereby the original inhabitants no longer afford to live at the same area after redevelopment has been completed and are priced out by the increase in property values caused by new higher-income communities that moved in (Lees, 2000). Similar urban regeneration efforts carried out in Kuala Lumpur involving slum area is also not without similar controversies. The Tamansari project is a perfect example whereby regeneration project of a slum area has caused total removal and relocation of the occupants of the demolished building to a site which in the opinion of the majority are not suitable and rather costly to the their new livelihoods. Whilst some residents have agreed to move to their allocated new housing units in the fringe of the city, the remaining residents did not like the ones allocated to them and have refused to move unless they are given a written guarantee they will be allotted flats
  18. 18. Theme : PERSPECTIVE ON URBAN REDEVELOPMENT 18 43rd ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE URBAN AFFAIRS ASSOCIATION 3-6 April 2013, San Francisco California,United States of America which are nearer to the city centre. Other scenario found in Kuala Lumpur is cases whereby urban decay is a direct product of regeneration itself. The stalled Plaza Rakyat bus and light rail transit terminal project and the abandoned Nas Pavillion upmarket condominium are two examples of urban regeneration efforts which failed and instead contributed to the decaying facets of the existing nearby properties in the area. Without the added cost of compulsory land acquisition, urban regeneration exercises on its own is also known to be costly much due to problems caused by the type of property dealt, brownfield sites and dilapidated buildings. In most cases, it requires a concerted effort and cooperation between the public sector, the private sector and the community affected. To property developers, urban regeneration involving brownfield redevelopment is a unique real estate development type. The economic drivers are generally similar to those found in typical real estate/greenfield development, but environmental contamination introduces several hurdles to successful economic redevelopment (KLCH, 2008) On the cost side, the expenses associated with brownfields redevelopment are higher than those of greenfields and include the purchase price, closing costs, remediation and risk management costs, capital expenditure (e.g., infrastructure, building improvements), soft costs (e.g., legal, rezoning, engineering and consulting) and sales costs (e.g., marketing and/or commissions). The other hurdle associated with contaminated real estate which is as important for the developer is the potentially larger environmental liability and the difficulty of finding debt project financing. Brownfield developers have difficulty using financial leverage (e.g. debt) because brownfield appraised value is generally low, and banks require lower loan-to-value ratios to protect themselves from the risk of having to own and manage stigmatized properties. As a result, the equity requirement for brownfield redevelopment is high. High equity requirements combined with increased expenses due to remediation costs often lead to low return on investment. Another hurdle specific to brownfield transactions is that other dilapidated sites frequently surround individual brownfield sites. Successful redevelopment of an individual brownfield site is often contingent upon developing a master plan for an entire area, which may require the development team to buy adjacent sites from multiple owners. The complexity of dealing with multiple sellers adds to the risk inherent in brownfield development projects. In some cases, buying additional surrounding parcels is the only way for the project to offer the potential to generate, on a blended basis, enough gain to offset the risks and costs associated with the core contaminated parcel(s). However, as more property is acquired on the perimeter of a contaminated site, the investor assumes greater assembly and market risks. For example, with a smaller, core contaminated parcel, a revitalization effort hinging on future market acceptance and absorption is less risky than investing in a geographic so large that the future transformed region would need to be significantly deeper to accommodate the newly created supply in the marketplace. Urban regeneration can affect the urban environment at many levels. The preservation of the city's identity, community, local
  19. 19. Theme : PERSPECTIVE ON URBAN REDEVELOPMENT 19 43rd ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE URBAN AFFAIRS ASSOCIATION 3-6 April 2013, San Francisco California,United States of America culture and natural and built environments, must be given special attention in the process of renewal. Urban regeneration modifies not only the physical form of the urban environment but also transforms the way in which it is perceived and experienced, and the psychological and emotional relationships between humans and urban places. Diversity and continuity appear to be essential components of the urban environment which must be preserved in the process of urban regeneration. Urban regeneration can lead to the dissolution of urban communities and the loss of proximity to friends and relatives and the existing social network. Conclusion The problems of urban decay and brownfields can be greatly alleviated by creating a rational economic framework in which the private sector may operate, respond and be guided by well-considered, typically local, public decisions for prioritization of private-sector driven site cleanup. In an unsubsidized setting, market economics drive the cleanup decisions of these challenging sites. With public guidance, private forces can operate efficiently to produce revitalization in places where communities most need it, but where without such public incentive, revitalization may not occur.Urban regeneration in its original form has been called a failure by many urban planners and civic leaders, and has since been reformulated with a focus on redevelopment of existing communities. Over time, urban regeneration evolved into a policy based less on destruction and more on renovation and investment, and today is an integral part of many local governments, often combined with small and big business incentives. But even in this adapted form, in many cities in the world, urban regeneration projects are still widely accused of abuse and corruption. Malaysia road map towards implementing urban regeneration efforts is still a long way ahead. Infact, our efforts have just begun. The organizing of this conference is a step forward in the process of consulting and gathering more ideas from the experts, professionals as well as the public. We will definitely embark on more consultation and provide more channels for proposals and suggestions from the communities and stakeholders. Municipal officials and urban residents increasingly fight suburban sprawl by encouraging development of urban sites. Communities are supporting redevelopment of in-fill sites they previously avoided due to uncertain or complicated environmental issues. Although challenges remain, federal, state and local governments and private groups are collaborating to explore creative ways to remediate environmentally impaired sites. In spite of the various challenges, the successes of the previously mentioned regeneration efforts serves to strongly evidence that brownfield sites still have potential if broad community support exists to restore them, and creative development teams can structure the transactions to maximize the customarily low return. Brownfield investors and developers must think creatively about ways to complete a transaction that appears upside-down (i.e., higher cost than potential sale/exit value), using tools such as private equity funding, environmental insurance, public-private partnerships, tax relief financing and other public financing components. Public
  20. 20. Theme : PERSPECTIVE ON URBAN REDEVELOPMENT 20 43rd ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE URBAN AFFAIRS ASSOCIATION 3-6 April 2013, San Francisco California,United States of America financing helps lower the capital cost and thereby increase returns. Simply put, public incentive for private activity is necessary to remediate and revitalize the thousands of brownfield sites nationwide. Together, a private company can shoulder the investment and liability of clean up, while the host community receives the environmental benefits of a cleaned site and the community and economic benefits of revitalization. Finally, ultimately the successful implementation of urban regeneration efforts shall lie on the effective cooperation and collaboration of all parties that are directly and indirectly involved in this strategy. As we drive development efforts in new areas as well as revitalize old inner cities, we address development in a coherent manner, complementing each other towards quality living and sustainability. Reference a. Brebbia , C. A. (2000)., Ferrante, A., Rodriguez, M. and Terra, B. eds. The Sustainale le City: Urban Regeneration and Sustainability . Boston: WIT Press b. Davidson, M, Lees, L (2005), New-build `gentrification' and London's riverside renaissance. Environment and Planning, volume 37, pages 1165 - 1190 c. DTCP (2010). National Physical Plan. Kuala Lumpur: Department of Town and Country Planning. d. DTCP (2006). National Urbanisation Policy. Kuala Lumpur: Department of Town and Country Planning. e. DTCP (2003).Town and Country Planning Act, 1976 (Act 172). Kuala Lumpur f. KLCH (2005). Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan 2020, Kuala Lumpur City Hall. g. KLCH (2008). Draft Kuala Lumpur City Plan 2020: Towards a World Class City Volume 1 (Vol. 1). Kuala Lumpur: Kuala Lumpur City Hall. h. MBPJ (2008). Section 13 Petaling Jaya, Special Area Plan by Petaling Jaya City Council (MPBJ) i. Lees, L (2000) A reappraisal of gentrification: Towards a ‘geography of gentrification’. Progress in Human Geography vol 24 no 3 pp. 389–408 j. Ley, D. (2000). Urban regeneration. In The Dictionary of Human Geography, RJ Johnston, D Gregory, G Pratt and M Watts (eds.). Blackwell, Oxford,. k. OECD (2001), Local Partnerships for Better Governance, OECD Publications, Paris. l. OECD (2005), Building Competitive Regions – Strategies and Governance, OECD Publications, Paris. m. Paddison, R. (1993), City marketing, image reconstruction and urban regeneration, Urban Studies, 30(2), 339-350, n. Paiola, M. (2008), “Cultural Events as Potential Drivers of Urban Regeneration: An Empirical Illustration”, Industry and Innovation, 15(5), 513-529. o. PMD (2009) 10th Malaysia Plan by Prime Minister Department of Malaysia – p. Roberts, P. & Sykes, H. (2008), Urban Regeneration, A Handbook, SAGE, London. q. Rosenthal, D. B. ed. (1980). Urban Revitalization. Urban Affairs Annual ReviewsVol. 18. London: SAGE Publication.

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