O SlideShare utiliza cookies para otimizar a funcionalidade e o desempenho do site, assim como para apresentar publicidade mais relevante aos nossos usuários. Se você continuar a navegar o site, você aceita o uso de cookies. Leia nosso Contrato do Usuário e nossa Política de Privacidade.
O SlideShare utiliza cookies para otimizar a funcionalidade e o desempenho do site, assim como para apresentar publicidade mais relevante aos nossos usuários. Se você continuar a utilizar o site, você aceita o uso de cookies. Leia nossa Política de Privacidade e nosso Contrato do Usuário para obter mais detalhes.
Packaging of tablets,
capsules and powders.
M.Pharm 2nd sem.
pharmaceutical sciences and
Previous year questions from this topic:
1. Discuss functions of packaging. Give an account on influence
of packaging component on dosage form stability.
2. Discuss in detail with diagram about packaging of tablets.
3. Write short note on Packaging of capsules.
4. Give detail concepts of packaging of-
a) Tablet dosage form
b) Powders and capsules
5. Describe the various materials used for containers. Explain
tamper evident packing. What are the safety requirements and
processing for pacakaging?
Definition: Packaging is the science, art and technology of
enclosing, protecting a product and providing information
about the product for distribution, storage, sale and use.
Role of packaging:
Types of packaging for tablets and capsules:
1. Blister package
2. Strip package
3. Alu-alu packaging
4. Bottle packaging
Materials Critical properties Area of use
HDPE Container Good barrier for moisture,
gas and light.
All kind of products from
solid orals and dry syrup
PET/PP (Amber) Moderate barrier to
moisture and gas
Light sensitive products.
Materials Water vapour permeation rate
PVC 250 3
PVC/PVdC (250/40) 075
PVC/ PVdC (250/60) 0.5
Water vapour permeation rate of some
materials used for blister packs.
Blister packs are commonly used for
unit dose packaging for tablets and
The principal components of a blister
pack comprise of :
1. Forming film (blister): A pocket
inside which the product fits and
2. Backing : The lidding foil sticked
over the back of a blister.
Materials used for forming films (blisters) :
1. Polyvinyl chloride/polyethylene combinations
4. Polyvinyl chloride (mostly used)
For added moisture protection, polyvinylidene chloride (Saran) or polychlorotrifluoroethylene
(Aclar) films may be laminated to PVC. The moisture barrier of PVC (Aclar) is superior to that of
saran coated PVC especially under prolonged and extremely humid storage.
(*- g loss/24hr/100sq in/ mil at 95°C, 95% RH.)
Material Water vapour permeation*
Aclar (22A, 1mil) 0.055
Saran (PVdC) 1 mil 0.200
Materials used for backing:
2. Paper-aluminium combinations
3. Aluminium foil
Backing material can be either,
Peelable type (used for making child resistant packing)
Materials Critical properties Area of use.
PVC 200/250/350 Low barrier, simple unit pack Stable products like
and certain soft gelatin
Aluminium foil / poly (30 –40
Excellent barrier For strip packing use of very
sensitive range of
products – Omeprazole
Alu/Alu with desiccant Excellent barrier Extremely moisture sensitive
range of products.
PVC / PVdC (250/60)/ (250/90)/
Good barrier Moderate to high sensitive
range of products,
certain FDC/ Enzyme products
Steps involved in the formation of a blister:
1. Thermoforming: This involves heat softening a sheet of
thermoplastic resin and then vacuum drawing the
softened sheet of plastic into a mold. After cooling, the
sheet is released from the mold.
2. Filling: The sheet then proceeds to the filling station for
3. Sealing: Sealing is then accomplished by lidding it with
a heat sealable backing material.
A strip package is formed by feeding two
webs of a heat sealable flexible film through
a heated crimping rollers. This package is
used for both capsules and tablets.
Foil laminations (for moisture sensitive
Cellophane (Transparent plastic film
formed from processed cellulose)
Steps involved in the formation of a strip
1. The product is fed into the pocket formed between
two heat sealable flexible films.
2. Sealing is accomplished by heat crimping rollers
3. The strip is then cut into desired no. of packets in
Alu-alu packing means aluminium foil at
both the upper and lower side of pack. Alu-
alu packaging is similar to that of blister
packing the only difference is that the
forming film is formed of aluminium foil
instead of plastic material.
4. Bottle packaging
Bottles are commonly used for
liquid pharmaceuticals as well as
for tablets and capsules.
Polypropylene screw cap
Bottle mouth seal:
• Desiccants have been utilised to control the
exposure of products to the ingress of moisture.
• Amount of dessicant required depends on the
below mentioned 2 parameters:
1. Water vapour transmission rate of the container.
2. Rate of moisture absorbed by dessicant.
Dessicant Critical properties Area of use
Silica gel bags Desiccant will effectively
moisture and odor
Moisture sensitive products
Activated carbon Desiccant will effectively
moisture and odor
Product which release odor
Packaging of powders
• Powdes are solid dosage form comprising of a large number
of finely divided solid particles of drugs or mixture of drug and
• Powder packaging can be of following types-
Bottles (dusting powders)
A flexible pouch is usually formed during the
product filling operation by either -
Vertical forming/filling/sealing (f/f/s) operation.
Horizontal forming/filling/sealing (f/f/s)
Materials used for pouches:
Ethylene vinyl acetate(EVA)
Vertical f/f/s operation:
A web film is drawn over a metal collar and
around a vertical filling tube, through which
product is drawn into formed package.
Filling tube controls the circumference of the
pouch and against which a longitudinal seal is
The product then drops into the formed tube.
The reciprocating sealer moves up the film
tube a distance equal to the length of the
package and forms the top and the final seal
of the package.
Horizontal f/f/s operation:
In this system, a web film is folded upon itself rather than
around a tube.
Then, the vertical sealer seals the film vertically and thus
pockets are formed.
These pockets are then fed and then sealed horizontally.
Bottles are commonly used for liquid
pharmaceuticals as well as for tablets,
capsules and powders especially dusting
Materials used for bottle:
• Polypropylene screw cap
Evaluation of plastic containers:
Leakage test for blister and strip packages:
1. Dip the packages under test in a pot containing coloured
water (15-25°C) and place the pot in a vacuum chamber.
2. Apply appropriate vacuum of 33kPa for strip package or 24
kPa for blister package for 30 sec.
3. Return to the atmospheric pressure and remove the pot from
the vacuum chamber.
4. Take away the test package from the pot and blot off the
excess water and examine the package for the ingress of water
into the pockets.
Leakage test for plastic containers (injectables and non-injectables):
1. Fill the containers with water and fit the closure.
2. Keep them inverted for 24 hrs.
3. Check for the sign of leakage from the container.
1. Pinholes is a common feature of aluminium foil, minute holes which may be
present in the foil.
2. Foils of 0.017 mm caliper and above is recognized as commercially pinhole free.
3. Foil of 0.025 mm caliper can normally be guaranteed, pinhole free.
4. Foils below 0.017mm gradually show an increased no. of pinholes.
When a foil is laminated the initial pinholes tends to be filled in and reduces any
permeation risk further.