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anticancer ppt.pptx

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anticancer ppt.pptx

  1. 1. Amity Institute of Pharmacy SEMINAR-I Mechanism of Anti-Cancer Drug Resistance and Therapeutic Approaches for Overcoming Resistance Submitted to : Submitted by: Dr. Viney Lather Firuj Ahmed Professor & Centre Head - Pharmaceutical Chemistry & M.Pharm 1st year Pharmaceutical Analysis, AIP Enrolment No.:A10655022001 1
  2. 2. Amity Institute of Pharmacy CONTENT 1. INTRODUCTION 2. TYPES OF TUMORS 3. TREATMENT OF CANCER 4. PROBLEM WITH THE CHEMOTHERAPY CANCER DRUGS 5. NEED FOR STUDYING ANTICANCER DRUG RESISTANCE 6. DRUG RESISTANCE 7. TEST TO DETERMINE ANTICANCER DRUG RESISTANCE 8. THERAPEUTIC APPROACHES TO OVERCOME RESISTANCE 2
  3. 3. Amity Institute of Pharmacy DEFINITION: Cancer is characterized by the uncontrolled growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way. In medical science cancer or tumor is known as neoplasm. Not all tumors are cancerous; tumors are of two types: 1. Benign 2. Malignant 1. BENIGN TUMOR: Benign tumors are those which does not spread into any other part of the body. 2. Malignant tumors: These are cancerous cells. Cells in this tumor can damage nearby cells of the tissue and can spread to the other part of the body. The process of spreading cancer from one body part to another is called metastasis. 3
  4. 4. Amity Institute of Pharmacy Treatment of cancer: There are various ways through which that cancer can treat, which are given below: 1. Chemotherapy 2. Radiotherapy 3. Hormone Therapy 4. Gene Therapy 5. Immunotherapy 6. Surgery Problems with the Chemotherapy Cancer drugs: Anticancer agents are nothing, just toxins that are used to kill cancer cells, so the cancer cells have an inbuilt mechanism to protect themselves from the toxins. This can give rise to the formation of resistance to the anticancer Medication curating cancer. 4
  5. 5. Amity Institute of Pharmacy NEED FOR STUDYING ANTICANCER DRUG RESISTANCE: After cardiovascular diseases cancers are the second biggest cause of death globally. So studying its origin, causes, factors, propagation, mechanisms, and cure is very important. As we know, when a drug is used for a long period it can produce resistance over time. So, to overcome this problem studying anticancer drug resistance is also very important. DRUG RESISTANCE: Resistance is the decrease in the effectiveness of the drug due to different mechanisms. Drug resistance can be reduced by a combination of different drugs. Anticancer Drug resistance: The concept of drug resistance comes under to know when some bacteria show resistance to antibiotics, later similar mechanisms are found in other diseases which, include cancer. 5
  6. 6. Amity Institute of Pharmacy Initially, almost every type of cancer is defenseless against chemotherapy treatment, but over time, this drug developed resistance to the anti-cancer medication through different types of mechanisms. Categories of the mechanism through which cancer cells developed resistance to the anti-cancer medication 1. Drug inactivation 2. Drug target alteration 3. Drug efflux 4. DNA damage repair 5. Cancer Cell Heterogeneity 6. Cell death inhibition 6
  7. 7. Amity Institute of Pharmacy MECHANISM OF DRUG RESISTANCE IN CANCER CELLS 7
  8. 8. Amity Institute of Pharmacy DRUG INACTIVATION: • Activation of the drug molecules is an in-vivo process, in this process the drug interacts with different types of proteins. This interaction causes modification, and complex formation with different types of proteins or different types of molecules, which causes the activation of these agents. • This anticancer drug may go through metabolic activation. However, the cancer cells produce resistance to this type of mechanism, which causes a decrease in the activation of these agents. • Example: When Cytarabine is used in the treatment of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia; this is the medicine which is operate after several times of phosphorylations, which results in the formation of Cytarabine-triphosphate. • This expedites a lowering of the mobilization of Cytarabine in this pathway, which induces Cytarabine resistance. 8
  9. 9. Amity Institute of Pharmacy Alteration of Drug Target: • The molecular target is the most salient feature for the optimum activity of the drug molecule, while the alterations of this drug target by mutation or modification can lead to failure of the treatment by the anticancer agents. • The therapeutic potential of a drug molecule is controlled by the alterations of its site of action and its molecular targets, such as mutation of the cell in the body. In cancer cells, these types of changes in the molecular target can directly give rise to the resistance of the drug molecule. Efflux of the drug molecule: • Drug efflux is another very important mechanism of resistance of the drug molecules. In this mechanism, cancer-causing cells do not let the drug accumulate in the cell at the desired concentration to its effect which leads to the failure of the therapy. 9
  10. 10. Amity Institute of Pharmacy Increased ability to repair DNA damage: • The restoration of destructed DNA has a vital role in the resistance of anti-cancer drugs. The cell nature or mechanism of the damage DNA repair leads to produce drug resistance in chemotherapy, and the DNA damage repair mechanism of the cell can reverse the damage produced by the drug to the cancer cells in chemotherapy which lead to producing its resistance. • Example: Chemotherapeutic agents containing platinum, like cisplatin, that attack the DNA cross-linked cause apoptosis. The resistance of this arises due to nucleotide homologous recombination, which leads to the repair of the primary damage of DNA and it causes the failure of the treatment of the anticancer drugs which produce drug resistance and inhibit the therapeutic effect of the anticancer agents. Cancer Cell Heterogeneity: • In this type of mechanism, the cancer cells which are already resistant to the anticancer drug increased their growth. 10
  11. 11. Amity Institute of Pharmacy • Research indicates that some of the heterogeneous present in cancer cells have stem cell-like properties that are typically drug- resistant and these cells start producing cells that are born with anticancer-resistant properties. Cell death inhibition: • Apoptosis and autophagy are two crucial regulatory processes that cause cell death. Both pathways lead to cell death, even though they are mutually exclusive. • Apoptosis is work through two different pathways: 1. One of the pathways is intrinsic which is conciliated through the mitochondria that involve the BCL-2 family, cascade-9, and Akt. 2. The other mechanism is extrinsic and involves the death receptor on the surface of the cells. 11
  12. 12. Amity Institute of Pharmacy TEST TO DETERMINE ANTICANCER DRUG RESISTANCE • Not all patients need to be resistant to a particular anticancer drug. • Some tumors may be highly resistant to a particular drug or some may be quite sensitive. • Therefore, it would be useful to have some tests, which could predict resistance and subsequent clinical failure. • This would relieve the patients from the trauma of ineffective chemotherapeutic treatment. • A company called IMPATH has developed a cell culture drug resistance assay, which they claim can help in the selection of chemotherapeutic drugs that have the greatest likelihood of being clinically effective. THERAPEUTIC APPROACHES TO OVERCOME RESISTANCE NANOMEDICINE: 12
  13. 13. Amity Institute of Pharmacy • Nanomedicine is a new type of treatment that focuses on improving the effectiveness of the medication while minimizing negative side effects on healthy tissues. • To enhance medication distribution, boost therapeutic efficacy, lessen adverse effects, and combat drug resistance in anticancer therapy, nanomedicines are being studied. TREATMENT • The nanoparticle connects to the tumor cell after safely passing through the circulation. Near-infrared light, which is safe for humans but only penetrates human tissue by around 1.5 inches, is used for the majority of work. • Nanoparticles are adjusted to be activated only at a specific range of light, they may be heated up using the photothermal ablation concept. • Normal cells died at about 46 °CC (115 °FF), but cancer cells died at 42 °CC (108 °FF). • The impacts are often violent for smaller particles like cells and then later on cell death 13
  14. 14. Amity Institute of Pharmacy CLASSES OF CANCER-FIGHTING NANOMEDICINE AND THEIR PRESENT CLINICAL STATUS: • The potential of nanomedicines as anticancer agents is being studied. Treatments to enhance medication delivery, boost therapeutic efficacy, lessen side effects, and beat drug resistance. • Various articles published on the subjects of "nanomedicine," "nanoscience," and "nanotechnology" has grown dramatically during the previous ten years with a little dip in 2012. • The current state of our understanding of nanoparticles emphasizes safety and effectiveness. • There are main 5 types of nanoparticles that are used in the treatment of cancer. These are given below: 1. Lipid-based nanoparticles 2. Polymer-based nanoparticles and micelles 3. Dendrimers 4. Carbon-based Nanoparticles 5. Metallic and magnetic nanoparticles 14
  15. 15. Amity Institute of Pharmacy 15

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