4. ELEMENTS OF FIRE
•Oxygen or Oxidizing agents are those materials that
yield oxygen or other oxidizing gases during the course
of a chemical reaction.
•Fuel is the material or substance being oxidized or
burned in the combustion process.
•Heat is the energy component of the fire tetrahedron.
When heat comes into contact with a fuel, the energy
supports the combustion reaction.
•Combustion is a complex reaction that requires a fuel (in
the gaseous or vapor state), an oxidizer, and a heat
5. FIRE EXTINGUISHMENT THEORY
Fire is extinguished by limiting or interrupting one or
more of the essential elements in the combustion process
(fire tetrahedron). A fire may be extinguished by:
* Reducing its Temperature (Cooling)
* Removal of available Fuel (Starving)
* Exclusion of Oxygen (Blanketing)
* Inhibition of Self-Sustained Chemical
Chain Reaction. (Inhibition)
7. STAGES OF FIRE
•Ignition. Describes the period when the four
elements of the fire tetrahedron come
together and combustion begins
•Growth. Shortly after ignition, a fire plume
begins to form above the burning fuel. As
the plume develops, it begins to draw or
entrain air from the surrounding space into
8. STAGES OF FIRE CONTINUED. . .
•Flashover. Is the transition between the growth
and the fully developed fire stages and is not a
specific event such as ignition.
•Fully developed Stage. Occurs when all
combustible materials in the compartment are
involved in the fire.
•Decay. As the fire consumes the available fuel
in the compartment, the rate of heat released
A wildfire is any
natural or human-
fire in remote areas
where there is
organic material like
13. CONTROLLING AND PREVENTING WILDFIRES
• Well-maintained forests
• Sanitation or removal of dead/dried-up/sick
• Thinning or removal of dead or dying trees
• Pruning or removal of lower branches
• Firebreaks to reduce amount of flammable
• Community participation in fire prevention
• Infrastructures like access roads, water supply