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  1.  A network, in computing, is a group of two or more devices that can communicate. In practice, a network is comprised of a number of different computer systems connected by physical and/or wireless connections.
  2.  A network of networks in which user of any computer can get information from other computers, if they have permission. ◦ An internet (note the lowercase letter) is two or more networks that can communicate with each other. ◦ It is a generic term used to mean an interconnection of networks. ◦ The second is the name of a specific world wide network. ◦ The most notable internet is called INTERNET (uppercase letter), in which connect more than hundreds of thousands interconnected networks. ◦ a communications system that connects computers and databases all over the world
  3.  An intranet is an organization’s network, that uses internet protocols, network connectivity to securely share part of an organization information or operation with its employee.  an intranet belonging to an organization , usually a company, accessible only by the organization’s members, employees, or others with authorization.
  4.  An extranet is designed to connect the offices of a large organization situated in metropolitan area.  Extranet is simply an external network.  Intranet is accessible only to people who are members of the same company or organization,  An extranet provides various levels of accessibility to outsiders like company with its customers, suppliers, or other business partners.  You can access an extranet only if you have a valid username and password.  Extranets are becoming a very popular means for business partners to exchange information.
  5.  An Internet service provider (ISP) is a company that provides customers with Internet access. Data may be transmitted using several technologies, including DSL, cable modem, wireless.  International ISPs: the international ISPs that connect nations together example, Comcast, cox, centurylink  National ISPs: The national ISPs are backbone networks created and maintained by specialized companies.  Regional ISPs: The regional ISPs are smaller ISPs that are connected to one or more national ISPs.  Local ISPs: The local ISPs provide direct services to the end users.
  6.  ISP(internet service provider) list of Pakistan.  ISP city Website  Asia net Lahore  Brain net Karachi,lahore  Click online Peshawar  Comsats Islamabad,  Iqra Net Peshawar
  7.  Every computer on the internet has a unique internet address (similar to telephone number), An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication  Static IP addresses ◦ When a computer uses the same IP address every time it connects to the network, it is known as a static IP address.  Dynamic IP addresses ◦ In situations when the computer’s IP address changes frequently. It is called a dynamic IP address. ◦ Don't tattoo your IP address to your arm, because it's not really yours. Even at home it can change if you do something as simple as turn your modem or router on and off. Or you can contact your Internet service provider and they can change it for you.
  8.  WWW  The world wide web (commonly abbreviated as “the web”) is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the internet.  The World Wide Web (WWW), also called the Web, is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the Internet  Introduced in 1990 by Tim Berners-lee  Allows computer users to locate and view multimedia-based documents  It allows users to explore and retrieve text and graphics from web sites.
  9.  Web site ◦ A web site is a collection of web pages with some common ownership. ◦ Like books web sites contain information and consist of pages. ◦ A web site may consist of many pages or just a single page.  Web page ◦ A world wide web page ◦ The individual pages that make up a web site. ◦ You can view a single web page at a time.  Home page  When accessing a web site, the first page displayed is usually the home page. Often, like a book’s table of contents, it gives information about what is available on that site.  This is simply the first page displayed when you connect to the internet, or , the starting point of your internet session.
  10.  Application software that allows users to view web content such as text, images, videos, music games and other information located on a web page at a web site on the www. Or  A program on a computer that accepts requests for information, processes the requests and allows you to navigate to resources on the internet.  Microsoft internet explorer  Mozilla Firefox  Google chrome  Web browsers were introduced by companies like Mozilla, Netscape, and Microsoft. More recently, Google entered the browser market with Google chrome  On the web, you navigate- commonly known as browsing or surfing.
  11.  Hyperlinks/ links ◦ One way to navigate the www is by clicking on a link. ◦ A link is an area of a web page that , when you click on it, will take you from the page you are presently viewing to another page either within the same site or to an entirely different site. ◦ Links can be anything on a page. ◦ Examples: ◦ Graphical or textual elements ◦ Underlined text: images, color varies but is often blue, objects in motion etc.
  12.  Uniform resource locator is a fancy term for the address of a world wide web page or other resource.  Used to identify web pages  Example:  protocol Hostname File path  The first part is protocol “:http://”  Second is host name (domain name) or is the fully qualified domain name.  The term “domain name” usually refers only to the last part of the host name, in this case “” which has been registered for that particular company’s exclusive use.  The third part of the URL “welcome/main.html” is the path at which this particular web page is located on the web server.
  13.  DNS server translate symbolic name( such as into numerical IP address.  Symbolic names are a great convenience because they are easier to remember than numerical addresses.  For example, the domain name ( might translate to  It is like a phone book.  DNS helps users to find their way around the internet.  here the domain name is  The www is not necessary.
  14.  The .edu is the top level domain-the top level in which a site wants to register.  The second level domain is typically the company, organization or brand name for most marketers.  For example  www.sharq .edu
  15.  .com: it is used for commerical websites.  .edu: it is used for educational websites eg  .gov: Government institutions.  .org: for organization.  .mil: used for military websites eg  .net Networking organizations, it represents an organization that is working on network.  .ca: used for canada.  .th: used for Thailand.
  16.  A communication protocol is set of rules that control data communication.  The protocol determine the following:  How the sending device will indicate that it has finished sending a message.  How the receiving device will indicate that it has received a message.  A protocol defines what is communicated, how it is communicated, and when it is communicated.
  17.  https:// HyperText Transfer Protocol ◦ HTTPs is the protocol that supports communication between web browsers and web servers. ◦ Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) is an extension of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) for secure communication over a computer network, and is widely used on the Internet. ◦ ◦ Protocol for client/server communication ◦ Very simple request/response protocol.  Client sends request message  Server replies with response message
  18.  SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol  FTP: File Transfer Protocol  POP: Post Office Protocol  SMTP is used to relay the mail messages to the mail relay server. Hence it is used to transfer the mail.  FTP : "File Transfer Protocol." FTP is a protocol designed for transferring files over the Internet.  POP is used to Download/Receive messages from a mail server and store it locally on computer.
  19.  A server is a computer, a device that is dedicated to managing network resources. Servers are often referred to as dedicated because they carry out hardly any other tasks apart from their server tasks.  There are a number of categories of servers, including print servers, file servers, and database servers.  In theory, whenever computers share resources with client machines they are considered servers.
  20.  Modulator-demodulator. Electronic device that allows computers to communicate over telephone wires, One computer's modem converts its digital signals (which cannot be sent efficiently over phone lines) into analog signals (which can be). The other computer's modem reconverts the analog signals (that the computer cannot understand) into digital signals (that it can). Conversion of one type of signals to another is called modulation, their reconversion to the original type is called demodulation. Modern modems work at 56 thousand bits per second or higher data transfer speeds, perform automatic error correction, and allow voice and fax communications.

Notas do Editor

  1. A dial-up connection to the Internet: is a connection that uses a modem and a conventional telephone line  "Digital Subscriber Line." DSL is a communications medium used to transfer digital signals over standard telephone lines.  STAN TELECOM LTD (STAN TELECOM) Afghanistan Faiz Satellite Communication (AFSAT) AfghaNet. Giganor. Afghan Cyber. Afghan ICT Solution. Unique Atlantic Telecommunication LTD.
  2. An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a logical numeric address that is assigned to every single computer, or any other device that is part of a IP-based network. The Internet Protocol (IP) is the method or protocol by which data is sent from one computer to another on the Internet. Each computer (known as a host) on the Internet has at least one IP address that uniquely identifies it from all other computers on the Internet.  The "IP" part of IP address stands for "Internet Protocol." The "address" part refers to a unique number that gets linked to all online activity you do...somewhat like a return address on a letter you'd send out. (All this happens in milliseconds.)
  3. Multimedia is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, video and interactive content. Hypertext is text displayed on a computer display or other electronic devices with references (hyperlinks) to other text that the reader can immediately access, A Uniform Resource Locator (URL), colloquially termed a web address, is a reference to a web resource that specifies its location on a computer network and a mechanism for retrieving it.
  4. مشمولات: content us ​ /ˈnæv·ɪˌɡeɪt/ to direct the way that a vehicle, esp. a ship or aircraft will travel, or to find a direction across, along, or over an area of water or land: [ T ] He learned to navigate these waters. [ I ] Whales navigate by visual means. the activity of moving from site to site on the Internet: Surfing
  5. the action or process of moving or being moved. motion
  6. Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) is an extension of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). It is used for secure communication over a computer network, and is widely used on the Internet. Clients (web browsers) send requests to web servers for web elements such as web pages and images.\ HyperText Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) is an encrypted version of HTTP, which is the main protocol used for transferring data over the World Wide Web. HTTPS protects the communication between your browser and server from being intercepted and tampered with by attackers
  7. Domain Name Servers (DNS) are the Internet's equivalent of a phone book. They maintain a directory of domain names and translate them to Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. This is necessary because, although domain names are easy for people to remember, computers or machines, access websites based on IP addresses.  DNS servers eliminate the need for humans to memorize IP addresses such as (in IPv4). IP address is your phone number, and DNS is a phone book, where people may find this phone number. DNS (or also known as Domain Name System) is a system that matches domain names like or to the right IP addresses. This system is a database of domain names and IP addresses. It has been using to maintain a directory of domain names and helps to translate these domain names to the right IP addresses.
  8. Stands for "File Transfer Protocol." FTP is a protocol designed for transferring files over the Internet. FTP: is also the Internet standard for moving or transferring files from one computer to another using TCP or IP networks/internet. Stands for "Internet Message Access Protocol" and is pronounced "eye-map." It is a method of accessing e-mail messages on a server without having to download them to your local hard drive. This is the main difference between IMAP and another popular e-mail protocol called "POP3." POP3 requires users to download messages to their hard drive before reading them. The advantage of using an IMAP mail server is that users can check their mail from multiple computers and always see the same messages. This is because the messages stay on the server until the user chooses to download them to his or her local drive. Most webmail systems are IMAP based, which allows people to access to both their sent and received messages no matter what computer they use to check their mail.
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  10. early all personal computers are capable of serving as network servers. However, usually software/hardware system dedicated computers have features and configurations just for this task. For example, dedicated servers may have high-performance RAM, a faster processor and several high-capacity hard drives. In addition, dedicated servers may be connected to redundant power supplies, several networks and other servers. Such connection features and configurations are necessary as many client machines and client programs may depend on them to function efficiently, correctly and reliably. In the client/server model, a file server is a computer responsible for the central storage and management of data files so that other computers on the same network can access the files. ... A program or mechanism that enables the required processes for file sharing can also be called a file server. A database server is a computer system that provides other computers with services related to accessing and retrieving data from a database. What Is a Print Server? A print server, or printer server, is a device which connects printers to computers over a network. All print jobs are sent from the computer to the server, which then sends the print job out to a printer.
  11. A fax modem enables a computer to transmit and receive documents as faxes on a telephone line. A fax modem is like a data modem but is designed to transmit and receive documents to and from a fax machine or another fax modem. Some, but not all, fax modems do double duty as data modems. As with other modems, fax modems can be internal or external. Internal fax modems are often called fax boards. In the early 1990s small business PCs commonly had a PC-based fax/modem card and fax software (typically WinFax Pro). Largely replaced by email, PC-based faxing with a fax/modem declined at the turn of the century. Where faxing from a PC is required there are a number of Internet-based faxing alternatives. Where businesses still had one or more traditional fax machines churning out pages, they were usually outnumbered by PCs processing E-mail. A router is a networking device that distributes (or routes) your internet connection from your modem to all of your devices, such as mobile phones, laptops, desktop computers, and smart TVs. This enables them all to connect to the internet at the same time. A router also makes it possible for different devices to communicate with one another over the network. There are many different types of routers, but two of the popular ones are wired and wireless routers. Wired (or hard-lined) routers need to be physically connected to a modem and a device with cables. In comparison, wireless routers use built-in antennas to communicate with other devices on your WiFi network. However, a wireless router still needs to be physically connected to your modem with a cable to send and receive information from the web.