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  1. 1. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY  LECTURE FOUR Data Collection Tools to Solicit Community Information… Mkumbo,Essau
  2. 2. Data collection tools to solicit community information Contents Prepare tools for data collection Prepare requests of permission for data collection Demonstrate a Pre-test of tools to be used in data collection process Use tools for data Collection Mkumbo,Essau
  3. 3. Data analysis, presentation and interpretation  Define the terms Data analysis, Data presentation and Data interpretation  Describe methods of analysis data  Identify techniques for data presentation  Explain methods of data interpretation Mkumbo,Essau
  4. 4. Data analysis  Refers to examining what has been collected in a survey or experiment and making deductions and inferences.  It means the categorizing, ordering, manipulating, and summarizing of data to obtain answers to research questions  It is the way information and results are interpreted and assessed  It involves scrutinizing the acquired information and making inferences Mkumbo,Essau
  5. 5. The purpose of data Analysis  To answer the research questions and help to determine the trends and relationships among variables Mkumbo,Essau
  6. 6. Steps in data analysis Before data collection:  Determine the methods of data analysis  Determine how to process data  Consult statistician(if necessary)  Prepare dummy tables Mkumbo,Essau
  7. 7. Data analysis steps… After Data collection:  Process the data  Prepare tables and graphs  Analyse and interpret findings  Consult the statistician again  Prepare for editing  Prepare for presentation Mkumbo,Essau
  8. 8. Kinds of data Analysis 1. Descriptive analysis 2. Inferential analysis Mkumbo,Essau
  9. 9. Descriptive Data Analysis  Refers to the description of data from a particular sample and the conclusion must only refer to the sample.  It is about summarising the data and describe sample characteristics Descriptive data: Are numerical values obtained from the sample that gives meaning the data collected Mkumbo,Essau
  10. 10. Classification of descriptive statistics 1.Frequency distribution-systematic the arrangement of numeric value from the lowest to the highest or from the highest to the lowest. 2. Measures of Central Tendency – Mean, Median and Mode Mkumbo,Essau
  11. 11. Classification… 3. Measures of variability/dispersion- Range  This is the distance between the highest score and lowest score in a distribution Standard deviation,  The measure that indicates the average to which the scores deviate from the mean. Mkumbo,Essau
  12. 12. Classification… 4.Bivariate descriptive statistics Derived from simultaneous analysis of two variables to examine the relationship between variables Mkumbo,Essau
  13. 13. Inferential Analysis  The use of statistical test, either to test for significant relationships among variables or to find statistical support for the hypotheses  Inferential statistics: Are numerical values that enable a research to draw conclusion about a population based on the characteristics of the population sample.  It is based on the laws of probability Mkumbo,Essau
  14. 14.  Data organization  Refers to orderliness in research data. This is putting data into some systematic form. Collected data is known as to be raw information and not knowledge by itself, it has to be organised in various stages. Mkumbo,Essau
  15. 15. From data to knowledge The organisation from raw data to knowledge is as follows: 1.From raw data to information: Data becomes information when it becomes relevant to the problem identified by the researcher 2.From information to facts: information becomes facts, when the data can support it. Facts are what the data reveals Mkumbo,Essau
  16. 16. 3. From facts to knowledge: facts therefore lead to new information, new experience and views Knowledge is expressed together with statistical degree of confidence. Mkumbo,Essau
  17. 17. Data presentation  Is the method by which people organize, summarise and communicate information using variety of tools such as tables, graphs and diagrams Mkumbo,Essau
  18. 18. Techniques of presenting Data  Data can be presented in text, tables or pictorially such as graphs and charts. Tables and graphs are much clear.  Tables are usually the best way of showing structured numeric information, where graphs and charts are better for showing relationships, making comparisons and indicating trends. Mkumbo,Essau
  19. 19. Textual presentation  This method comprises presenting data with the help of a paragraph or a number of paragraphs  Data collected by a researcher/investigator can be presented using paragraphs or sentences. Mkumbo,Essau
  20. 20. Textual presentation  It involves enumerating important characteristics, emphasizing significant figures and identifying important features of data.  In textual presentation, data are described within the text.  In this area skills of language is very important Mkumbo,Essau
  21. 21. Textual presentation Example  You are asked to present the performance of your section in the Statistics test. The following are the test scores of your class: 34 42 20 50 17 9 34 43 50 18 35 43 50 23 23 35 37 38 38 39 39 38 38 39 24 29 25 26 28 27 44 44 49 48 46 45 45 46 45 46 Mkumbo,Essau
  22. 22. Textual presentation Solution  First, arrange the data in order for you to identify the important characteristics. This can be done in two ways: rearranging from lowest to highest or using the stem-and-leaf plot.  Below is the rearrangement of data from lowest to highest: Mkumbo,Essau
  23. 23. Textual presentation 9 23 28 35 38 43 45 48 17 24 29 37 39 43 45 49 18 25 34 38 39 44 46 50 20 26 34 38 39 44 46 50 23 27 35 38 42 45 46 50  In the Statistics class of 40 students, 3 obtained the perfect score of 50. Sixteen students got a score of 40 and above, while 34 got below 40. Mkumbo,Essau
  24. 24. Textual presentation  Example 2012 Population and Housing Census reported that Dodoma Population had risen to 2,083,588 people of whom 1,068,614 were females and 1,014,974 Males. Also 1,762,394 people resided in Dodoma Rural and 321,194 lived in Urban Mkumbo,Essau
  25. 25. Tabular Presentation of Data  A tabular presentation of data is the clear organization of data into rows (read horizontally) and columns (read vertically) to facilitate communication.  Tables can clearly convey large amounts of information that would be cumbersome to write in paragraph form Mkumbo,Essau
  26. 26. Tabular Methods of presenting data  Frequency Distribution  Relative Frequency Distribution  Cumulative Frequency Distribution  Cumulative Relative Frequency Distribution Mkumbo,Essau
  27. 27. Graphical methods for presenting data Histogram Frequency polygon Cumulative frequency curve or ogive Bar graph or charts Pie charts Mkumbo,Essau
  28. 28. Histogram  Is a graph in which classes are marked on the horizontal axis (X-axis) and the frequencies, relative frequencies, or percentages are marked on the vertical axis (Y- axis).  The frequencies, relative frequencies, or percentages are represented by the heights of the bars. Mkumbo,Essau
  29. 29.  In a histogram, the bars are drawn adjacent to each other.  The horizontal axis is commonly labeled by class marks (midpoints) though class boundaries or class limits also may be used Mkumbo,Essau
  30. 30. Histogram 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 28 33 38 43 48 53 58 Mkumbo,Essau
  31. 31. Frequency polygon A frequency polygon is a line graph that emphasizes the continuous change in frequencies. It is an accepted practice to close the polygon at both ends of the distribution by extending the lines to the base line (x-axis). Mkumbo,Essau
  32. 32. Frequency polygon 10 8 6 4 2 0 Age (in years) f 12 14 13.5 21.5 29.5 37.5 45.5 53.5 61.5 Mkumbo,Essau
  33. 33. Interpretation  Refers to the task of drawing inferences from the collected facts after an analytical and or experimental study  It is a search for broader meaning of research findings  Takes the results of analysis, makes inferences pertinent to the research relations studied, and draws conclusion about these relations. Mkumbo,Essau
  34. 34. Importance of interpretation  Proper interpretation enables usefulness and utility of research findings Mkumbo,Essau
  35. 35. Methods of data interpretation Mkumbo,Essau
  36. 36. Analysis of qualitative data  Thematic analysis  Content analysis Mkumbo,Essau
  37. 37. Content analysis  Pragmatic content analysis  Why something is said. It helps to understand people’s perceptions and beliefs.  Systematic content analysis. This classifies signs according to meaning.  Designation analysis: determines the frequency with which certain persons, objects or institutions or concepts are mentioned. This is simple counting exercise Mkumbo,Essau
  38. 38. Thematic analysis  Themes refer to topics or major subjects that come up in discussions. Mkumbo,Essau
  39. 39. Research proposal writing skills to develop research proposal  Define the concept of research proposal  Identify steps for developing a research proposal  Identify research topic  Prepare a research proposal Mkumbo,Essau
  40. 40. Research proposal  Is a research plan, suggestion or request to implement a study or a programme  It is like a blue print of a building plan before the construction starts.  It is a suggestion because it persuades people reading it to do something eg. To fund the study or recommend that research should be carried out or to recommend the implementation of the project. Mkumbo,Essau
  41. 41. Qualities of an effective research proposal  What is being proposed? What the project is about?  How it will be carried out  When it will be carried out  How much it will cost Mkumbo,Essau
  42. 42. Steps in developing a research proposal  Topic selection  Title selection  Developing the proposal Mkumbo,Essau
  43. 43. Topic selection  Topic refers to subject, issues or area under discussion. The success of the research project depends on one’s selection of the topic (the subject) because the researcher’s interest in a particular topic will sustain the research. He or she will enjoy reading materials related to that subject and will put time and efforts into the work Mkumbo,Essau
  44. 44. Steps in topic selection 1. Identify what interests or puzzles on in an area of study. May be social, economic, health, education, political or cultural issues. Example of puzzling aspect why people still consume illicit brews despite the dangers experienced and warnings given by the government Mkumbo,Essau
  45. 45. 2. Identify key words for the topic. The keywords can include words representing the issue that has puzzled the researcher. Eg the increase of illicit brews in the above puzzle. 3.Define the topic: Here the researcher define the topic by analysing selected keywords keenly. There may be several topics from key words. Eg on illicit brews there can be topics on causes, effects or costs etc Mkumbo,Essau
  46. 46. 4. Formulate the topic Eg. The prevalence of illicit brews in Tanzania. After formulating the topic the researcher should search for materials relevant to the research topic. Mkumbo,Essau
  47. 47. Qualities of an effective research topic  It is researchable, means that the subject where the research instruments can be easily formulated and study population sampled  Captures the interests of the researcher  It contributes to the body of knowledge  It stimulates varied views and interpretations  It is clear and focussed, that is, it not vague to the researcher. Mkumbo,Essau
  48. 48. Challenges in topic selection 1.Choose a topic that is too wide. The too wide research area may cause a researcher to fail to limit the scope of the study eg. The effects of draught. This ma be difficult to study because the effects and its intensity vary by region and gender 2. Choose a topic that is too complex. Such research may require large samples impossible to be done in a short time. Eg the mushrooming of CSOs in Tanzania. May be complex in that it requres the clear definition of “mushrooming” Mkumbo,Essau
  49. 49. 3. Poor timing Most research works have a limited time span for which data should be collected and presented. Failure to this may lead to disqualification or penalties. 4. Limited accessibility to materials and respondents Mkumbo,Essau
  50. 50. Title selection  The term “title” refers to the heading, label or tag. The title of the proposal describes what the study is about. It is a mini abstract. It portrays a quick summary of the key idea(s) in proposal. Example of a tiltle. An assessment of the causes and effects of abortion on female students in secondary schools and colleges in tanzania .this title highlights that, it is about abortion, it can further be seen that respondents will be female students e.tc Mkumbo,Essau
  51. 51. Steps in selecting the Title 1.Identify keywords for the title. Before this stage the researcher must identify key issues in the topic the researcher is interested in 2.Reflect on key issues. This means the research should brainstorm key issues identified. He should attempt to find dependent and independent variables. For example if the researcher is puzzled over price increase and commodity consumption, questions that the researcher should attempt to answer include; Mkumbo,Essau
  52. 52.  Does price increase affect consumption?  Does price increase influence consumption?  Does consumption influence price increase?  How can these issues be linked? Mkumbo,Essau
  53. 53. Formulate the title 3.The formulation of the title involves trying to link the key variables this can be formulated using terms such as The effect of…, the impact of…, an assessment of…,  Eg. The effect of price increase on consumption Mkumbo,Essau
  54. 54. 4. Evaluation  The research has to ensure that the title is clear and specific. That means independent an dependent variables are easily identified. Mkumbo,Essau
  55. 55. Qualities of a good research title  It is brief and specific. Eg “the impact of drug abuse on education”. the specificity and brevity make it easy to identify the independent and dependent variables  It should be clear and unambiguous. The title should not lead to various interpretation. It should be able to show the relationship between dependent and independent variables  It should be in line with the set objectives. The title should be a brief summary of what the study is about. Mkumbo,Essau
  56. 56. Challenges encountered in title selection  Choose a title that is not specific. E.g the title “Crimes in Dodoma Region” what form of crime?  Writing a title that is too wordy.  Poorly formulated title (unclear words)  Lack of consistency. Some titles neither tally with the research objectives nor statement of the problem or research methodology applied Mkumbo,Essau
  57. 57. Variables  The term variable is derived from variations. Variables are attributes or qualities of the cases that we measure of record. For example if the cases are persons, the variables could be sex, age, height, weight, level of education etc. generally the variable changes it attribute or values under different situtaions. Mkumbo,Essau
  58. 58. Independent variables  The independent variables are also known as predictors or explanatory variables. These are the variable the researcher thinks can explain variations in dependent variables, in other words these are the causes. Eg. If the study is on the impact of price increase on beer consumption in Tanzania, then the price increase is the independent variable. This is because it can explain or affect the increase of decrease in beer consumption. Mkumbo,Essau
  59. 59. Dependent variables  Usually there is only one dependent variable. It is the outcome the researcher is attempting to predict. In the study on the impact of price increase on beer consumption in Tanzania, beer consumption, or more specifically its increase od decrease is the dependent variable. In other words, the dependent variable “depends” on the independent. The price increase is the cause of the fluctuations in beer consumption Mkumbo,Essau
  60. 60. Example  Consider the following example, “The role of physiotherapy strategy in community-based rehabilitation of the physically disabled”,  There are two key words, physiotherapy strategy and community-based rehabilitation. Mkumbo,Essau
  61. 61. Research proposal-Introduction  The introductory part of the research proposal serves to discuss the background for the proposed research, state and define the problem that the proposal is attempting to address of solve, state the aims and objectives of the research work and give an indication on how the work will progress. It is the opening of the study and that is why it is called the introduction. Mkumbo,Essau
  62. 62. Background of the study  It refers to the setting or position of the study. It is a brief overview of what the researchers aspires to tackle. The background information play the following role in research  It helps to clarify what has brought about the need for the study  Points out the challenges faced due to the identified issues  Indicates the opportunity for improvements Mkumbo,Essau
  63. 63. Background of the study…  Demonstrates the researcher’s view of the research problem  It helps to convince the reader that the problem or opportunity exists and that it should be addressed  It shows the reader that the researcher knows the study area s he/she is familiar with what has preceded. Mkumbo,Essau
  64. 64. Statement of the problem  This refers to an issue of concern that puzzles the researcher. This may be due to is effect or consistence despite measures taken. Eg. A researcher may be puzzled as to why beer consumption is still high despite the increase in price. A research may also wonder why school dropouts is still high despite free education. Such concerns may result into formulation of a research questions Mkumbo,Essau
  65. 65. Qualities of the effective Background to the study  It is brief and specific  It engages the interest of the reader  It gives a reader a glimpse of the research problem  It gives a reader an idea how the proposal is structured  The language used is simple and straight forward Mkumbo,Essau
  66. 66. Qualities of an effective research problem  The research problem is clearly stated. It is concise. It enables the reader to be aware that there a definite issue that needs to be solved. In this case the problems stands out clearly and is easily recognised  The research problem clearly indicates the urgency of the research and shows that the research is definitely needed. Mkumbo,Essau
  67. 67. Qualities of an effective research problem…  The statement of the problem has supporting evidences  The language used is simple and objective. This means no comical, emotional or poetic language used  The research problem has an impact on the whole topic being investigated Mkumbo,Essau
  68. 68. Steps in writing an effective statement of the problem  Reflection  Identification  Formulation  Justification Mkumbo,Essau