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LA Myxoma - For Medical Students

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Dr Vivek Baliga discusses left atrial myxoma for medical students. Lecture includes a link to MCQs in the video. For access to video, please copy and paste this link --> https://youtu.be/JtkWxbVklgA

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LA Myxoma - For Medical Students

  1. 1. Left Atrial Myxoma A Review For Medical Students Dr B Vivek Baliga Consultant Physician And Director Baliga Diagnostics
  2. 2. WHAT YOU WILL LEARN 1. What is LA Myxoma? 2. Pathology 3. Clinical Features 4. Diagnostic methods 5. Management 6. MCQs 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Cardiac tumours are a commonly asked question in medical exams. The most common cardiac tumour that is encountered in clinical practice is a left atrial myxoma. 3 POSSIBLE QUESTIONS 1. Write a note on Left atrial myxoma 2. Discuss cardiac tumors 3. Write a note on the most common cardiac tumor
  4. 4. LA MYXOMA ▹ Most common type of primary cardiac tumor that is seen in adults. ▹ Predominantly seen in females ▹ Between the ages of 30 and 60 years 4
  6. 6. 2 BASIC TYPES6 SPORADIC 90% of cases Usually solitary FAMILIAL 10% of cases Tend to be multiple PART OF CLINICAL SYNDROMES Carney Complex LAMB Syndrome NAME syndrome
  7. 7. PATHOLOGY ▹ Primarily composed of a gelatin -like structure that contains myxoma cells in a stroma composed of glycosaminoglycans. ▹ Myxomas produce vascular endothelial growth factor which is responsible for its enlargement of size. ▹ Typical myxomas range between 1 to 15 cm in diameter. ▹ Around 30% of these tumours have a friable surface and can embolize. 7 Imagecourtesy Wikimediacommons,user Nephron
  8. 8. SITE AND LOCATION Myxomas are mostly present in the left atrium, and are attached through a pedicle to the fossa ovalis. The pedicle consists of fibrous and vascular tissue. 8
  10. 10. SYMPTOMS ▹ Early stages - No symptoms ▹ Later - Features of cardiac failure ▹ ‘Tumor plop’ - Heard in early diastole ▹ May be associated MR ▹ Constitutional symptoms - fever, malaise etc 10
  11. 11. COMPLICATIONS 1. Mitral valve - mitral stenosis or mitral regurgitation 2. Embolism - peripheral or neurological 11
  12. 12. DIAGNOSIS 12
  14. 14. 14 MANAGEMENT ▹ Surgical excision through cardiopulmonary bypass. ▹ Surgical mortality risk is less than 5%. ▹ This treatment is curative and only 1 to 2% of sporadic cases recur. ▹ Familial cases have a slightly higher recurrence rate of up to 20%.
  15. 15. 15 For more information and exam questions on LA myxoma, visit the link in the description.