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Wastewater Treatment in Arab region_An unexploited opprtunity for agricultural use.pdf

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Wastewater Treatment in Arab region_An unexploited opprtunity for agricultural use.pdf

A presentation offered during the Co-the symposium: "A Highwire Act: Balancing Sustainable Agricultural Irrigation Approaches with Food Safety Priorities in the Face of Water Shortages".

IAFP European Meeting, 26.-28. 2020

A presentation offered during the Co-the symposium: "A Highwire Act: Balancing Sustainable Agricultural Irrigation Approaches with Food Safety Priorities in the Face of Water Shortages".

IAFP European Meeting, 26.-28. 2020

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Wastewater Treatment in Arab region_An unexploited opprtunity for agricultural use.pdf

  1. 1. The GrowingTrend of Sustainable Wastewater Treatment in the Arab Region An Unexploited Opportunity for Agricultural Use DFK for Safe Food Environment Auditing | Consultancy |Training www.dfkfoodsafety.com Dima Faour-Klingbeil, Ph.D. Research Fellow | University of Plymouth Principal Consultant | DFK for Safe Food Environment IAFP 2020 Virtual Annual Meeting, 26-28 October 2020
  2. 2. The GrowingTrend of SustainableWastewater Treatment in the Arab Region: An unexploited opportunity for agricultural use • Water scarcity in the Arab countries • Current situations of wastewater treatment in the Arab region • Wastewater reuse in agriculture: an untapped opportunity • Associated health risks and considerations for treatedWW reuse in agriculture 2 Dima Faour-Klingbeil IAFP 2020 Virtual Annual Meeting, 26-28 October 2020
  3. 3. https://blogs.worldbank.org/arabvoices/numbers-facts-about-water-crisis-arab-world
  4. 4. WATER SCARCITY: A GROWING PROBLEM • Urbanization • Population growth • Economic development • Unsustainable water use • Climate change 4 Frequent droughts, in conjunction with an overuse of groundwater and major aquifers, have greatly reduced the availability of both renewable and non- renewable water resources (World Bank, 2009).
  5. 5. COUNTRIES AT GREATEST RISK OFWATER SHORTAGE 5 Source: WRI.org
  6. 6. AGRICULTURE,THE BIGGEST USER FOR WATER ❑ Irrigation water use is about 80% out of the total water use in the region ❑ Non-conventional water resources, i.e. reuse of treated wastewater ❑ Recycling 50% of domestic water supplies in the GCC countries could satisfy more than 14% of the agricultural sector demands 6 UNDP (2013)
  7. 7. ANNUAL ESTIMATED VOLUMES OFWASTEWATER PRODUCTION INTHE ARAB REGION ❑The total discharged untreated volumes constitute half of the total wastewater produced in the region ❑Very limited reuse of treated wastewater in agriculture sector ❑Widespread haphazard reuse of inadequately treated WW in irrigation 7 UNDP (2013); Choukr-Allah (2011); Dawoud. A (2017)
  8. 8. Morocco • Current water demand: 14 billion m3 • Agriculture: 87% • Wastewater reuse: unknown • As most major cities are along the costal line, most WWT effluent is discharged into the sea. Reuse potential is high but not tapped. Lebanon • Current water demand: 1530 Mm3 • Agriculture: 58% • WW reuse: negligible. Unknown amount of raw wastewater is reused in the Beqaa valley • Ca. 80 % of the wastewater (treated and untreated) is drained into the sea. Jordan • Current demand: 1512 Mm3 • Agriculture: 64 % • 90 % of the effluent is reused in agriculture. Mainly in the JordanValley after mixing with rainwater in the KingTalal Dam 8 ACWUA – Wastewater Reuse in Arab Countries (2010) WW REUSE: AN UNTAPPED OPPORTUNITY
  9. 9. Egypt • Current demand: 69.4 billion m3 • Agriculture: 82 % • In the Nile Delta, all wastewater is reused, both as treated and untreated wastewater is drained into canals or the river Nile and again used further downstream. Syria • Current demand: 17.7 billion m3 • Agriculture: 88 % of total demand in agriculture, • Estimated 90 % ofWW (treated and untreated) is reused in agriculture (only 183 Mm3) Tunisia • Current water demand: 2 660 Mm3 • Agriculture 80% • Wastewater reuse: 57 Mm3 (23 %), 22 Mm3 reused in agriculture Yemen • Current water demand: 6.6 billion m3/ year • Agriculture: 88% • Only 25% of pop. Connected to sewer system 9 ACWUA – Wastewater Reuse in Arab Countries (2010)
  10. 10. Photo credit: Dima Faour-Klingbeil Direct use of sewage effluent directed from drain to river canals and fields in Bekaa valley, Lebanon (Faour-Klingbeil et al., 2016) UNTREATED SEWAGE AS AN ALTERNATIVE Under conditions of water scarcity and weak enforcement, wastewater irrigation may expand as an unplanned activity
  11. 11. WASTEWATER A SOURCE OF HARMFUL CONTAMINANTS Sewage effluents contain a high concentration of bacteria and other pathogens (viruses, protozoans, and helminthic pathogens), inorganic and toxic elements • Campylobacter 2-5 logCFU/l • Rotavirus 2-5 logCFU/l • Cryptosporidium 0-4 oocysts/l • Salmonella 3.4 log CFU/100 ml 11
  12. 12. CURRENT APPROACHES 12 Dawoud.A (2017). Treated Wastewater Reuse for Food Production in Arab Region. Arab Water Council Journal, Volume 8, No. 1,
  13. 13. CONSTRAINTSTOTREATEDWW REUSE ❑ Overloaded systems and inefficient technologies ❑ Weak enforcement ❑ High cost of control and monitoring ❑ Social/cultural acceptibility ❑ Quality parameters and standards 13 ACWUA Working Group on Wastewater Reuse (2010) CONT´
  14. 14. Integrated preventive management framework • The scope covers: ➢Intentional use of irrigation or aquaculture with sewage contaminated surface waters ➢Municipal or domestic wastes without substantial industrial inputs WHO’s 2006 guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and graywater APPROPRIATE MITIGATIONS WHO (2013): Safe Use of Wastewater, Greywater and Excreta 14
  15. 15. WHO (2013): Safe Use of Wastewater, Greywater and Excreta 15
  16. 16. CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS ❑ No clear strategy for reuse of treated WW ❑ Efficient surveillance of existing WWT plants ❑ Effective preventive approach for risks mitigation ❑The establishment of water reuse guidelines (WHO 2006 guidelines should be promoted ) ❑ Quantitative research on the health risks of treatedWW reuse in agriculture 16
  17. 17. Dima Faour-Klingbeil, Ph.D. Research Fellow |University of Plymouth Founder/Principal Consultant | DFK for Safe Food Environment DFK for Safe Food Environment Auditing| Consultancy| Training Ottweilerstr. 14 A, 30559 Hanover, Germany www.dfkfoodsafety.com 17

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