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  • Very nice Deepika. Communciatin needs a strategy and companies are very careful in thier communciations. Here is a good blog about communication strategy
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  2. 2. COMMUNICATION  Communication is the process of sharing our ideas, thoughts, and feelings with other people and having those ideas, thoughts, and feelings understood by the people we are talking with. When we communicate we speak, listen, and observe.  Communication is the process of transmitting information and understanding. It is the transference of meaning between individuals and the means of reaching, understanding and influencing others.  Skill to communicate depends on the capacity of an individual to convey ideas and feelings to another to evolve a desired response. In management, communication is a mixture of personal attributes and organizational aspects.
  3. 3. ROLE OF COMMUNICATION  Helps in fostering motivation  Aids in the function of control  Provides information for making decisions  Coordination among departments  To fill current inner tensions, or needs. The six current needs we each try to fill are... – to feel respected by Self and others – to give or get credible information – to cause or prevent inner and/or interpersonal change - including changing or maintaining the emotional distance between us and others – to vent one’s feeling – to create excitement (reduce numbness or boredom)
  4. 4. ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION  Verbal communication – Verbal communication (vocal included) contributes to 45% of our communication. It involves the use of language and meaning (either oral or written).  Non-verbal Communication – Non verbal communication is the conscious and unconscious body movements in communication that couple with physical and environmental surroundings. Non verbal communications are those which are not expressed orally or in writing and includes human elements associated with communication.  Listening & Feedback – Listening which comprises of hearing, attending, understanding and remembering can facilitate the effectiveness of communication. Listening can be pleasurable, discriminative or critical depending on the degree of application of mind. Listener has to employ the appropriate type of listening depending on the situation and nature of the message.
  5. 5. COMMUNICATION PROCESS  The communication process is a simple model that demonstrates all the factors that can affect communication.  The communication process is the inter-relationship between several inter-dependent components.  It consists of a whole series of related actions and reactions which together result in the sharing of meaning.
  7. 7. ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION PROCESS  Sender – It is the person who intends to make contact with the objective of passing the message to other persons.  Message – This is the subject matter of the communication which is intended to be passed to the receiver from the sender.  Encoding – The process of converting the message into communication symbols.  Channel – Message encoded into symbols are transmitted by the sender through a channel.
  8. 8.  Receiver – The person or group to whom the message is directed.  Decoding – The receiver translates the words and symbols used in the message into idea and interprets it to obtain its meaning.  Feedback – It is the way of judging the effectiveness of the message.
  9. 9. MODELS OF COMMUNICATION  Shannon's Model  Intermediary model of communication (sometimes referred to as the gatekeeper model or two-step flow)  Interactive Model  Transactional model
  10. 10. Shannon's (1948) Model of the communication process
  11. 11.  An information source.  The message, which is both sent by the information source and received by the destination.  A transmitter.  The signal, which flows through a channel.  A carrier or channel, which is represented by the small unlabeled box in the middle of the model.  Noise, in the form of secondary signals that obscure or confuse the signal carried.  A receiver.  A destination. Presumably a person who consumes and processes the message.
  12. 12. An Intermediary Model
  13. 13. Intermediary Model  This model, which is frequently depicted in introductory texts in mass communication, focuses on the important role that intermediaries often play in the communication process.  There are many intermediary roles associated with communication.  Many of these intermediaries have the ability to decide what messages others see, the context in which they are seen, and when they see them.  In extreme variations such gatekeepers are referred as censors.
  14. 14. Contd…  In case where publications choose some content in preference to other potential content based on an editorial policy, they are referred to them as editors (most mass media), moderators (Internet discussion groups), reviewers (peer-reviewed publications), or aggregators (clipping services), among other titles .  Delivery workers (a postal delivery worker, for instance) also act as intermediaries, and have the ability to act as gatekeepers, but are generally restricted from doing so as a matter of ethics and/or law.  Variations of gatekeeper model are also used in teaching organizational communication, where gatekeepers, in the form of bridges and liaisons, have some ability to shape the organization through their selective sharing of information.
  15. 15. An Interactive Model
  16. 16. Interactive Model  The interactive model elaborates Shannon's model with the cybernetic concept of feedback often without changing any other element of Shannon's model.  The key concept associated with this elaboration is that destinations provide feedback on the messages they receive such that the information sources can adapt their messages, in real time. This is an important elaboration, and as generally depicted, a radically oversimplified one.
  17. 17. A Transactional Model
  18. 18. A Transactional Model  This model acknowledges neither creators nor consumers of messages, preferring to label the people associated with the model as communicators who both create and consume messages.  This is, in many ways, an excellent model of the face-to-face interactive process which extends readily to any interactive medium that provides users with symmetrical interfaces for creation and consumption of messages, including notes, letters, electronic mail, and the radio.  It is a distinctly interpersonal model that implies an equality between communicators.
  19. 19. Forms of Communication Communication in organizations can be broadly classified into formal and informal communication.  Formal communication takes place through the system in organization. In this, hierarchy has a very important role to play and the parties communicating should adhere to the procedures in the system. In organizations, formal communication is effected in upward (subordinate to superior), downward (superior to subordinate) and horizontal (between same levels) directions.  Informal communication (grapevine) in an organization is very active and powerful. Nature of communication through this medium is oral and the speed with which the message is spread through this network is tremendous.
  20. 20. BARRIERS IN COMMUNICATION PROCESS  Interpersonal Barriers  Perception and perceptual selection processes  Semantics (language)  Channel selection  Inconsistent verbal and nonverbal communication.  Organizational Barriers  Information overload  Technical and in-group language  Status differences  Task and organization structure requirements  Absence of formal communication channels
  21. 21. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION  A good working definition for effective communication is to share meaning and understanding between the person sending the message and the person receiving the message.  The success of an individual in a team depends greatly on the extent to which he can engage in effective communication.  Effective communication is an essential component of organizational success at all levels. Numerous employee surveys have found that many problems in any organization can be traced back to one primary cause: poor communication.  Faulty communication in organizations can lead to lowered efficiency and effectiveness at the organizational as well as individual level. Also most of the interpersonal friction can be traced to faculty communication.
  22. 22. Contd…..  Good communication is necessary for all organizations as management functions in organizations are carried out through communication.  Communication is considered effective when it succeeds in evoking a desired response from the other person.  Communication, to be effective, cannot be a haphazard process. It has to be planned and executed so that it evokes the desired response.  Poor communication results in poor performance – When there is poor communication in an organization, there can be any number of negative outcomes, including errors, productivity declines, distrust, lower morale, confusion, absenteeism, and general dissatisfaction.
  23. 23. FEEDBACK • Feedback is a verbal or nonverbal process in which a team member shares his or her feelings or perceptions about another team member's behavior, action, or words. • The process of giving and receiving feedback is one of the most important ways for learning new behaviors and determining the impact of our behavior on others. • Feedback is crucial for effective communication – Effective communication will only come if communicators at all organizational levels seek out feedback and take appropriate action to ensure that the intended meaning is passed on to the relevant audience.
  24. 24. Contd…. • Effective feedback is absolutely essential to organizational effectiveness; people must know where they are and where to go next in terms of expectations and goals-yours, their own, and the organization. • Maintain a high degree of feedback throughout the communication process. • Positive question-and-answer approach helps create an atmosphere in which asking questions is entirely acceptable. In addition, this can help your employees learn and apply feedback techniques. • Be aware of the many reasons why people are hesitant to give feedback. It requires skill, understanding, courage, and respect for yourself and others.
  25. 25. Factors may get in the way of effective feedback sessions  Fear of the other person's reaction; people can get very defensive and emotional when confronted with feedback.  The information on which the feedback is based (e.g. performance appraisal) may be a very flawed process.  Defensiveness, distorted perceptions, guilt, project, transference, distortions from the past, misreading of body language  Receiver distortion: selective hearing, ignoring nonverbal cues, power struggles.  State of mind of two people.
  26. 26. Guidelines for Effective Feedback  Specific  Timely: Give feedback as soon as possible. Excellent feedback presented at an inappropriate time may do more harm than good  Descriptive: Give facts. Focus on the behavior not the person.  Sensitive: When emotions run high, allow a cooling-off period before talking.  Helpful: When feedback is negative, explore alternatives for improvement so the employee has goals to aim for. Use the "sandwich technique" by saying one positive statement followed by the negative feedback and then another compliment.
  27. 27. Improving Communication Effectiveness Techniques for the Sender  Feedback, perhaps the most important of these, is facilitated by two- way communication.  The sender should be aware of the meanings that different receivers might attach to various words.  The sender should try to maintain credibility. This can be accomplished by not pretending to be an expert when one is not, by "doing one's homework" and checking facts, and by otherwise being as accurate and honest as possible.  The sender should try to be sensitive to the receiver's perspective. A manager who must tell a subordinate that she has not been recommended for a promotion should recognize that the subordinate will be frustrated and unhappy. The content of the message and its method of delivery should be chosen accordingly.
  28. 28. Techniques for the Receiver  Being a good listener requires that the individual be prepared to listen, not interrupt the speaker, concentrate on both the words and the meaning being conveyed, be patient, and ask questions.  Another technique for the receiver is to be sensitive to the sender's point of view. Suppose that a manager has just received some bad news that his position is being eliminated next year. Others should understand that he may be disappointed, angry, or even depressed for a while. Thus, they might make a special effort not to take too much offense if he snaps at them, and they might look for signals that he needs someone to talk to.
  29. 29. Techniques for Both Sender and Receiver  Following up simply involves checking at a later time to be sure that a message has been received and understood.  Regulating information flow means that the sender or receiver takes steps to ensure that overload does not occur. For the sender, this could mean not passing too much information through the system at one time. For the receiver, it might mean calling attention to the fact that he is being asked to do too many things at once.  Both parties should also understand the richness associated with different media. e. g. When a manager is going to lay off a subordinate temporarily, the message should be delivered in person. A face-to-face channel of communication gives the manager an opportunity to explain the situation and answer questions.
  30. 30. Effective Team Communication  Teams are groups of individuals who work together to accomplish a task/project. Team effectiveness is dependent upon team communication. The quality of the team's work, to a large extent, depends upon the quality of the information shared.  The ability of team members to understand and communicate information enables them to work together collaboratively.  Understanding the components and barriers of communication, as well as giving and receiving feedback are essential elements of effective team communication.  These tips and guidelines will assist team members in developing open channels of communication where team members can learn and grow from each other, thereby becoming more effective in the achievement of their shared goals.
  31. 31. THANK YOU “It takes two to speak the truth: one to speak and another to hear" -Thoreau Communication involves a number of skills and no one is a complete – effective communicator. Each individual can become a better communicator by sharpening his skills through learning and practice.