SlideShare uma empresa Scribd logo
1 de 22
Competition Law in India
(Competition Act 2002)
Anti-competitive agreements, Abuse of a dominant position & Merger control.
The MRTP Act 1969: Predecessor of the Competition Act, 2002
• The MRTP Act was the operative competition law of India until it was repealed in the year 2009.
• The MRTP Act aimed at preventing (a) economic power concentration in a few hands and curbing monopolistic
behavior and (b) prohibition of monopolistic, unfair or restrictive traded practices. The intention behind this
was both to protect consumers as well as to avoid concentration of wealth.
• In light of the changing economic situation and initiation of economic reforms in the country post 1991, the
need was felt for a change in approach towards fostering competition. Against this background, the Finance
Minister of India in his budget speech in February, 1999 made the following statement in the context of to the
then existing MRTP Act.
• “The MRTP Act has become obsolete in certain areas in the light of international economic developments
relating to competition laws. We need to shift our focus from curbing monopolies to promoting
competition. The Government has decided to appoint a committee to examine this range of issues and
propose a modern competition law suitable for our conditions.”
Trends….
• Steady increase in the number of complaints
• In 2014 – 2015 CCI addressed issues of anti-competitive behavior in real estate, power, media
and entertainment, automobiles sector including couple of e-commerce cases where CCI
examined online and offline transactions.
• Diverse Nature of Informants
• There is a healthy mix of private individuals, trade associations, chambers of commerce, direct
competitors in the market, enterprises engaged in distributing activity for a dominant
manufacturer and others.
• The varied nature of informants and the limited instances of suo moto cognizance shows that
competition law and its enforcement has permeated significantly across class of informants
and various industries.
Trends….
• Industries in which Opposite Parties are Engaged
• CCI till date has examined various issues in industries across the spectrum from those
directly affecting consumers (such as real estate, auto ancillaries etc.) to heavy
industries (such as cement, steel, coal, defence industry etc.). It is also important to
note that CCI has not approached the cases or pursued against these industries with
misplaced zeal – approximately 4.6% cases are ones where CCI has taken suo moto
cognizance.
Trends….
• Complaints Received Against SOEs
• 2013 and 2014 are probably watershed years for prosecution of SOEs with CCI
pursuing regulators such as Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, several SOEs
in the power sector, procurement by the Union Ministry of Railways.
Trends….
• Inquiry, Enforcement and Penalty by the CCI
• CCI has imposed billions of Rupees of penalty – Rs. 25 Billion in Shamsher Kataria v.
Honda Siel Cars Ltd. &Ors. (Automobiles Case) & Rs. 17 billion in M/s. Maharashtra
State Power Generation Company Ltd. v. M/s. Mahanadi Coalfields Ltd. &Anr. While in
some cases, appellate courts have granted stay, pending disposal of the appeal, in
other cases, the appellate court has refused stay on recovery of penalty.
• However, an area of the Act where application is not certain and CCI adjudication
lacks clarity is imposition of penalty. CCI orders imposing penalty do not have a
discernible rationale which provides a legal or economic basis for imposition of a
particular percentage of penalty.
Anti-competitive agreements
• Section 3 of the Competition Act states that any agreement which causes or is likely
to cause an appreciable adverse effect (AAE) on competition in India is deemed anti-
competitive.
• Section 3 (1) of the Competition Act prohibits any agreement with respect to
“production, supply, distribution, storage, and acquisition or control of goods or
services which causes or is likely to cause an appreciable adverse effect on
competition within India”.
Anti-competitive agreements
• Although the Competition Act does not define AAEC and nor is there any thumb rule
to determine when an agreement causes or is likely to cause AAEC, Section 19 (3) of
the Act specifies that the Commission shall, while determining whether an agreement
has an appreciable adverse effect on competition under section 3, have due regard to
all or any of the following factors, namely….....
Anti-competitive agreements
A. creation of barriers to new entrants in the market;
B. driving existing competitors out of the market;
C. foreclosure of competition by hindering entry into the market;
D. accrual of benefits to consumers;
E. improvements in production or distribution of goods or provision of services;
F. promotion of technical, scientific and economic development by means of
production or distribution of goods or provision of services.
Anti-competitive agreements
• Section 3(3) of the Competition Act provides that agreements or a ‘practice carried’
on by enterprises or persons (including cartels) engaged in trade of identical or
similar products are presumed to have AAEC in India if they:-
• Directly or indirectly fix purchase or sale prices;
• Limit or control production, supply, markets, technical development, investments or
provision of services;
• Result in sharing markets or sources of production or provision of services;
• Indulge in bid-rigging or collusive bidding.
Abuse of Dominance
• Section 4 prohibits any enterprise from abusing its dominant position.
• The term ‘dominant position’ has been defined in the Act as ‘a position of strength, enjoyed
by an enterprise, in the relevant market, in India, which enables it to operate independently
of competitive forces prevailing in the relevant market; or affect its competitors or
consumers or the relevant market in its favour’.
• The Act defines the relevant market as ‘with the reference to the relevant product
market or the relevant geographic market or with reference to both the markets’.
• The relevant geographic market is defined as ‘a market comprising the area in which the
conditions of competition for supply of goods or provision of services or demand of
goods or services are distinctly homogenous and can be distinguished from the
conditions prevailing in the neighboring areas’.
Abuse of Dominance
• The Act further provides that the CCI shall determine the relevant geographic market having due regard to all
or any of the following factors :
• regulatory trade barriers;
• Local specification requirements;
• national procurement policies;
• adequate distribution facilities;
• transport costs;
• language;
• consumer preferences;
• need for secure or regular supplies or rapid after-sales services.
Abuse of Dominance
• The relevant product market is defined in as ‘a market comprising all those products or
services which are regarded as interchangeable or substitutable by the consumer, by reason of
characteristics of the products or services, their prices and intended use’.
• The Competition Act provides that the CCI shall determine the relevant product market having
due regard to all or any of the following factors:
• physical characteristics or end-use of goods
• Price of goods or service
• consumer preferences
• exclusion of in-house production
• existence of specialized producers
• classification of industrial products
Abuse of Dominance
• The abuse of dominance analysis under the Act starts with the determination of
market, once the relevant market has been determined; the CCI’s next task is to
establish whether the enterprise enjoys a dominant position. It is important to note
here that the Act does not prohibit the mere possession of dominance that could
have been achieved through superior economic performance, innovation or pure
accident but only its abuse.
Abuse of Dominance
• The Act sets out following factors which the CCI will take into account to establish the
dominant position of an enterprise :
1. market share of the enterprise;
2. Size and resources of the enterprise;
3. size and importance of the competitors;
4. economic power of the enterprise including commercial advantages over competitors;
5. vertical integration of the enterprises or sale or service network of such enterprises;
6. dependence of consumers on the enterprise;
7. monopoly or dominant position whether acquired as a result of any statute or by virtue
of being a Government company or a public sector undertaking or otherwise;
Abuse of Dominance
• The Act sets out following factors which the CCI will take into account to establish the dominant
position of an enterprise 87:
8. entry barriers including barriers such as regulatory barriers, financial risk, high capital cost of
entry, marketing entry barriers, technical entry barriers, economies of scale, high cost of
substitutable goods or service for consumers;
9. countervailing buying power;
10. Market structure and size of market;
11. social obligations and social costs;
12. relative advantage, by way of the contribution to the economic development, by the
enterprise enjoying a dominant position having or likely to have an appreciable adverse
effect on competition;
13. any other factor which the Commission may consider relevant for the inquiry.
Abuse of Dominance
• Dominance per se is not bad. It is only when there is an abuse of the dominant position that
Section 4 of the Competition Act is invoked. Thus, once the dominance of an enterprise in the
relevant market is determined the CCI has to establish the abuse of its dominance by an
enterprise. Section 4 (2) sets out a list of activities that shall be deemed abuse of dominant
position.
1. anti-competitive practices of imposing unfair or discriminatory trading conditions or
prices or predatory prices,
2. Limiting the supply of goods or services, or a market or technical or scientific
development, denying market access,
3. imposing supplementary obligations having no connection with the subject of the
contract, or
4. using dominance in one market to enter into or protect another relevant market.
Combinations
• It is the acquisition of one or more companies by one or more people or merger or
amalgamation of enterprises shall be treated as ‘Combination’ of such enterprises and
Persons in the following cases:
• acquisition by large enterprises;
• acquisition by group;
• acquisition of enterprise having similar goods/services;
• acquisition enterprise having similar goods/services by a group;
• merger of enterprises;
• merger in group company.
• Any combination that causes or is likely to cause appreciable adverse effect on competition
(AAEC) in markets in India is void.
Working of
CCI
Working of
CCI
Working of
CCI
THANK YOU!

Mais conteúdo relacionado

Semelhante a 8. Competition Law.pptx

Competition Act, 2002
Competition Act, 2002Competition Act, 2002
Competition Act, 2002
paramalways
 
Competition Act,2002
Competition Act,2002Competition Act,2002
Competition Act,2002
Sharath Alva
 
Eco pres
Eco presEco pres
Eco pres
sindhu7
 
Progression of MRTP Act to Competition Act in the era of globalization where ...
Progression of MRTP Act to Competition Act in the era of globalization where ...Progression of MRTP Act to Competition Act in the era of globalization where ...
Progression of MRTP Act to Competition Act in the era of globalization where ...
92_neil
 

Semelhante a 8. Competition Law.pptx (20)

Important provisions of competition act, 2002
Important provisions of competition act, 2002Important provisions of competition act, 2002
Important provisions of competition act, 2002
 
Competition Act, 2002
Competition Act, 2002Competition Act, 2002
Competition Act, 2002
 
Competition act 2002
Competition act 2002 Competition act 2002
Competition act 2002
 
COMPETITION ACT, 2002
COMPETITION ACT, 2002 COMPETITION ACT, 2002
COMPETITION ACT, 2002
 
competition act 2002
competition act 2002competition act 2002
competition act 2002
 
Competition Act,2002
Competition Act,2002Competition Act,2002
Competition Act,2002
 
Competition act
Competition actCompetition act
Competition act
 
Competition act 2002
Competition act 2002Competition act 2002
Competition act 2002
 
Presentation
PresentationPresentation
Presentation
 
CCI15.9.2011
CCI15.9.2011CCI15.9.2011
CCI15.9.2011
 
MRTP Act 1969 and Competition Act 2002
MRTP Act 1969 and Competition Act 2002MRTP Act 1969 and Competition Act 2002
MRTP Act 1969 and Competition Act 2002
 
competition act
competition actcompetition act
competition act
 
MRTP Act 1969 and Competition Act 2002
MRTP Act 1969 and Competition Act 2002MRTP Act 1969 and Competition Act 2002
MRTP Act 1969 and Competition Act 2002
 
Eco pres
Eco presEco pres
Eco pres
 
Competition act
Competition actCompetition act
Competition act
 
Competition act
Competition actCompetition act
Competition act
 
Progression of MRTP Act to Competition Act in the era of globalization where ...
Progression of MRTP Act to Competition Act in the era of globalization where ...Progression of MRTP Act to Competition Act in the era of globalization where ...
Progression of MRTP Act to Competition Act in the era of globalization where ...
 
The need to have an effective Competition Law regime
The need to have an effective Competition Law regimeThe need to have an effective Competition Law regime
The need to have an effective Competition Law regime
 
Competiton law
Competiton law Competiton law
Competiton law
 
Chapter 13: How free economic competition is protected in Colombia
Chapter 13: How free economic competition is protected in ColombiaChapter 13: How free economic competition is protected in Colombia
Chapter 13: How free economic competition is protected in Colombia
 

Último

NewBase 17 May 2024 Energy News issue - 1725 by Khaled Al Awadi_compresse...
NewBase   17 May  2024  Energy News issue - 1725 by Khaled Al Awadi_compresse...NewBase   17 May  2024  Energy News issue - 1725 by Khaled Al Awadi_compresse...
NewBase 17 May 2024 Energy News issue - 1725 by Khaled Al Awadi_compresse...
Khaled Al Awadi
 
zidauu _business communication.pptx /pdf
zidauu _business  communication.pptx /pdfzidauu _business  communication.pptx /pdf
zidauu _business communication.pptx /pdf
zukhrafshabbir
 
Constitution of Company Article of Association
Constitution of Company Article of AssociationConstitution of Company Article of Association
Constitution of Company Article of Association
seri bangash
 
Powerpoint showing results from tik tok metrics
Powerpoint showing results from tik tok metricsPowerpoint showing results from tik tok metrics
Powerpoint showing results from tik tok metrics
CaitlinCummins3
 

Último (20)

wagamamaLab presentation @MIT 20240509 IRODORI
wagamamaLab presentation @MIT 20240509 IRODORIwagamamaLab presentation @MIT 20240509 IRODORI
wagamamaLab presentation @MIT 20240509 IRODORI
 
Potato Flakes Manufacturing Plant Project Report.pdf
Potato Flakes Manufacturing Plant Project Report.pdfPotato Flakes Manufacturing Plant Project Report.pdf
Potato Flakes Manufacturing Plant Project Report.pdf
 
How to refresh to be fit for the future world
How to refresh to be fit for the future worldHow to refresh to be fit for the future world
How to refresh to be fit for the future world
 
Toyota Kata Coaching for Agile Teams & Transformations
Toyota Kata Coaching for Agile Teams & TransformationsToyota Kata Coaching for Agile Teams & Transformations
Toyota Kata Coaching for Agile Teams & Transformations
 
NewBase 17 May 2024 Energy News issue - 1725 by Khaled Al Awadi_compresse...
NewBase   17 May  2024  Energy News issue - 1725 by Khaled Al Awadi_compresse...NewBase   17 May  2024  Energy News issue - 1725 by Khaled Al Awadi_compresse...
NewBase 17 May 2024 Energy News issue - 1725 by Khaled Al Awadi_compresse...
 
Aptar Closures segment - Corporate Overview-India.pdf
Aptar Closures segment - Corporate Overview-India.pdfAptar Closures segment - Corporate Overview-India.pdf
Aptar Closures segment - Corporate Overview-India.pdf
 
How to Maintain Healthy Life style.pptx
How to Maintain  Healthy Life style.pptxHow to Maintain  Healthy Life style.pptx
How to Maintain Healthy Life style.pptx
 
Copyright: What Creators and Users of Art Need to Know
Copyright: What Creators and Users of Art Need to KnowCopyright: What Creators and Users of Art Need to Know
Copyright: What Creators and Users of Art Need to Know
 
zidauu _business communication.pptx /pdf
zidauu _business  communication.pptx /pdfzidauu _business  communication.pptx /pdf
zidauu _business communication.pptx /pdf
 
tekAura | Desktop Procedure Template (2016)
tekAura | Desktop Procedure Template (2016)tekAura | Desktop Procedure Template (2016)
tekAura | Desktop Procedure Template (2016)
 
How Do Venture Capitalists Make Decisions?
How Do Venture Capitalists Make Decisions?How Do Venture Capitalists Make Decisions?
How Do Venture Capitalists Make Decisions?
 
Constitution of Company Article of Association
Constitution of Company Article of AssociationConstitution of Company Article of Association
Constitution of Company Article of Association
 
Series A Fundraising Guide (Investing Individuals Improving Our World) by Accion
Series A Fundraising Guide (Investing Individuals Improving Our World) by AccionSeries A Fundraising Guide (Investing Individuals Improving Our World) by Accion
Series A Fundraising Guide (Investing Individuals Improving Our World) by Accion
 
Expert Cross-Border Financial Planning Advisors
Expert Cross-Border Financial Planning AdvisorsExpert Cross-Border Financial Planning Advisors
Expert Cross-Border Financial Planning Advisors
 
Sedex Members Ethical Trade Audit (SMETA) Measurement Criteria
Sedex Members Ethical Trade Audit (SMETA) Measurement CriteriaSedex Members Ethical Trade Audit (SMETA) Measurement Criteria
Sedex Members Ethical Trade Audit (SMETA) Measurement Criteria
 
Powerpoint showing results from tik tok metrics
Powerpoint showing results from tik tok metricsPowerpoint showing results from tik tok metrics
Powerpoint showing results from tik tok metrics
 
بروفايل شركة ميار الخليج للاستشارات الهندسية.pdf
بروفايل شركة ميار الخليج للاستشارات الهندسية.pdfبروفايل شركة ميار الخليج للاستشارات الهندسية.pdf
بروفايل شركة ميار الخليج للاستشارات الهندسية.pdf
 
Hyundai capital 2024 1q Earnings release
Hyundai capital 2024 1q Earnings releaseHyundai capital 2024 1q Earnings release
Hyundai capital 2024 1q Earnings release
 
A Brief Introduction About Jacob Badgett
A Brief Introduction About Jacob BadgettA Brief Introduction About Jacob Badgett
A Brief Introduction About Jacob Badgett
 
TriStar Gold Corporate Presentation May 2024
TriStar Gold Corporate Presentation May 2024TriStar Gold Corporate Presentation May 2024
TriStar Gold Corporate Presentation May 2024
 

8. Competition Law.pptx

  • 1. Competition Law in India (Competition Act 2002) Anti-competitive agreements, Abuse of a dominant position & Merger control.
  • 2. The MRTP Act 1969: Predecessor of the Competition Act, 2002 • The MRTP Act was the operative competition law of India until it was repealed in the year 2009. • The MRTP Act aimed at preventing (a) economic power concentration in a few hands and curbing monopolistic behavior and (b) prohibition of monopolistic, unfair or restrictive traded practices. The intention behind this was both to protect consumers as well as to avoid concentration of wealth. • In light of the changing economic situation and initiation of economic reforms in the country post 1991, the need was felt for a change in approach towards fostering competition. Against this background, the Finance Minister of India in his budget speech in February, 1999 made the following statement in the context of to the then existing MRTP Act. • “The MRTP Act has become obsolete in certain areas in the light of international economic developments relating to competition laws. We need to shift our focus from curbing monopolies to promoting competition. The Government has decided to appoint a committee to examine this range of issues and propose a modern competition law suitable for our conditions.”
  • 3. Trends…. • Steady increase in the number of complaints • In 2014 – 2015 CCI addressed issues of anti-competitive behavior in real estate, power, media and entertainment, automobiles sector including couple of e-commerce cases where CCI examined online and offline transactions. • Diverse Nature of Informants • There is a healthy mix of private individuals, trade associations, chambers of commerce, direct competitors in the market, enterprises engaged in distributing activity for a dominant manufacturer and others. • The varied nature of informants and the limited instances of suo moto cognizance shows that competition law and its enforcement has permeated significantly across class of informants and various industries.
  • 4. Trends…. • Industries in which Opposite Parties are Engaged • CCI till date has examined various issues in industries across the spectrum from those directly affecting consumers (such as real estate, auto ancillaries etc.) to heavy industries (such as cement, steel, coal, defence industry etc.). It is also important to note that CCI has not approached the cases or pursued against these industries with misplaced zeal – approximately 4.6% cases are ones where CCI has taken suo moto cognizance.
  • 5. Trends…. • Complaints Received Against SOEs • 2013 and 2014 are probably watershed years for prosecution of SOEs with CCI pursuing regulators such as Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, several SOEs in the power sector, procurement by the Union Ministry of Railways.
  • 6. Trends…. • Inquiry, Enforcement and Penalty by the CCI • CCI has imposed billions of Rupees of penalty – Rs. 25 Billion in Shamsher Kataria v. Honda Siel Cars Ltd. &Ors. (Automobiles Case) & Rs. 17 billion in M/s. Maharashtra State Power Generation Company Ltd. v. M/s. Mahanadi Coalfields Ltd. &Anr. While in some cases, appellate courts have granted stay, pending disposal of the appeal, in other cases, the appellate court has refused stay on recovery of penalty. • However, an area of the Act where application is not certain and CCI adjudication lacks clarity is imposition of penalty. CCI orders imposing penalty do not have a discernible rationale which provides a legal or economic basis for imposition of a particular percentage of penalty.
  • 7. Anti-competitive agreements • Section 3 of the Competition Act states that any agreement which causes or is likely to cause an appreciable adverse effect (AAE) on competition in India is deemed anti- competitive. • Section 3 (1) of the Competition Act prohibits any agreement with respect to “production, supply, distribution, storage, and acquisition or control of goods or services which causes or is likely to cause an appreciable adverse effect on competition within India”.
  • 8. Anti-competitive agreements • Although the Competition Act does not define AAEC and nor is there any thumb rule to determine when an agreement causes or is likely to cause AAEC, Section 19 (3) of the Act specifies that the Commission shall, while determining whether an agreement has an appreciable adverse effect on competition under section 3, have due regard to all or any of the following factors, namely….....
  • 9. Anti-competitive agreements A. creation of barriers to new entrants in the market; B. driving existing competitors out of the market; C. foreclosure of competition by hindering entry into the market; D. accrual of benefits to consumers; E. improvements in production or distribution of goods or provision of services; F. promotion of technical, scientific and economic development by means of production or distribution of goods or provision of services.
  • 10. Anti-competitive agreements • Section 3(3) of the Competition Act provides that agreements or a ‘practice carried’ on by enterprises or persons (including cartels) engaged in trade of identical or similar products are presumed to have AAEC in India if they:- • Directly or indirectly fix purchase or sale prices; • Limit or control production, supply, markets, technical development, investments or provision of services; • Result in sharing markets or sources of production or provision of services; • Indulge in bid-rigging or collusive bidding.
  • 11. Abuse of Dominance • Section 4 prohibits any enterprise from abusing its dominant position. • The term ‘dominant position’ has been defined in the Act as ‘a position of strength, enjoyed by an enterprise, in the relevant market, in India, which enables it to operate independently of competitive forces prevailing in the relevant market; or affect its competitors or consumers or the relevant market in its favour’. • The Act defines the relevant market as ‘with the reference to the relevant product market or the relevant geographic market or with reference to both the markets’. • The relevant geographic market is defined as ‘a market comprising the area in which the conditions of competition for supply of goods or provision of services or demand of goods or services are distinctly homogenous and can be distinguished from the conditions prevailing in the neighboring areas’.
  • 12. Abuse of Dominance • The Act further provides that the CCI shall determine the relevant geographic market having due regard to all or any of the following factors : • regulatory trade barriers; • Local specification requirements; • national procurement policies; • adequate distribution facilities; • transport costs; • language; • consumer preferences; • need for secure or regular supplies or rapid after-sales services.
  • 13. Abuse of Dominance • The relevant product market is defined in as ‘a market comprising all those products or services which are regarded as interchangeable or substitutable by the consumer, by reason of characteristics of the products or services, their prices and intended use’. • The Competition Act provides that the CCI shall determine the relevant product market having due regard to all or any of the following factors: • physical characteristics or end-use of goods • Price of goods or service • consumer preferences • exclusion of in-house production • existence of specialized producers • classification of industrial products
  • 14. Abuse of Dominance • The abuse of dominance analysis under the Act starts with the determination of market, once the relevant market has been determined; the CCI’s next task is to establish whether the enterprise enjoys a dominant position. It is important to note here that the Act does not prohibit the mere possession of dominance that could have been achieved through superior economic performance, innovation or pure accident but only its abuse.
  • 15. Abuse of Dominance • The Act sets out following factors which the CCI will take into account to establish the dominant position of an enterprise : 1. market share of the enterprise; 2. Size and resources of the enterprise; 3. size and importance of the competitors; 4. economic power of the enterprise including commercial advantages over competitors; 5. vertical integration of the enterprises or sale or service network of such enterprises; 6. dependence of consumers on the enterprise; 7. monopoly or dominant position whether acquired as a result of any statute or by virtue of being a Government company or a public sector undertaking or otherwise;
  • 16. Abuse of Dominance • The Act sets out following factors which the CCI will take into account to establish the dominant position of an enterprise 87: 8. entry barriers including barriers such as regulatory barriers, financial risk, high capital cost of entry, marketing entry barriers, technical entry barriers, economies of scale, high cost of substitutable goods or service for consumers; 9. countervailing buying power; 10. Market structure and size of market; 11. social obligations and social costs; 12. relative advantage, by way of the contribution to the economic development, by the enterprise enjoying a dominant position having or likely to have an appreciable adverse effect on competition; 13. any other factor which the Commission may consider relevant for the inquiry.
  • 17. Abuse of Dominance • Dominance per se is not bad. It is only when there is an abuse of the dominant position that Section 4 of the Competition Act is invoked. Thus, once the dominance of an enterprise in the relevant market is determined the CCI has to establish the abuse of its dominance by an enterprise. Section 4 (2) sets out a list of activities that shall be deemed abuse of dominant position. 1. anti-competitive practices of imposing unfair or discriminatory trading conditions or prices or predatory prices, 2. Limiting the supply of goods or services, or a market or technical or scientific development, denying market access, 3. imposing supplementary obligations having no connection with the subject of the contract, or 4. using dominance in one market to enter into or protect another relevant market.
  • 18. Combinations • It is the acquisition of one or more companies by one or more people or merger or amalgamation of enterprises shall be treated as ‘Combination’ of such enterprises and Persons in the following cases: • acquisition by large enterprises; • acquisition by group; • acquisition of enterprise having similar goods/services; • acquisition enterprise having similar goods/services by a group; • merger of enterprises; • merger in group company. • Any combination that causes or is likely to cause appreciable adverse effect on competition (AAEC) in markets in India is void.